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A high-fibre diet is associated with a lower risk for diseases. However, few adults meet the dietary fibre recommendation. Therefore, the effects and acceptance of an algorithm-generated personalised dietary advice (PDA) compared with general advice (GA) on fibre intake were investigated.
A 6-week, single-blind randomised controlled trial with a 3-month follow-up.
PDA was based on habitual intake and provided fibre-rich alternatives using a website; GA contained brochures. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline, week 1, week 6 and 3-month follow-up. Both groups evaluated their advice at week 6. All participants had access to PDA from week 7 until 3-month follow-up.
Two groups of healthy adults: PDA (n 34) and GA (n 47). For 3-month follow-up analysis, participants were re-divided into visitors (n 52) and non-visitors (n 26) of the PDA.
At week 6, energy intake remained stable in both groups, but fibre intake per 1000 kcal increased non-significantly in both groups (PDA = Δ0·5 ± 2·8; GA = Δ0·8 ± 3·1, P = 0·128). Importantly, a significantly higher percentage of PDA participants adhered to the recommendation compared with week 1 (PDA = 21 % increase; GA = 4 % increase, P ≤ 0·001). PDA participants evaluated the advice significantly better compared with GA participants. At 3-month follow-up, fibre intake increased compared with baseline (visitors = Δ2·2 ± 2·6, P < 0·001; non-visitors = Δ1·5 ± 1·9, P = 0·001), but was insignificantly different between groups. Visitors had a decrease and non-visitors had an increase in energy intake (visitors =Δ − 132 ± 525; non-visitors = Δ109 ± 507, P = 0·055).
The algorithm-generated PDA was well accepted and stimulated adherence to the recommendations more than GA, indicating to be a suitable and cost-efficient method for improving dietary fibre intake in healthy adults.
This study consisted of six field experiments was conducted in 2018 and 2019 to evaluate the tolerance of four corn hybrids (P9998AM, P9840AM, DKC42-60RIB and DKC43-47RIB) to the tankmix of tolpyralate + atrazine with a commercial glyphosate formulation. At 1 WAA, two corn hybrids (P9998AM and P9840AM) exhibited more injury from tolpyralate + atrazine (2X rate) applied alone and in combination with glyphosate than DKC42-60RIB and DKC43-47RIB; but all corn hybrids responded similarly with respect to visible injury 2, 4 and 8 WAA, stand loss and yield. Application of tolpyralate + atrazine or glyphosate + tolpyralate + atrazine at the 2X rate caused greater corn injury (up to 27%) than tolpyralate + atrazine or glyphosate + tolpyralate + atrazine at the 1X rate (up to 8%) at 1 WAA. The addition of commercial glyphosate with tolpyralate + atrazine did not enhance injury symptoms. Results of this study show that there is a wide margin of corn safety with tolpyralate + atrazine applied alone and in combination with a commercial formulation of glyphosate.
Tolpyralate is a new 4-hydroxyphenyl-pyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD)-inhibiting herbicide for weed control in corn. Previous research has reported efficacy of tolpyralate + atrazine on several annual grass and broadleaf weed species; however, no studies have evaluated weed control of tolpyralate + atrazine depending on time-of-day (TOD) of application. Six field experiments were conducted over a two-year period (2018, 2019) near Ridgetown, ON to determine if there is an effect of TOD of application on tolpyralate + atrazine efficacy on common annual grass and broadleaf weeds. An application was made at three-hour intervals beginning at 06:00 h and the last application at 24:00 h. There was a slight TOD effect on velvetleaf, pigweed species and common ragweed control with tolpyralate + atrazine; however, the magnitude of change throughout the day was ≤3% at 2, 4 or 8 WAA. There was no effect of TOD of tolpyralate + atrazine on the control of lambsquarters, barnyardgrass and green foxtail. All weed species were controlled ≥88% 8 WAA. There was no effect of TOD of tolpyralate + atrazine application on corn yield. Results of this study show no evidence of a TOD effect on weed control efficacy with tolpyralate + atrazine.
Previous studies attest that early bilinguals can modify their perceptual identification according to the fine-grained phonetic detail of the language they believe they are hearing. Following Gonzales et al. (2019), we replicate the double phonemic boundary effect in late learners (LBs) using conceptual-based cueing. We administered a forced choice identification task to 169 native English adult learners of Spanish in two sessions. In both sessions, participants identified the same /b/-/p/ voicing continuum, but language context was cued conceptually using the instructions. The data were analyzed using Bayesian multilevel regression. Learners categorized the continuum in a similar manner when they believed they were hearing English. However, when they believed they were hearing Spanish, “voiceless” responses increased as a function of L2 proficiency. This research demonstrates the double phonemic boundary effect can be conceptually cued in LBs and supports accounts positing selective activation of independent perception grammars in L2 learning.
