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Radiocarbon dating is paramount for chronologically defining the rise of polities in the Middle Bronze Age Carpathian Basin. This article presents a suite of new radiocarbon dates obtained from sites associated with the Early and Middle Bronze Age Maros Group, and its Late Bronze Age successors in the Tisza-Maros region of south-east Hungary, western Romania and northern Serbia. The results indicate tight chronological synchronisation of Middle Bronze Age settlements and cemeteries in the Maros region, while confirming the accuracy of ceramic-based relative chronology for the Szőreg cemetery.
Disordered eating (DE) is a widespread, serious problem. Efficacious prevention programs that can be delivered at-scale are needed.
A pragmatic randomized controlled trial of two online programs was conducted. Participants were young-adult women from Australia and New Zealand seeking to improve their body image. Media Smart-Targeted (MS-T) and Student Bodies (SB) were both 9-module interventions released weekly, whilst control participants received positive body image information. Primary [Eating Disorder Examination–Questionnaire (EDE-Q) Global], secondary (DE risk factors) and tertiary (DE) outcome measures were completed at baseline, post-program, 6- and 12-month follow-up.
Baseline was completed by 608 women (M age = 20.71 years); 33 were excluded leaving 575 randomized to: MS-T (N = 191); SB (N = 190) or control (N = 194). Only 66% of those randomized to MS-T or SB accessed the intervention and were included in analyses with controls; 78% of this sample completed measures subsequent to baseline. Primary intent-to-treat (ITT) analyses revealed no differences between groups, while measure completer analyses found MS-T had significantly lower EDE-Q Global than controls at 12-month follow-up. Secondary ITT analyses found MS-T participants reported significantly higher quality of life–mental relative to both SB and controls (6-month follow-up), while MS-T and controls had lower clinical impairment relative to SB (post-program). Amongst measure completers, MS-T scored significantly lower than controls and SB on 5 variables. Of those with baseline DE, MS-T participants were significantly less likely than controls to have DE at 12-month follow-up.
Given both programs were not therapist-moderated, MS-T has potential to achieve reductions in DE risk at low implementation costs.
Pork and pork products are recognised as vehicles of Salmonella Typhimurium infection in humans. Seaweed-derived polysaccharides (SWE) and galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) have shown to exhibit antimicrobial, prebiotic and immunomodulatory activity. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of dietary GOS and SWE supplementation on reducing S. Typhimurium numbers and intestinal inflammation in vivo. In total, 30 pigs (n=10/treatment, BW 30.9 kg) were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments: (1) basal diet; (2) basal diet+2.5 g GOS/kg diet; (3) basal diet+SWE (containing 180 mg laminarin/kg diet+340 mg fucoidan/kg diet). Following an 11-day dietary adaptation period, pigs were orally challenged with 108 colony-forming units/ml S. Typhimurium (day 0). Pigs remained on their diets for a further 17 days and were then sacrificed for sample collection. The SWE supplementation did not affect S. Typhimurium numbers on days 2 and 4 post-challenge but reduced S. Typhimurium numbers in faecal samples collected day 7 post-challenge (−0.80 log gene copy numbers (GCN)/g faeces) and in caecal and colonic digesta (−0.62 and −0.98 log GCN/g digesta, respectively; P<0.05) compared with the control treatment. Lactobacillus numbers were increased in caecal and colonic digesta after GOS supplementation (+0.70 and +0.35 log GCN/g digesta, respectively; P<0.05). In colonic tissue, both GOS and SWE supplementation resulted in reduced messenger RNA expression levels of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-22, tumour necrosis factor-α and regenerating islet-derived protein 3-γ (P<0.05). It can be concluded that dietary supplementation of SWE reduced faecal and intestinal S. Typhimurium numbers compared with the basal diet, whereas dietary GOS supplementation increased Lactobacillus numbers in caecal and colonic digesta but did not affect S. Typhimurium numbers. Supplementation of GOS and SWE reduced the gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines in colonic tissue of pigs after the experimental S. Typhimurium challenge.
