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Keller and Shapiro (1982) reported that 26% of the first 101 patients who entered the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH)-Clinical Research Branch Collaborative Program on the Psychobiology of Depression (Katz and Klerman, 1979; Katz et al, 1979) with a major depressive episode were found to have a pre-existing chronic minor depression of at least 2 years’ duration. They labeled this Phenomenon “double depression„ (Keller and Shapiro, 1982). Furthermore, patients with panic disorder almost universally suffer from major depression at some time in the course of their disorder (Coryell et al, 1988; Stein and Uhde, 1988; Vollrath et al, 1990). “Double diagnosis„, or identification of psychotic or related syndromes, co-existing with personality disorders, have received much attention in the literature in recent years (Sanderson et al, 1990; Torgersen, 1990; Barsky et al, 1992). Much of the research on comorbidity between depressive and anxiety disorders has been summarized in two edited volumes (Kendall and Watson, 1989; Maser and Cloninger, 1990).
Public health checkups are conducted on 3-year-old children in Japan. However, it is often difficult to detect or provide ongoing support to children with developmental disorders without MR. Therefore we have conducted health checkups on 5 year olds.
The objectives are to describe the results and follow-up of health checkups in 5-year-old children and examine the utility of such checkups.
The aims are to make clear the utility of health checkups in 5-year-old children for screening for developmental disorders.
The subjects were 303 children of 5-year-old that lived in Kanie-cho and participated in health checkups. in the checkups, a child psychiatrist examined the children, and made a provisional diagnosis of a developmental disorder.
Eighty-two children were provisionally diagnosed as having developmental disorders. the follow-up allowed final diagnosis of developmental disorders (suspect diagnosis included) to be made in 39 children (12.9%), and pinpointed 19 children with ADHD, 9 children with PDD, 9 children with mild MR, and 2 children with motor skills disorder.
All children with PDD had already been informed about the possible occurrence of developmental disorders at 3 years of age. However, most of ADHD, mild MR, and motor function disorder were diagnosed in these children during the checkups at the age of 5 years.
The health checkup in 5-year-old children is useful not only as a tool to detect developmental disorders that are difficult to diagnose at the age of 3 years but also as an approach in patients lost to follow-up.
Children with Learning Disorders (LD) are susceptible to decreased self-esteem and willingness because of their difficulty learning, which can lead to exacerbation of the learning difficulty in a vicious cycle. Appropriate learning supports may help not only in terms of learning, but also psychologically.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychological effect of learning supports for children with LD.
The aims are to make clear that psychological changes occur for children by the learning supports.
We conducted 10 learning support sessions for 12 children (age 8–11 years) diagnosed as LD. Afterward, we gave a questionnaire on motivation and self-efficacy in learning to the children and their parents, and a questionnaire on positive participation in class to the children's teachers.
The children's responses showed increased intrinsic motivation with high autonomy, and decreased extrinsic motivation with low autonomy and self-efficacy after supports. the parents’ responses indicated increased self-efficacy and decreased motivation overall after supports, while the teachers’ responses indicated increased positive class participation after supports.
Parents and teachers see that willingness for learning improve through learning supports, but the children themselves feel decreased efficacy. At the same time, the children came to have more autonomous intrinsic motivation for learning. Both of motivation and willigness increased through learning supports, but conversely the children came to notice their own weaknesses (true abilities), which is thought to have led to decreased self-efficacy. with continuing support improvement of true efficacy may be expected.
Recent studies have shown that it is important to understand the brain mechanism specifically by focusing on the common and unique functional connectivity in each disorder including depression.
To specify the biomarker of major depressive disorder (MDD), we applied the sparse machine learning algorithm to classify several types of affective disorders using the resting state fMRI data collected in multiple sites, and this study shows the results of depression as a part of those results.
The aim of this study is to understand some specific pattern of functional connectivity in MDD, which would support diagnosis of depression and development of focused and personalized treatments in the future.
The neuroimaging data from patients with major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 100) and healthy control adults (HC: n = 100) from multiple sites were used for the training dataset. A completely separate dataset (n = 16) was kept aside for testing. After all preprocessing of fMRI data, based on one hundred and forty anatomical region of interests (ROIs), 9730 functional connectivities during resting states were prepared as the input of the sparse machine-learning algorithm.
As results, 20 functional connectivities were selected with the classification performance of Accuracy: 83.0% (Sensitivity: 81.0%, Specificity: 85.0%). The test data, which was completely separate from the training data, showed the performance accuracy of 83.3%.
