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To understand price incentives to upsize combination meals at fast-food restaurants by comparing the calories (i.e. kilocalories; 1 kcal = 4·184 kJ) per dollar of default combination meals (as advertised on the menu) with a higher-calorie version (created using realistic consumer additions and portion-size changes).
Combination meals (lunch/dinner: n 258, breakfast: n 68, children’s: n 34) and their prices were identified from online menus; corresponding nutrition information for each menu item was obtained from a restaurant nutrition database (MenuStat). Linear models were used to examine the difference in total calories per dollar between default and higher-calorie combination meals, overall and by restaurant.
Ten large fast-food chain restaurants located in the fifteen most populous US cities in 2017–2018.
There were significantly more calories per dollar in higher-calorie v. default combination meals for lunch/dinner (default: 577 kJ (138 kcal)/dollar, higher-calorie: 707 kJ (169 kcal)/dollar, difference: 130 kJ (31 kcal)/dollar, P < 0·001) and breakfast (default: 536 kJ (128 kcal)/dollar, higher-calorie: 607 kJ (145 kcal)/dollar, difference: 71 kJ (17 kcal)/dollar, P = 0·009). Results for children’s meals were in the same direction but were not statistically significant (default: 536 kJ (128 kcal)/dollar, higher-calorie: 741 kJ (177 kcal)/dollar, difference: 205 kJ (49 kcal)/dollar, P = 0·053). Across restaurants, the percentage change in calories per dollar for higher-calorie v. default combination meals ranged from 0·1 % (Dunkin’ Donuts) to 55·0 % (Subway).
Higher-calorie combination meals in fast-food restaurants offer significantly more calories per dollar compared with default combination meals, suggesting there is a strong financial incentive for consumers to ‘upsize’ their orders. Future research should test price incentives for lower-calorie options to promote healthier restaurant choices.
This article investigates water supply systems in Cyrenaica during both the Greek and Roman periods. Beginning with some general information on water supply systems in Cyrenaica's other cities, it goes on to describe aqueducts and water cisterns recorded during the Cyrene Archaeological Surveys (CAS) around Cyrene in 2015 and 2017. The article explains how water was stored and delivered to the city of Cyrene in antiquity and offers a wider discussion on water distribution in Cyrene in the Greek era and how water supply systems developed through time, moving into the Roman period.
This article explores the challenges of redefining property rights for land, with application to monarchical Iraq from 1944 to 1958. We apply two processes in the analysis of economic institutions to study history: a puzzle-solving method at the micro level, with broader interest in the role of institutions in development and economic growth at the macro level. Thus, we explore the interaction between demanders and suppliers of land reform in the political market, focusing on the parliamentary influence of big landholders as an interest group. We conclude that despite increasing demand for land reform, politicians were able to supply quantitative change only, consisting of the allocation of newly arable land to landless cultivators, rather than the redistribution of existing assets or qualitative change. We analyse these findings in relation to our concern for the role of institutions in development. Our discussion uncovers key insights into Iraq's political economy and its institutions.
There is a long history of exploitation of the South American river turtle Podocnemis expansa. Conservation efforts for this species started in the 1960s but best practices were not established, and population trends and the number of nesting females protected remained unknown. In 2014 we formed a working group to discuss conservation strategies and to compile population data across the species’ range. We analysed the spatial pattern of its abundance in relation to human and natural factors using multiple regression analyses. We found that > 85 conservation programmes are protecting 147,000 nesting females, primarily in Brazil. The top six sites harbour > 100,000 females and should be prioritized for conservation action. Abundance declines with latitude and we found no evidence of human pressure on current turtle abundance patterns. It is presently not possible to estimate the global population trend because the species is not monitored continuously across the Amazon basin. The number of females is increasing at some localities and decreasing at others. However, the current size of the protected population is well below the historical population size estimated from past levels of human consumption, which demonstrates the need for concerted global conservation action. The data and management recommendations compiled here provide the basis for a regional monitoring programme among South American countries.
Both vitamin D and Fe micronutrient deficiencies are common in Saudi Arabia but the association between them is unclear. The present study aimed to determine whether Fe indices are associated with vitamin D status and other metabolic markers in Arab adolescents.