Individuals with schizophrenia are more likely to smoke and less likely to quit smoking than those without schizophrenia. Because task persistence is lower in smokers with than without schizophrenia, it is possible that lower levels of task persistence may contribute to greater difficulties in quitting smoking observed among smokers with schizophrenia.
To develop a feasible and acceptable intervention for smokers with schizophrenia.
Participants (N = 24) attended eight weekly individual cognitive behavioral therapy sessions for tobacco use disorder with a focus on increasing task persistence and received 10 weeks of nicotine patch.
In total, 93.8% of participants rated the intervention as at least a 6 out of 7 regarding how ‘easy to understand’ it was and 81.3% rated the treatment as at least a 6 out of 7 regarding how helpful it was to them. A total of 62.5% attended at least six of the eight sessions and session attendance was positively related to nicotine dependence and age and negatively related to self-efficacy for quitting.
This intervention was feasible and acceptable to smokers with schizophrenia. Future research will examine questions appropriate for later stages of therapy development such as initial efficacy of the intervention and task persistence as a mediator of treatment outcome.
Life course research embraces the complexity of health and disease development, tackling the extensive interactions between genetics and environment. This interdisciplinary blueprint, or theoretical framework, offers a structure for research ideas and specifies relationships between related factors. Traditionally, methodological approaches attempt to reduce the complexity of these dynamic interactions and decompose health into component parts, ignoring the complex reciprocal interaction of factors that shape health over time. New methods that match the epistemological foundation of the life course framework are needed to fully explore adaptive, multilevel, and reciprocal interactions between individuals and their environment. The focus of this article is to (1) delineate the differences between lifespan and life course research, (2) articulate the importance of complex systems science as a methodological framework in the life course research toolbox to guide our research questions, (3) raise key questions that can be asked within the clinical and translational science domain utilizing this framework, and (4) provide recommendations for life course research implementation, charting the way forward. Recent advances in computational analytics, computer science, and data collection could be used to approximate, measure, and analyze the intertwining and dynamic nature of genetic and environmental factors involved in health development.
Impairments in social cognition contribute significantly to disability in schizophrenia patients (SzP). Perception of facial expressions is critical for social cognition. Intact perception requires an individual to visually scan a complex dynamic social scene for transiently moving facial expressions that may be relevant for understanding the scene. The relationship of visual scanning for these facial expressions and social cognition remains unknown.
In 39 SzP and 27 healthy controls (HC), we used eye-tracking to examine the relationship between performance on The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT), which tests social cognition using naturalistic video clips of social situations, and visual scanning, measuring each individual's relative to the mean of HC. We then examined the relationship of visual scanning to the specific visual features (motion, contrast, luminance, faces) within the video clips.
TASIT performance was significantly impaired in SzP for trials involving sarcasm (p < 10−5). Visual scanning was significantly more variable in SzP than HC (p < 10−6), and predicted TASIT performance in HC (p = 0.02) but not SzP (p = 0.91), differing significantly between groups (p = 0.04). During the visual scanning, SzP were less likely to be viewing faces (p = 0.0001) and less likely to saccade to facial motion in peripheral vision (p = 0.008).
SzP show highly significant deficits in the use of visual scanning of naturalistic social scenes to inform social cognition. Alterations in visual scanning patterns may originate from impaired processing of facial motion within peripheral vision. Overall, these results highlight the utility of naturalistic stimuli in the study of social cognition deficits in schizophrenia.
To examine how household food insecurity is related to adolescent weight status and disordered eating.
Cross-sectional, population-based study. Adolescents self-reported unhealthy weight control behaviours, binge eating and meal frequency; weight status was measured. Household food insecurity was assessed by asking parents to respond to the validated six-item US Household Food Security Survey Module.
Adolescents surveyed within Minneapolis/St. Paul public middle and high schools completed surveys at school, and their parents/guardians were surveyed by mail during the 2009–2010 academic year.
Ethnically/racially diverse, primarily low-income adolescents (mean age: 14·4 years, range: 10–22 years) and their parents/guardians (n 2285 dyads).