We examine time series of the transition region spectral line O v 629 Å, observed with the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) onboard the SoHO spacecraft. Primarily we were looking for intensity and velocity oscillations in polar plumes, however by chance we detected a giant macro-spicule at the limb and were able to follow its dynamical structure. We have reported the dynamics of the giant macro-spicule in Banerjee et al. (2000a) and have also reported the existence of long period oscillations in the polar plumes as observed in the O v 629 Å line in Banerjee et al. (2000a,b). In this short contribution we revisit one of these dataset, namely s16834r01 to test the reliability of the observed periods. The statistical significance of the oscillations is estimated by using a randomisation method. Our analysis re-confirms the presence of compressional waves with periods of 20-25 minutes.
The experiment investigated the effect of maternal dietary supplementation of seaweed-derived polysaccharides (SDP) (–SDP v. +SDP, n 20) from day 83 of gestation until weaning (day 28) on selected sow faeces and piglet digesta microbiota populations, piglet small-intestinal morphology, and intestinal nutrient transporter and inflammatory cytokine gene expression at birth, 48 h after birth and weaning. The effect of maternal dietary treatment on the piglet gene expression profile of inflammatory cytokines in the colon following a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge was also investigated. Dietary SDP reduced sow faecal Enterobacteriaceae gene numbers at parturition. Small-intestinal morphology, nutrient transporter and cytokine gene expression in newborn piglets did not differ between maternal dietary treatments (P > 0·10). At 48 h after birth, sodium–glucose-linked transporter 1 gene expression was down-regulated in the ileum of piglets suckling the SDP-supplemented sows compared with those suckling the basal sows (P = 0·050). There was a SDP × LPS challenge interaction on IL-1 and IL-6 gene expression in the colon of piglets (P < 0·05). The gene expression of IL-1 and IL-6 was down-regulated in the LPS-challenged colon of piglets suckling the SDP sows compared with those suckling the basal sows (P < 0·05). However, there was no difference in IL-1 and IL-6 gene expression in the unchallenged colon between treatment groups. At weaning, piglets suckling the SDP-supplemented sows had increased villus height in the jejunum and ileum compared with those suckling the basal-fed sows (P < 0·05). In conclusion, maternal dietary SDP supplementation enhanced the immune response of suckling piglets and improved gut morphology, making them more immune competent to deal with post-weaning adversities.
In the present study, two experiments were conducted to (1) evaluate the effect of laminarin and/or fucoidan on ileal morphology, nutrient transporter gene expression and coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of nutrients and (2) determine whether laminarin inclusion could be used as an alternative to ZnO supplementation in weaned pig diets. Expt 1 was designed as a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, comprising four dietary treatments (n 7 replicates, weaning age 24 d, live weight 6·9 kg). The dietary treatments were as follows: (1) basal diet; (2) basal diet+300 ppm laminarin; (3) basal diet+240 ppm fucoidan; (4) basal diet+300 ppm laminarin and 240 ppm fucoidan. There was an interaction between laminarin and fucoidan on the CTTAD of gross energy (GE) (P< 0·05) and the expression of sodium–glucose-linked transporter 1 (SGLT1/SLC5A1) and GLUT1/SLC2A1 and GLUT2/SLC2A2 (P< 0·05) in the ileum. The laminarin diet increased the CTTAD of GE and increased the expression of SGLT1, GLUT1 and GLUT2 compared with the basal diet. However, there was no effect of laminarin supplementation on these variables when combined with fucoidan. Expt 2 was designed as a complete randomised design (n 8 replicates/treatment, weaning age 24 d, live weight 7·0 kg), and the treatments were (1) basal diet, (2) basal diet and laminarin (300 ppm), and (3) basal diet and ZnO (3100 ppm, 0–14 d, and 2600 ppm, 15–32 d post-weaning). The laminarin diet increased average daily gain and gain:feed ratio compared with the basal diet during days 0–32 post-weaning (P< 0·01) and had an effect similar to the ZnO diet. These results demonstrate that laminarin provides a dietary means to improve gut health and growth performance post-weaning.
