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A variety of hereditary spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA) develops a broad spectrum of both ataxia and non-ataxia symptoms. Cognitive and affective changes are one such non-ataxia symptoms, but have been described only in hereditary SCAs with exonic CAG gene expansion.
We newly found intronic hexanucleotide GGCCTG gene expansion in NOP56 gene as the causative mutation (=SCA36) in nine unrelated Japanese familial SCA originating from Asida river area in the western part of Japan, thus nicknamed Asidan for this mutation. These patients show unique clinical balance of cerebellar ataxia and motor neuron disease (MND), locating on the crossroad of these two diseases. We examined cognitive and affective analyses on 12 Asidan patients who agreed to join the examination.
The 12 Asidan patients demonstrated a significant decrease in their frontal executive functions measured by frontal assessment battery (FAB) and Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) compared with age- and gender-matched controls, whilst mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and Hasegawa dementia score-revised (HDS-R) were within normal range. the decline of frontal executive function was related to their disease duration and scale for the assessment and rating of ataxias (SARA). They also demonstrated mild depression and apathy. Single-photon emission tomography (SPECT) analysis showed that these Asidan patients showed decline of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in a particular areas of cerebral cortices such as Brodmann areas 24 and 44-46.
These data suggest the patients with Asidan mutation show unique cognitive and affective characteristics different from other hereditary SCAs with exonal CAG expansion or MND.
The ALMA twenty-six arcmin2 survey of GOODS-S at one millimeter (ASAGAO) is a deep (1σ ∼ 61μJy/beam) and wide area (26 arcmin2) survey on a contiguous field at 1.2 mm. By combining with archival data, we obtained a deeper map in the same region (1σ ∼ 30μJy/beam−1, synthesized beam size 0.59″ × 0.53″), providing the largest sample of sources (25 sources at 5σ, 45 sources at 4.5σ) among ALMA blank-field surveys. The median redshift of the 4.5σ sources is 2.4. The number counts shows that 52% of the extragalactic background light at 1.2 mm is resolved into discrete sources. We create IR luminosity functions (LFs) at z = 1–3, and constrain the faintest luminosity of the LF at 2 < z < 3. The LFs are consistent with previous results based on other ALMA and SCUBA-2 observations, which suggests a positive luminosity evolution and negative density evolution.
This study evaluated the relationship between radiation and Eustachian tube dysfunction, and examined the radiation dose required to induce otitis media with effusion.
The function of 36 Eustachian tubes in 18 patients with head and neck cancer were examined sonotubometrically before, during, and 1, 2 and 3 months after, intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Patients with an increase of 5 dB or less in sound pressure level (dB) during swallowing were categorised as being in the dysfunction group. Additionally, radiation dose distributions were assessed in all Eustachian tubes using three dose–volume histogram parameters.
Twenty-two of 25 normally functioning Eustachian tubes before radiotherapy (88.0 per cent) shifted to the dysfunction group after therapy. All ears that developed otitis media with effusion belonged to the dysfunction group. The radiation dose threshold evaluation revealed that ears with otitis media with effusion received significantly higher doses to the Eustachian tubes.
The results indicate a relationship between radiation dose and Eustachian tube dysfunction and otitis media with effusion.
We have conducted 1.1 mm ALMA observations of a contiguous 105” × 50” or 1.5 arcmin2 window in the SXDF-UDS-CANDELS. We achieved a 5σ sensitivity of 0.28 mJy, giving a flat sensus of dusty star-forming galaxies with LIR ~6×1011L⊙ (if Tdust=40K) up to z ~ 10 thanks to the negative K-correction at this wavelength. We detected 5 brightest sources (S/N>6) and 18 low-significant sources (5>S/N>4; they may contain spurious detections, though). One of the 5 brightest ALMA sources (S1.1mm = 0.84 ± 0.09 mJy) is extremely faint in the WFC3 and VLT/HAWK-I images, demonstrating that a contiguous ALMA imaging survey uncovers a faint dust-obscured population invisible in the deep optical/near-infrared surveys. We find a possible [CII]-line emitter at z=5.955 or a low-z CO emitting galaxy within the field, allowing us to constrain the [CII] and/or CO luminosity functions across the history of the universe.
Nitinol was coated with biocompatible calcium phosphate materials by pulsed electrolytic deposition (ELD) to reduce toxic metal-ions elution. The pulse ELD for the stents was carried out with changing the current off-periods (toff) of the pulse wave. The pulse ELD suppressed the generation of H2 gas due to the electrolysis of water on a calcium phosphate layer and improved the adhesiveness of the coating layer on nitinol compared with a conventional DC-ELD. The coating layers were identified to be octacalcium phosphate (OCP) at lower toff, while they were transformed to dicalcium phosphate anhydraous (DCPA) with an increase of toff. The layers of OCP or DCPA on the nitinol surface were subjected to a NaOH treatment at 60°C for 3days to transform them into hydroxyapatite (HAp). From results of a metal-ions elution test, the deposited calcium phosphates suppressed nickel ions elution at one quarter compared with the bare nitinol stent. These results indicate that the pulse ELD of biocompatible calcium phosphate materials on the nitinol stent was one of the best techniques to create firmly attached coating on it and reduce toxic nickel ions elution.
