The Cooma Complex of southeastern New South Wales comprises an andalusite-bearing S-type granodiorite surrounded by migmatites and low-pressure metamorphosed pelitic and psammitic sediments. The migmatite formed by the melting reaction:
Biotite + Andalusite + K-feldspar + Quartz + V = Cordierite + Liquid
at about 350–400 MPa , 670-730°C.
The melanosome consists of biotite + cordierite + andalusite + K-feldspar + plagioclase + quartz + ilmenite, whereas the leucosome consists of cordierite + K-feldspar + quartz with extremely rare biotite and plagioclase. In a closed system, freezing of the leucosome melt patches should have resulted in cordierite back-reaction with melt to produce biotite and andalusite. The virtually anhydrous mineralogy of the leucosome patches, lack of cordierite reaction and the absence of biotite selvedges at the leucosome-melanosome contacts, indicates that the melt did not completely solidify in situ. These observations can be explained by an initial peritectic melting reaction in the migmatite being arrested from back-reaction upon cooling because of the removal of hydrous melt, enabling leucosome cordierite to escape back-reaction. We propose that the melanosome is the residue of partial melting but that the leucosome patches do not represent frozen melt segregations but rather the liquidus minerals (cumulates) which precipitated from the melt.
In the restite-rich granodiorite from the core of the Cooma Complex, cordierite of similar composition to that in the migmatite has reaction rims of biotite and andalusite and there are coexisting biotite and andalusite in the matrix. The granodiorite consisted of about 50 wt% melt together with resite biotite, quartz and plagioclase, which can possibly be identified in the surrounding migmatite. Previous work suggested that the Cooma Granodiorite can be derived from a mixture of the surrounding metasediments which are of similar composition in the high and low-grade areas surrounding the granodiorite. Re-examinatibn of those data shows that the high-grade metasediments are more An-rich than the low-grade rocks. The Cooma Granodiorite is very similar to the high-grade rocks in terms of Or-Ab-An ratio. This suggests derivation of the Cooma Granodiorite from the high-grade rocks and not from the relatively An-poor low-grade rocks which are typical of exposed sediments in the Lachlan Fold Belt. It is most likely that the granodiorite and envelope of high-grade rocks have been emplaced into the compositionally different lower grade rocks from slightly greater depths.