Impending malignant spinal cord compression (IMSCC) may be defined as compression of the thecal sac, without any visible pressure on the spinal cord itself. Although there is a perception that IMSCC patients have a better prognosis and less severe clinical symptoms than true malignant spinal cord compression (MSCC) patients, these factors have never been documented in the literature.
To record the characteristics, management and functional outcome of a group of patients with IMSCC, who were treated with radiotherapy in our institution, and compare these parameters with similar data on MSCC patients.
Materials and methods
Data (gender, age, primary oncological diagnosis, pain, performance status and neurological status) were prospectively collected for 28 patients. Patients were then followed up post treatment to document their response to treatment and treatment-related toxicity.
The median survival of our group of IMSCC patients is similar to that of an MSCC patient. In addition, the IMSCC group exhibits significant clinical symptoms including neurological deficit.
Although further studies are necessary, we have found that IMSCC patients in this study share similar prognosis and clinical symptoms with MSCC patients. Clinicians should be aware of this when communicating with IMSCC patients and their families, and short-course radiotherapy should be considered.
A 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to investigate the interactions between laminarin (LAM; 0 and 300 parts per million (ppm)) and fucoidan (FUC; 0 and 240 ppm) levels on intestinal morphology, selected microbiota and inflammatory cytokine gene expression in the weaned pig. There was an interaction between LAM and FUC supplementation on the Enterobacteriaceae population (P< 0·05) and the abundance of attaching and effacing Escherichia coli (AEEC) strains (P< 0·05) in the colon. Pigs offered the FUC diet had a reduced Enterobacteriaceae population compared with pigs offered the basal diet. However, the effect of FUC on the Enterobacteriaceae population was not observed when combined with LAM. Pigs offered the LAM diet had reduced abundance of AEEC strains compared with pigs offered the basal diet. However, there was no effect of LAM on the abundance of AEEC strains when combined with FUC. There was an interaction between LAM and FUC supplementation on villous height (P< 0·01) and the villous height:crypt depth ratio (P< 0·01) in the duodenum. Pigs offered the LAM or FUC diet had an increased villous height and villous height:crypt depth ratio compared with pigs offered the basal diet. However, there was no effect of the LAM and FUC combination diet on intestinal morphology. Pigs offered the LAM-supplemented diets had a lower IL-6 (P< 0·05), IL-17A (P< 0·01) and IL-1β (P< 0·01) mRNA expression in the colon compared with pigs offered the diets without LAM. In conclusion, supplementation with either LAM or FUC alone modified intestinal morphology and selected intestinal microbiota, but these effects were lost when offered in combination.
The paper provides new estimates of dementia prevalence at a national and local level in Ireland and new projections of future numbers of people with dementia.
The prevalence of dementia at a national and local level has been calculated by applying European Collaboration on Dementia (EuroCoDe) prevalence rates to data from the Census of Population 2006. The National Disability Survey has been used to estimate the number of people with Down syndrome and dementia. Projections of future numbers of people with dementia have been calculated by applying EuroCoDe prevalence rates to the most recently available population projections from the Central Statistics Office (CSO).
It is estimated that there were 41 740 people with dementia in Ireland in 2006. Estimates show that there are clear regional differences in prevalence of dementia across Ireland, with the largest proportion of people with dementia in the West of Ireland, and the Dublin North Eastern region having the lowest share of dementia. Our best estimate is that there are 700 people with Down syndrome and dementia in Ireland. Applying EuroCoDe prevalence rates to the most recent CSO population projections shows that the prevalence of dementia in Ireland will increase to between 67 493 and 70 000 in 2021 and to between 140 580 and 147 000 in 2041.