Effect of oxygen to nickel molar ratio (O2/Ni) on the crystallinity of atmospheric pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition (APMOCVD) grown NiO at 500°C is reported. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis including grazing incident angle θ of 0.6°, θ-2θ, ɸ and rocking curve scan are employed for crystallographic characterization. Furthermore, surface roughness is studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). No evidence of diffraction peaks in X-ray grazing incident angle measurement confirms that all the grown NiO films are well oriented along a certain direction. θ-2θ scan results further indicate that the samples are highly oriented only along  direction on (0001) sapphire substrates. The analysis of full width at half maximum (FWHM) of rocking curve scan of (111) plane shows that higher O2/Ni ratio results in better crystallinity. The best crystallinity is achieved with FWHM as low as 0.106° at (111) rocking curve scan corresponding to 82.57nm grain size. AFM measurement shows that NiO films grown with higher O2/Ni ratio have smoother surface morphology.
The feasibility of using a photoconductor with a Ga2O3/CuGaSe2 heterojunction for visible light sensors was investigated. CIGS chalcopyrite semiconductors have both a high absorption coefficient and high quantum efficiency. However, their dark current is too high for image sensors. In this study, we applied gallium oxide (Ga2O3) as a hole-blocking layer for CIGS thin film to reduce the dark current. Experimental results showed that the dark current was drastically reduced, and an avalanche multiplication phenomenon was observed at an applied voltage of over 6 V. However, this structure had sensitivity only in the ultraviolet light region because its depletion region was almost completely spread in the Ga2O3 layer since the carrier density of the Ga2O3 layer was much lower than that of the CIGS layer. These results indicate that the Ga2O3/CuGaSe2 heterojunction has potential for use in visible light sensors but that we also need to increase the carrier density of the Ga2O3 layer to shift the depletion region to the CIGS film.
Mg doped ZnO thin films were prepared by DC/RF magnetron co-sputtering in (Ar+O2) ambient conditions using metallic Mg and Zn targets. We present a comprehensive study of the effects of film thickness on the structural, optical and magnetic properties. Room temperature ferromagnetism was observed in the films and the saturation magnetization (MS) increases at first as the film’s thickness increases and then decreases. The MS value as high as ∼15.76 emu/cm3 was achieved for the Mg-doped ZnO film of thickness 120 nm. The optical band gap of the films determined to be in the range 3.42 to 3.52 eV.
This study aimed to investigate the function of tissue plasminogen activator in the olfactory epithelium of mice following neural injury.
Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the changes in the morphology of the olfactory epithelium 1–7 days after surgical ablation of the olfactory bulb (bulbectomy).
Prior to bulbectomy, a uniformly fine material was observed within some regions of the olfactory epithelium of mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator. At 2–3 days after bulbectomy, there were degenerative changes in the olfactory epithelium. At 5–7 days after bulbectomy, we noted drastic differences in olfactory epithelium morphology between mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator and wild-type mice (comparisons were made using findings from a previous study). The microvilli seemed to be normal and olfactory vesicles and receptor neuron dendrites were largely intact in the olfactory epithelium of mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator.
The tissue plasminogen activator plasmin system may inhibit the regeneration of the olfactory epithelium in the early stages following neural injury.
It is difficult to get a real scale image of the solar system through lecture. A scale model is a classical and one of good solutions (e.g. Handa et al.2003, Handa et al.2008). Through this model, people living in or visiting to the city can physically understand the scale of the solar system. This scale gives 1 cm for Earth's diameter and 115 m for 1 AU. However, some gadget is required to make it attractive for public citizens.
The presence of the fermentable sugar d-mannitol in the diet improves nitrogen (N) utilization in rabbits. To clarify the mechanism by which d-mannitol improves N utilization, we studied the effect of d-mannitol on the fate of blood urea N in growing rabbits. Growing rabbits received a control diet or a diet containing d-mannitol, which were formulated by adding 80 g/kg glucose or d-mannitol to timothy hay. After 9 days of feeding of the experimental diets, 15N-urea was administrated intravenously under anesthesia 1 h before slaughter. The blood urea level (concentration of both urea N (43.6% of the control group (CG), P < 0.05) and 15N (95% of the CG, P < 0.05) in blood serum) was reduced in the mannitol group. The concentration and amount of N, and 15N atom % excess in the contents of the cecum and colon were higher (P < 0.05) in the rabbits fed the mannitol diet than in rabbits fed the control diet, especially in the cecum. The consumption of mannitol caused bacterial proliferation in the cecum characterized by marked short-chain fatty acid production (165% of the CG, P < 0.05), decreased cecal ammonia N (73% of the CG, P < 0.05) and elevated cecal bacterial N (150% of the CG, P < 0.05). On the other hand, addition of d-mannitol to the diet decreased N (80% of the CG, P < 0.05) and 15N (77% of the CG, P < 0.05) excretion in the urine. These results indicate that d-mannitol increases the transfer of blood urea N to the large intestine, where it is used for bacterial N synthesis.