The selected functional connectivities based on the sparse machine learning algorithm included the brain regions which have been associated with depression.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The wings of butterflies are relatively heavier than those of other insects, and the inertial force and torque due to the wing mass are likely to have a significant effect on agility and manoeuvrability in the flapping flight of butterflies. In the present study, the effect of wing mass on the free flight of butterflies is investigated by numerical simulations based on an immersed boundary–lattice Boltzmann method. We use a butterfly-like model consisting of two square wings with mass connected by a rod-shaped body. We simulate the free flights of the model by changing the ratio of the wing mass to the total mass of the model and also changing the mass distributions of the wings. As a result, we find that the aerodynamic vertical and horizontal forces decrease as the wing-mass ratio increases, since for a large wing-mass ratio the body has large vertical and horizontal oscillations in each stroke and consequently the speeds of the wing tip and the leading edge relatively decrease. In addition, we find that the wing-mass ratio has a dominant effect on the rotational motion of the model, and a large wing-mass ratio reduces aerodynamic force and intensifies the time variation of the pitching angle. From the results of our free flight simulations, we clarify the critical wing-mass ratio between upward flight and downward flight and find that the critical wing-mass ratio is a function of the non-dimensional total mass and almost independent of the wing length. Then, we evaluate the effect of the wing-mass distribution on the critical wing-mass ratio. Finally, we discuss the limitations of the model.
MXenes are a novel class of two dimensional materials, discovered by Barsoum and Gogotsi [M. Naguib, J. Come, B. Dyatkin, V. Presser, P. Taberna, P. Simon, M. W. Barsoum, and Y. Gogotsi, Electrochemistry Communications 16, 61-64 (2012); B. Anasori, M. R. Lukatskaya, and Y. Gogotsi, Nature Reviews Materials vol. 2, 16098 (2017)]. Their large specific surface area and the tunability of their physicochemical properties as a function of the transition metal and surface terminal group make them a unique design platform for various applications, a primary example of which is pseudocapacitive energy storage. However, there is still incomplete understanding of how the transition metal chemistry and stoichiometry, and the surface termination affect charge storage mechanisms in MXene. In this study, we have performed systematic first-principles calculations for bulk MXene and found that the atomic charge of the metal cations, which is related to their valence, decreases across the d-electron metal series. Electronic-structure indicators of performance are examined to understand the energy storage behavior, whereby charges are stored between the terminal groups and adsorbing cations. Importantly, we found that the differential Bader charges show good agreement with theoretical capacitances and are useful in predicting charge storage trends in MXene-based pseudocapacitors. Furthermore, we have performed first-principles and grand canonical Monte Carlo calculations for the slab systems, finding that the solvent plays a critical role in enhancing the pseudocapacitive response.
Tuberculosis (TB) remains an important problem among end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. We reviewed the epidemiology of TB and ESRD, investigations of TB exposures in US dialysis facilities, and published guidelines to inform screening and treatment practices among US ESRD patients. Compared to TB in the general population, ESRD patients have 6–25-fold higher TB incidence rates, and mortality during treatment is 2–3-fold higher. Most TB cases among ESRD patients (~90%) occur among non–US-born persons, and an analysis of genotyping data suggests that 80% of all cases result from latent TB infection (LTBI) reactivation. Published TB contact investigations in dialysis facilities have reported cases among ESRD patients and healthcare workers. However, transmission of TB is rare: there were no reports of secondary cases of TB because of exposure to an index-case patient and there were few TB infections, which was demonstrated by low occurrence of newly positive tuberculin skin tests (12%–16%) and conversions (8%–17%) among contacts. Targeted TB education, screening, and treatment for ESRD patients at highest risk for TB exposure (eg, non–US-born persons), using interferon-gamma release assays and short course LTBI regimens (ie, isoniazid-rifapentine weekly for 12 weeks or rifampin daily for 4 months) may be an effective overall strategy for reducing TB burden in ESRD patients.
Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) is thought to be useful for chronic pain, with the pathology of the latter being closely associated with cognitive–emotional components. However, there are few resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) studies. We used the independent component analysis method to examine neural changes after CBT and to assess whether brain regions predict treatment response.
We performed R-fMRI on a group of 29 chronic pain (somatoform pain disorder) patients and 30 age-matched healthy controls (T1). Patients were enrolled in a weekly 12-session group CBT (T2). We assessed selected regions of interest that exhibited differences in intrinsic connectivity network (ICN) connectivity strength between the patients and controls at T1, and compared T1 and T2. We also examined the correlations between treatment effects and rs-fMRI data.