Single-centre, cross-sectional study gathering anthropometrics, glucose and lipid profile. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), Fe, total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), transferrin saturation (%) and other parameters were measured.
Vitamin D School Project Database, King Saud University (2014–2016).
Arab adolescents aged 10–17 years randomly selected from the Vitamin D School Project Database (170 Saudi students; 100 girls, seventy boys).
Among Fe indices, only TIBC was found to be significantly and inversely associated with 25(OH)D (r = −0·20; P < 0·01) and only in girls (r = −0·20; P < 0·05). Among cardiometabolic parameters, serum Fe was associated with TAG in boys (r = 0·36; P < 0·01) and inversely associated with HDL-cholesterol in girls (r = −0·29; P < 0·05). Age was the most significant predictor of serum Fe for all participants, accounting for 5 % (R2 = 0·05; P = 0·004) of variance perceived. Serum 25(OH)D and age, on the other hand, were the most significant predictors for TIBC, accounting for 10·1 % (R2 = 0·10; P < 0·001) of variance perceived.
Among healthy Arab adolescents, the association between vitamin D and Fe indices, particularly TIBC, is modest, inverse and sex-dependent. Larger studies with inclusion of markers such as hepcidin and ferritin, vitamin D metabolites and endogenous sex hormones may provide a clearer view of this complex association.
Use of antibiotics as feed additives has been reduced to avoid the hazard of drug residues, and consequently, the search for alternative natural additives has developed. Thus, the aim was to evaluate the influence of royal jelly (RJ) supplementation on milk composition, blood biochemical and antioxidant parameters of lactating ewes. Thirty-six Ossimi ewes were divided randomly into two groups (18 animals each). For a period of 4 weeks, the control group (CON) was fed a basal diet only, while the other group was fed the basal diet and supplemented with a single bolus of RJ (1000 mg/head). The RJ-supplemented ewes produced significantly higher milk protein, fat and total solids than the CON group. The RJ group had a significantly higher red blood cell count, haemoglobin content, haematocrit value and total leucocyte counts, but lower neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio when compared with the control treatment. The RJ group showed significantly higher concentrations of total antioxidant capacity, superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione in the serum compared with the control treatment. In conclusion, RJ supplements can improve the nutritive value of milk fat and the serum antioxidant activities in lactating ewes.
PA6 and PMMA polymers with different MWCNTs addition (5, 7 and 9 wt %) were synthetized through casting solution, resulting in improvement properties in contrast to pristine polymers. SEM images showed the MWCNTs embedded into polymeric matrices. D, G and G´ bands of MWCNTs were confirmed by Raman spectroscopy and functional groups observed in both nanocomposites by FTIR demonstrated a strong interaction. A significant increasing in electrical conductivity and microhardness was observed in all the nanocomposites. Major microhardness values were obtained in MWCNTs/PA6 (50 HV) however the MWCNTs/PMMA nanocomposites showed the highest electrical conductivity value (6.4×10-4 S/cm).
Conventional electron microscopy during the last three decades has experienced tremendous developments, especially in equipment design and engineering, to become one of the most widely recognized and powerful tools for key research areas in materials science and nanotechnology. In this article, we discuss scanning ultrafast electron microscopy (S-UEM) as a new methodology for four-dimensional electron imaging of material surfaces. We also illustrate a few unique applications. By monitoring secondary electrons emitted from surfaces of photoactive materials, photo- and electron-impact-induced electrons and holes near surfaces, interfaces, and heterojunctions can be imaged with adequate spatial and temporal resolution. Charge separation, transport, and anisotropic motions as well as their dependence on carrier energies can be resolved. S-UEM is poised to directly image and visualize relevant interfacial dynamics in real space and time for emerging optoelectronic devices and help push their performance.