Although there are several limitations to these estimates, the data provide timely and useful information for planning effective health and social care services, as well as raising public and professional awareness about dementia at a national level.
Objectives: The aim of this study is to examine the cost-effectiveness of a group-based peer support intervention in general practice for patients with type 2 diabetes.
Methods: Incremental cost utility analysis combining within trial and beyond trial components to compare the lifetime costs and benefits of alternative strategies: Control: standardized diabetes care; Intervention: group-based peer support in addition to standardized diabetes care. Within trial analysis was based on a cluster randomized controlled trial of 395 patients with type 2 diabetes in the east of Ireland. Beyond trial analysis was conducted using the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Outcomes Model. Uncertainty was explored using a range of sensitivity analyses and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves were generated.
Results: Compared with the control strategy, the intervention was associated with an increase of 0.09 (95 percent confidence interval [CI], −0.05 to 0.25) in mean quality-adjusted life-years per patient and savings of €637.43 (95 percent CI, −2455.19 to 1125.45) in mean healthcare cost per patient and €623.39 (95 percent CI, −2507.98 to 1298.49) in mean total cost per patient respectively. The likelihood of the intervention being cost-effective was appreciably higher than 80 percent for a range of potential willingness-to-pay cost-effectiveness thresholds.
Conclusions: Our results suggest that while a group-based peer support intervention shows a trend toward improved risk factor management, we found no significant differences in final cost or effectiveness endpoints between intervention and control. The probabilistic results suggest that the intervention was more cost-effective, with probability values of higher than 80 percent across a range of potential cost-effectiveness threshold values.
Several regulatory bodies have approved a health claim on the cholesterol-lowering effects of oat β-glucan at levels of 3·0 g/d. The present study aimed to test whether 1·5 g/d β-glucan provided as ready-to-eat oat flakes was as effective in lowering cholesterol as 3·0 g/d from oats porridge. A 6-week randomised controlled trial was conducted in eighty-seven mildly hypercholesterolaemic ( ≥ 5 mmol/l and < 7·5 mmol/l) men and women assigned to one of three diet arms (25 % energy (E%) protein; 45 E% carbohydrate; 30 E% fat, at energy requirements for weight maintenance): (1) minimal β-glucan (control); (2) low-dose oat β-glucan (1·5 g β-glucan; oats low – OL) or (3) higher dose oat β-glucan (3·0 g β-glucan; oats high – OH). Changes in total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) from baseline were assessed using a linear mixed model and repeated-measures ANOVA, adjusted for weight change. Total cholesterol reduced significantly in all groups ( − 7·8 (sd 13·8) %, − 7·2 (sd 12·4) % and − 5·5 (sd 9·3) % in the OH, OL and control groups), as did LDL-C ( − 8·4 (sd 18·5) %, − 8·5 (sd 18·5) % and − 5·5 (sd 12·4) % in the OH, OL and control groups), but between-group differences were not significant. In responders only (n 60), β-glucan groups had higher reductions in LDL-C ( − 18·3 (sd 11·1) % and − 18·1 (sd 9·2) % in the OH and OL groups) compared with controls ( − 11·7 (sd 7·9) %; P = 0·044). Intakes of oat β-glucan were as effective at doses of 1·5 g/d compared with 3 g/d when provided in different food formats that delivered similar amounts of soluble β-glucan.
The use of Conducting Probe Atomic Force Microscopy to give nm scale electronic characterisation of surfaces is reviewed. Local conductance, Kelvin Probe work function measurements, Fowler-Nordheim tunnelling and local C-V characterisation techniques are outlined. The principle results of these and their applications to the semiconductor surface and thin film characterisation are discussed. We present tunnelling data from silicon through varying oxide thickness using conducting AFM and scanning Kelvin Probe measurements from sub micron MOS capacitors. The F-N tunnelling technique has also been used on epitaxial silicon surfaces with atomically flat topography.
The inherent problems associated with quantitative, reproducible measurements are outlined, and the potential applications of the measurements to surface and thin film technology are discussed.