Abnormal ICN connectivity of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and inferior parietal lobule within the dorsal attention network (DAN) and of the paracentral lobule within the sensorimotor network in patients with chronic pain normalized after CBT. Higher ICN connectivity strength in the OFC indicated greater improvements in pain intensity. Furthermore, ICN connectivity strength in the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) within the DAN at T1 was negatively correlated with CBT-related clinical improvements.
We conclude that the OFC is crucial for CBT-related improvement of pain intensity, and that the dorsal PCC activation at pretreatment also plays an important role in improvement of clinical symptoms via CBT.
It has been demonstrated that negatively distorted self-referential processing, in which individuals evaluate one's own self, is a pathogenic mechanism in subthreshold depression that has a considerable impact on the quality of life and carries an elevated risk of developing major depression. Behavioural activation (BA) is an effective intervention for depression, including subthreshold depression. However, brain mechanisms underlying BA are not fully understood. We sought to examine the effect of BA on neural activation during other perspective self-referential processing in subthreshold depression.
A total of 56 subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging scans during a self-referential task with two viewpoints (self/other) and two emotional valences (positive/negative) on two occasions. Between scans, while the intervention group (n = 27) received BA therapy, the control group (n = 29) did not.
The intervention group showed improvement in depressive symptoms, increased activation in the dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC), and increased reaction times during other perspective self-referential processing for positive words after the intervention. Also, there was a positive correlation between increased activation in the dmPFC and improvement of depressive symptoms. Additionally, there was a positive correlation between improvement of depressive symptoms and increased reaction times.
BA increased dmPFC activation during other perspective self-referential processing with improvement of depressive symptoms and increased reaction times which were associated with improvement of self-monitoring function. Our results suggest that BA improved depressive symptoms and objective monitoring function for subthreshold depression.
We report here the fabrication and characterization of GaAs tunnel diode (TD) and ErAs nanoparticles (Nps) enhanced GaAs TD. Four GaAs TDs with different contact area were fabricated by using MOCVD. We found extremely high peak current density of ∼250A/cm2 for the TD with r=0.25mm contact area. Moreover a hysteresis loop was appeared during sweeping up and sweeping down the external voltage. A ‘vector load line model’ was proposed to explain the origin of the shape of the hysteresis loop and the onset of the bistability occurred at the intersect of the loadline and the current-voltage (I-V) curve of TD. Meanwhile, we have grown ErAs Nps on GaAs(100) surface by using MBE and succeeded in overgrowth of GaAs after ErAs deposition. GaAs(p+)/ErAs(Nps)/GaAs(n+) TDs were fabricated and characterized. We found the GaAs sample containing 70s deposition of ErAs showed the best TD behavior. No TD behavior was observed for the sample without addition of ErAs Nps, clearly indicating the strong tunneling enhancement effect from ErAs Nps.
Low birth weight was associated with cardiometabolic diseases in adult age. Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) has a crucial role in fetal growth and also associates with cardiometabolic risks in adults. Therefore, we elucidated the association between IGF-1 level and serum lipids in cord blood of preterm infants. The subjects were 41 consecutive, healthy preterm neonates (27 male, 14 female) born at <37-week gestational age, including 10 small for gestational age (SGA) infants (<10th percentile). IGF-1 levels and serum lipids were measured in cord blood, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC) and very low-density lipoprotein triglyceride (VLDLTG) levels were determined by HPLC method. SGA infants had lower IGF-1 (13.1 ± 5.3 ng/ml), total cholesterol (TC) (55.0 ± 14.8), LDLC (21.6 ± 8.3) and HDLC (26.3 ± 11.3) levels, and higher VLDLTG levels (19.0 ± 12.7 mg/dl) than in appropriate for gestational age (AGA) infants (53.6 ± 25.6, 83.4 ± 18.9, 36.6 ± 11.1, 38.5 ± 11.6, 8.1 ± 7.0, respectively). In simple regression analyses, log IGF-1 correlated positively with birth weight (r = 0.721, P < 0.001), TC (r = 0.636, P < 0.001), LDLC (r = 0.453, P = 0.006), and HDLC levels (r = 0.648, P < 0.001), and negatively with log TG (r = −0.484, P = 0.002) and log VLDL-TG (r = −0.393, P = 0.018). Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that IGF-1 was an independent predictor of TC, HDLC and TG levels after the gestational age and birth weight were taken into account. In preterm SGA infants, cord blood lipids profile altered with the concomitant decrease in IGF-1 level.