Group-3 medulloblastoma (MBL) is highly resistant to radiation (IR) and chemotherapy and has the worst prognosis. Hence, there is an urgent need to elucidate targets that sensitize these tumors to chemotherapy and IR. Employing standard assays for viability and sensitization to IR, we identified PRDX1 as a therapeutic target in Group-3 MBL. Specifically, targeting PRDX1 by RNAi or inhibition by Adenanthin led to specific killing and sensitization to IR of Group-3 MBL cells. We rescued sensitization of Daoy and UW228 cells by hypermorphic expression of PRDX1. PRDX1 knockdown caused oxidative DNA damage and induced apoptosis. We correlated PRDX1 expression to patient outcomes in a validated MBL tumor-microarray. Whole genome sequencing identified pathways/genes that were dysregulated with PRDX1 inhibition or silencing. Our in vivo studies in mice employing flank/orthotopic tumors from patient derived xenografts/Group-3 MBL cells confirmed in vitro observations. Animals with tumors in which PRDX1 was targeted by RNAi or Adenanthin (using mini osmotic pumps) showed decreased tumor burden and increased survival when compared to controls. Since, Adenanthin does not cross the blood brain barrier (BBB) we used HAV6 peptide to transiently disrupt the BBB and deliver Adenanthin to the tumor. Immunohistochemistry confirmed that targeting PRDX1 resulted in increased oxidative DNA damage, apoptosis and decreased proliferation. In summary, we have validated PRDX1 as a therapeutic target in group-3 MBL, identified Adenanthin as a potent chemical inhibitor of PRDX1 and confirmed the role of HAV peptide (in the transient modulation of BBB permeability) in an orthotopic model of group-3 MBL.
The Latino population in the United States is rapidly growing and faces profound health disparities; however, engagement of Latinos in biomedical research remains low. Our community-based participatory research partnership has recruited 2083 Spanish-speaking Latinos into 21 studies over 15 years. We sought to identify and describe the strategies we have used to successfully recruit and retain Spanish-speaking Latinos in research.
We abstracted and analyzed data from archived study notes, progress reports, team meeting minutes, and in-depth interviews conducted annually from community-based participatory research partnership members. We used a nominal group process to refine and prioritize strategies.
Overall, 13 recruitment strategies and 12 retention strategies emerged. These strategies relied on the creativity and perseverance of the study team and partners.
It is essential that we develop and disseminate effective recruitment and retention strategies that engage Latinos in biomedical research to reduce health disparities and promote health equity.
The Mediterranean region has a rich history of domestication and cultivation of lentil (Lens culinaris Medik.). Landraces have been grown and repeatedly selected by local farmers under different agro-environments. Characterization of molecular variation and genetic differentiation helps to ensure enhanced valorization, conservation and use of these genetic resources. Nineteen Simple Sequence Repeat DNA markers were used for molecular variance analysis (AMOVA) and population structure assessment underlying 74 lentil landraces from four Mediterranean countries: Morocco, Italy, Greece and Turkey. Based on AMOVA, presence of population structure and genetic differentiation at different levels were evidenced. Genetic diversity among Turkish landraces was higher than that of other countries. These landraces were more homogeneous as shown by low genetic differentiation among individuals within each landrace. Whereas Moroccan landraces followed by Italian and Greek provenances showed higher diversity and differentiation among individuals within landraces. The wide genetic variability of these landraces could help to better adaptation to biotic and abiotic stresses. Moreover, they could provide useful alleles related to adaptive traits for breeding purposes. Based on structure analysis, we obtained indications of possible presence of two major gene pools: a northern gene pool composed of Turkish, Italian and Greek landraces, and a southern gene pool composed of Moroccan landraces. Our results could be of interest when designing future diversity studies, collection missions, conservation and core collection construction strategies on Mediterranean lentil landraces.
We show the results of nanotextured device designs combined with carefully placed nanogrids in order to minimize optical losses. Finite element method (FEM) based optical modeling indicates that the reflection of both the layer stack and the metal is diminished by the proposed configuration in which the metallic nanowires at the front of a device are placed into the relatively shallow crevices, whereby the metal is not covered by other materials of the cell stack. The electric field distribution and energy dissipation (i.e. absorption) diagrams of the texture show how the light is distributed and where it is absorbed. It shows that light is ‘concentrated’ in the tips of the texture (depending on the size and wavelength of the light). Simultaneously, for wavelengths above 750 nm there appears to be a reduction of the E-field in the lower part of the texture and, therefore, putting a metallic nanowire in this position has hardly any negative optical effect.