We report the kinetic analysis of radicals on fungal spores of Penicillium digitatum interacted with charged-neutral oxygen species (O*) generated plasma discharge using real time in situ electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements. The ESR signal from the spores was observed at a g-value of around 2.004 with a line width of approximately 5G. We have successfully obtained information regarding the reaction mechanism with free radicals and realtime in situ ESR has proven to be a useful method to elucidate plasma-induced surface reactions on biological specimens
A high-density non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP) applied for inactivating fungal spores of P. digitatum is introduced as an environmentally safe and rapid-inactivation method. The contributions of ozone, ultra violet (UV) radiation and ground-state atomic oxygen in the NEAPP on the inactivation of the spores are evaluated using colony count method.
The absolute densities of ozone were measured by using ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy. The ozone density increased from 2 to 8 ppm with an increase in the distance from the plasma source, while the inactivation rate decreased. The inactivation rate of plasma was evaluated to be thousand times higher than that of an ozone generator using the integrated number density of ozone. In addition, it was clarified that the contribution of UV radiation to inactivation was not dominant for P. digitatum inactivation by NEAPP by filtering the active species using quartz plate. From these results, we can speculate that the inactivation efficiency of reactive oxygen species (ROS) will be larger than those of others.
In order to investigate the effect of ground-state atomic oxygen as one of ROS, the inactivation of P. digitatum spores using an oxygen radical source that employs a high-density atmospheric-pressure O2/Ar plasma. The absolute O density was measured to be 1.4×1014 and 1.5×1015 cm–3 using vacuum ultra violet absorption spectroscopy (VUVAS) using a microdischarge hollow cathode lamp. The behaviors of the O densities as a function of O2/(Ar+O2) mixture flow rate ratio correspond to that of the inactivation rate. This result indicates that ground-state atomic oxygen is concluded to be the dominant species that causes inactivation.
In order to reveal the stellar mass distribution of z ~ 3 galaxies, we are conducting deep imaging observations of U-dropout Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) with Adaptive Optics (AO) systems in K-band, which corresponds to rest-frame V-band of z ~ 3 galaxies. The results of the Subaru intensive-program observations with AO36/NGS/IRCS indicate that 1) the K-band peaks of some of the LBGs brighter than K = 22.0 mag show significant offset from those in the optical images, 2) the z ~ 3 LBGs and serendipitously observed Distant Red Galaxies (DRGs) have flat profiles similar to disk galaxies in the local universe (i.e., Sérsic with n < 2), and 3) the surface stellar mass densities of the LBGs are 3-6 times larger than those of disk galaxies at z = 0 − 1. Considering the lack of n > 2 systems among the luminous z ~ 3 LBGs and DRGs, and their strong spatial clustering, we infer that the dense n < 2 disk-like structures evolve into the n > 2 spheroids of nearby galaxies through relaxations due to major merger events.
Procyclic forms of Trypanosoma brucei brucei remain and propagate in the midgut of tsetse fly where iron is rich. Additional iron is also required for their growth in in vitro culture. However, little is known about the genes involved in iron metabolism and the mechanism of iron utilization in procyclic-form cells. Therefore, we surveyed the genes involved in iron metabolism in the T. b. brucei genome sequence database. We found a potential homologue of vacuole protein sorting 41 (VPS41), a gene that is required for high-affinity iron transport in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and cloned the full-length gene (TbVPS41). Complementation analysis of TbVPS41 in ΔScvps41 yeast cells showed that TbVPS41 could partially suppress the inability of ΔScvps41 yeast cells to grow on low-iron medium, but it could not suppress the fragmented vacuole phenotype. Further RNA interference (RNAi)-mediated gene knock-down in procyclic-form cells resulted in a significant reduction of growth in low-iron medium; however, no change in growth was observed in normal culture medium. Transmission electron microscopy showed that RNAi caused T. b. brucei cells to have larger numbers of small intracellular vesicles, similar to the fragmented vacuoles observed in ΔScvps41 yeast cells. The present study demonstrates that TbVPS41 plays an important role in the intracellular iron utilization system as well as in the maintenance of normal cellular morphology.