To increase X-ray photon number generated by laser-cluster interaction, it is important to understand the dependence of X-ray generation on cluster size. We carried out Xe K-shell X-ray generation using a conical nozzle with Xe clusters, the radius of which was controllable by adjusting the backing pressure. The experiment clarifies the result that the Xe K-shell X-ray photon number increases with increasing cluster radius from 8 to 12 nm, and saturates at the radius between 12 and 17 nm. We also investigated the Xe K-shell X-ray photon number dependence on laser intensity, and found that the threshold laser intensity of the Xe K-shell X-ray generation exists between 2 × 1017 and 5 × 1018 W/cm2.
The near-infrared (NIR) spectral range (2–5 μm) contains a number of interesting features for the study of the interstellar medium. In particular, the aromatic and aliphatic components in carbonaceous dust can be investigated most efficiently with the NIR spectroscopy. We analyze NIR spectra of the diffuse Galactic emission taken with the Infrared Camera onboard AKARI and find that the aliphatic to aromatic emission band ratio decreases toward the ionized gas, which suggests processing of the band carriers in the ionized region.
Lasing characteristics of a single Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanosheet and a single ZnO nanowire were investigated by an ultraviolet light excitation. ZnO nanocrystals were synthesized by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, and those ZnO nanocrystals were excited by a third-harmonic Q-switched Nd:YAG laser beam (355 nm, 5 ns). The emission spectra from a single ZnO nanocrystal was collected by an objective lens with a magnification factor of 100 or 50, coupled with a spectrometer with a light fiber. The area observed by the spectrometer is about 10 μm in diameter, and therefore the emission spectra from a single ZnO nanocrystal can be observed. The emission spectra showed the obvious lasing characteristics having mode structure and a threshold for lasing. The lasing threshold power density of a ZnO nanosheet and a ZnO nanowire were measured to be about 60 kW/cm2 and 150 kW/cm2, respectively. ZnO nanosheet can be a superior laser medium due to the lower threshold for lasing compared to the threshold of the ZnO nanowire. However, since the lasing spectra had mode structure, a single-longitudinal mode lasing would be required for a practical application. The single longitudinal mode lasing can be realized by a nanomachining of a grating on the ZnO nanocrystal surface due to distributed bragg reflector (DBR) laser. The minimum DBR pitch was estimated to be about 81 nm, which can be machined by focused-ion beam (FIB) focused up to 7 nm at minimum, and therefore, we demonstrated the nanomachining on a single ZnO nanowire. However, the single-longitudinal mode lasing was not observed so far, and thus optimization of experimental conditions such as the DBR pitch, ion dose amount and increasing the number of repetition of DBR would be required.
Within the Herschel key project “The Warm And Dense ISM” (WADI) we systematically observe
a number of prominent photon-dominated regions (PDRs) to measure the impact of varying UV
fields on the energy balance, the chemical and dynamical structure of heated molecular
Near-infrared (NIR; 2.5–5 μm) low-resolution
(λ/Δλ ~ 100) spectra were obtained for a
number of Galactic and extragalactic objects with the Infrared Camera (IRC) in the AKARI
warm mission. These data provide us with the first opportunity to make a systematic study
of the 3.3–3.5 μm PAH features in a galactic scale as well as within an
object. Whereas the 3.3 μm band is well resolved in most spectra, the
3.5 μm band is not clearly separated from the 3.4 μm
band in the IRC spectrum. The intensity ratio of the summation of the 3.4 and
3.5 μm bands to the 3.3 μm band shows a tendency to
increase towards the Galactic center, although a large variation in the ratio is also seen
in a local scale. A search for deuterated PAH features in the 4 μm region
is carried out in IRC NIR spectra. Emission lines originating from the ionized gas
together with the detector anomaly hamper an accurate search at certain wavelengths, but
little convincing evidence has so far been obtained for the presence of significant
features in 4.2–4.7 μm. A conservative upper limit of a few percents is
obtained for the integrated intensity ratio of the 4.4–4.7 μm possible
features to the 3.3–3.5 μm PAH features in the spectra so far
Mg1-zCaz (0.03 < z < 0.17) alloy thin films covered with thin Pd are hydrogenated using 4% H2 in Ar under atmospheric pressure at room temperature. The optical indices, which are refractive indices and extinction coefficients, in the wavelength between 250 and 1700 nm of these hydrides were evaluated with spectroscopic ellipsometry. The evaluated refractive indices were about 2.0 for all hydrides, while the extinction coefficients showed the values less than 0.06 in the visible range for hydride with Ca composition of z ≤ 0.08 and the coefficients increased sharply to more than 0.3 with Ca composition z > 0.08.