Furthermore, the impact of the texture height up to 1000 nm and the nanowire width up to 150nm was systematically investigated for a texture and wire period of 500 nm. The spectra reveal dimension dependent and wavelength specific optical features. This is the case even if the flat nanowire remains fully exposed to the front glass medium (i.e. not embedded underneath absorbers). At a texture height of 900 nm, the reflection related current loss is reduced by an order of magnitude compared to flat layer stacks, virtually regardless of the width of the metal nanowire. This opens up exciting new ways of creating nano-metal containing devices without the usual optical losses.
A raft of legislative proposals introduced in the Knesset over the last several
years has raised the specter of Israeli annexation of additional West Bank
bill would provide for nearly automatic application of new Knesset
legislation to Israelis residing in the West Bank. A
second would authorize the expropriation under certain circumstances
of privately-owned Palestinian land for incorporation into Israeli settlements,
extending the Knesset's reach to the regulation of West Bank land use by
non-Israelis. A third, entitled the “Maale Adumim
Annexation Law,” provides for the full application of Israeli
law in Israel's largest West Bank settlement, as well as in an adjacent
twelve square kilometer area called the “E1 Zone,” one of the few
remaining land reserves available for the development of Palestinian East
In the development of high-performance organic electronics, there has been significant effort in establishing relationships between microstructure and electronic properties, which has provided a deeper understanding of device operation and has guided performance improvements. When considering flexible and stretchable organic electronics, the mechanical behavior of the active layers becomes a critical attribute alongside electronic functionality. Thus, there is a need to establish the role of film morphology on both electronic properties and thermomechanical behavior, and the relationship between mechanical and electronic properties. In this article, we highlight recent advances in establishing these important relationships and the approaches employed to manage film morphology to optimize both mechanical behavior and device performance. Additionally, in stretchable applications, the film morphology may not be static, and capturing the microstructure changes under deformation is necessary to establish structure–property relationships over the expected physical operating space. Thus, also discuss film morphology change under large deformation for various stretchable film approaches.
We present CCD opbservations of BL Lacertae obtained from August 1997 to August 1998. The maximum amplitudes in BVRI bands during observing period included most part of great ouburst and second one are equal to 3.00 (rms=0.03), 2.71 (0.02), 2.53 (0.01) and to 1.25 (0.040), 1.11 (0.03), 1.02 (0.01) 0.91 (0.03), respectively. The amplitude for variability is larger toward the blue end of the spectrum.
The use of ultrasound for assessing diaphragmatic dysfunction after paediatric cardiac surgery may be under-utilised. This study aimed to evaluate the role of bedside ultrasound performed by an intensivist to diagnose diaphragmatic dysfunction and the need for plication after paediatric cardiac surgery.
We carried out a retrospective cohort study on prospectively collected data of postoperative children admitted to the paediatric cardiac ICU during 2013. Diaphragmatic dysfunction was suspected based on difficulties in weaning from positive pressure ventilation or chest X-ray findings. Ultrasound studies were performed by the paediatric cardiac ICU intensivist and confirmed by a qualified radiologist.
Out of 344 postoperative patients, 32 needed diaphragm ultrasound for suspected dysfunction. Ultrasound studies confirmed diaphragmatic dysfunction in 17/32 (53%) patients with an average age and weight of 10.8±3.8 months and 6±1 kg, respectively. The incidence rate of diaphragmatic dysfunction was 4.9% in relation to the whole population. Diaphragmatic plication was needed in 9/17 cases (53%), with a rate of 2.6% in postoperative cardiac children. The mean plication time was 15.1±1.3 days after surgery. All patients who underwent plication were under 4 months of age. After plication, they were discharged with mean paediatric cardiac ICU and hospital stay of 19±3.5 and 42±8 days, respectively.
Critical-care ultrasound assessment of diaphragmatic movement is a useful and practical bedside tool that can be performed by a trained paediatric cardiac ICU intensivist. It may help in the early detection and management of diaphragmatic dysfunction after paediatric cardiac surgery through a decision-making algorithm that may have potential positive effects on morbidity and outcome.