We have developed processing schemes for depositing three-dimensionally tailored layers of protein polymers on a variety of solid substrates. One of our goals is to create stable, biocompatible coatings on silicon devices for implantation in the central nervous system. Our research has identified several candidate coatings whose morphologies lie in the biologically significant 0.1 to 100 micrometer length scale. Using electric field mediated deposition, we are able to process polypeptides into biologically-responsive films and coatings. Quantitative analysis of the structural evolution of the coating enables us to fine-tune its morphology by varying the field strength and geometry or solution concentration. The interaction of the coated substrates with neurons and glial cells are examined in vivo and in vitro. Data collected from light optical microscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy provide insight about the relationship between the microstructure of these coatings and their macroscopic properties.
Ballistic-electron-emission microscopy (BEEM) has been used to study band-offsets in n-and p-type GaInP/GaAs heterostructures. We determine room temperature offsets of 30 meV and 350 meV in the conduction and valence bands, respectively, for thin GaInP layers grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) at 610°C. Low temperature (77 K) measurements also indicate at least 90% of the band discontinuity lies in the valence band for these ordered GaInP samples.
Cantilevers developed for atomic force microscopy can be used to construct sensitive thermal and stress sensors. We have shown how the stress changes which accompany deposition and desorption may be measured on single crystal electrodes. In this work we describe the surface stress changes associated with three processes: the electrodeposition of Pb and I and desorption of self assembled thiol monolayers on the Au(111) surface.
Ultrapure, homoeptaxially grown CVD single crystal diamond is a material with great potential for the fabrication of ionizing radiation detectors for high energy, heavy ion physics, and realtime dosimetry for radiotherapy. Only diamond has suitable transmission properties and can offer the required radiation hardness for synchrotron X-ray beam monitoring applications. We report on experiments made using a synchrotron X-ray microbeam probe to investigate the performance of single crystal diamonds operated as position sensitive, solid state ‘ionization chambers’. We show that for a wide range of electric fields >0.3Vµm−1, suitably prepared devices give excellent spatial response uniformity and time stability. With an applied field of 2Vµm−1 complete charge collection times are ∼1nsec for a diamond plate thickness of 100µm. Position sensitivity was obtained for an X-ray beam incident on the isolation gap between adjacent electrodes of a quadrant device: here, a crossover response region that results from charge carrier diffusion extends over ∼20µm. Using GHz bandwidth signal processing electronics, the signal charge collection process was measured with spatial and temporal resolutions of 1µm and <50ps.
Rates of weight gain in infancy and early childhood can influence later neurocognitive, metabolic and cardiovascular health. We studied the relationship of weight gain during infancy and early childhood to intelligence quotient (IQ), blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI) at age 9 in children born with very low birth weight (VLBW). Sixty-five children born prematurely with VLBW were followed longitudinally and at 9 years IQ, BP and BMI were measured. The mean weight z-scores at birth, neonatal intensive care discharge, 1 year corrected for prematurity, 5 and 9 years were −0.17, −2.09, −1.3, −0.68 and 0.06, respectively. Weight gain during infancy (discharge to 1 year corrected for prematurity) and early childhood (1 year corrected age to 5 years) was expressed as rate of change in weight, rate of change in weight z-score and interval change in weight z-score. In multiple regression analyses that adjusted for race, gender, maternal education, antenatal steroids, birth weight z-score, major intracranial lesions on ultrasound and chronic lung disease, rates of weight gain in infancy and early childhood were predictive of BMI z-score at 9 years, regression coefficients (95% confidence intervals); 0.19 (0.02, 0.36) and 0.37 (0.11, 0.63), respectively, expressed as change in BMI z-score per 10 g/week weight increase. Rates of weight gain were not predictive of systolic BP z-score, Verbal IQ or Performance IQ. In VLBW infants, more rapid weight gain during infancy, and especially early childhood, is associated with higher BMI at school age.