More than one-third (38·9 %) of the adolescents experienced past-year household food insecurity, 43·2 % reported disordered eating and 39·6 % were overweight. Generalised regression models showed that food insecure (FI) compared with food secure (FS) adolescents had higher prevalence of overweight (FI: 42·3 % v. FS: 37·9 %, P = 0·039), lower breakfast consumption (FI: 4·1 times/week v. FS: 4·4 times/week, P = 0·005) and greater use of unhealthy weight control behaviours (FI: 49·0 % v. FS: 39·5 %, P < 0·001) in unadjusted models. Models adjusted for parental education, ethnicity/race, sex and age found that food insecurity was associated with higher prevalence of unhealthy weight control behaviours (FI: 44·5 % v. FS: 37·8 %, P = 0·007), but not with weight status or other eating behaviours.
These results suggest that food insecurity may be an independent risk factor for unhealthy weight control behaviours, indicating a need to approach these intersecting issues in a comprehensive manner.
Aging is associated with cognitive decline. The extant literature suggests that exercise positively impacts multiple cognitive domains or at least attenuates the rate of decline among nondemented older adults, but less is known about the broader cognitive impact of daily physical activity (that may or may not fall under the definition of exercise). Evolving technologies have ushered a new wave of research that objectively measures physical activity, providing a metric that is more precise and avoids some of the limitations of self-report data. In this chapter, we briefly review studies examining the relationship between objectively measured physical activity and cognition among older adults. We highlight the current state of the literature on aging, cognition, and wearable technologies that objectively assess physical activity. Our review revealed several cross-sectional studies that show a significant and positive association between overall and specific intensities of physical activity and cognition among older adults. Longitudinal studies indicated that physical activity positively impacts cognitive performance and thus support the notion that physical activity may protect against age-related cognitive decline. Moreover, the extant literature suggests that physical activity may preferentially benefit executive function, processing speed, and episodic memory. Further research on the objective assessment of physical activity and cognition will help identify the precise amount and intensity of daily physical activity that confers optimal cognitive benefits and may inform activity prescriptions for optimal cognitive aging.
Sanislow and Hector (this volume) provided a comprehensive review of the Cluster C personality disorders (PDs) with an emphasis on articulating anxious-fearful pathology and avoidance behavior. The authors provided historical context for the Cluster C PDs within the DSM and reviewed relevant research findings with a particular focus on how Cluster C pathology can be understood within NIMH RDoC domains. There is much to appreciate in their chapter and this commentary offers points intended to augment their review of Cluster C pathology. It is suggested that interpersonal theory provides a useful framework for understanding personality pathology and a review of relevant research investigating interpersonal functioning in Cluster C PDs is provided.
Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a widely hypothesized biomarker of biological aging. Persons with shorter LTL may have a greater likelihood of developing dementia. We investigate whether LTL is associated with cognitive function, differently for individuals without cognitive impairment versus individuals with dementia or incipient dementia.
Enrolled subjects belong to the Long Life Family Study (LLFS), a multi-generational cohort study, where enrollment was predicated upon exceptional family longevity. Included subjects had valid cognitive and telomere data at baseline. Exclusion criteria were age ≤ 60 years, outlying LTL, and missing sociodemographic/clinical information. Analyses were performed using linear regression with generalized estimating equations, adjusting for sex, age, education, country, generation, and lymphocyte percentage.
Older age and male gender were associated with shorter LTL, and LTL was significantly longer in family members than spouse controls (p < 0.005). LTL was not associated with working or episodic memory, semantic processing, and information processing speed for 1613 cognitively unimpaired individuals as well as 597 individuals with dementia or incipient dementia (p < 0.005), who scored significantly lower on all cognitive domains (p < 0.005).
Within this unique LLFS cohort, a group of families assembled on the basis of exceptional survival, LTL is unrelated to cognitive ability for individuals with and without cognitive impairment. LTL does not change in the context of degenerative disease for these individuals who are biologically younger than the general population.
Our understanding of ice algal responses to the recent changes in Arctic sea ice is impeded by limited field observations. In the present study, environmental characteristics of the landfast sea-ice zone as well as primary production and macromolecular composition of ice algae and phytoplankton were studied in the Kitikmeot Sea near Cambridge Bay in spring 2017. Averaged total chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration was within the lower range reported previously for the same region, while daily carbon uptake rates of bottom-ice algae were significantly lower in this study than previously reported for the Arctic. Based on various indicators, the region's low nutrient concentrations appear to limit carbon uptake rates and associated accumulation of bottom-ice algal biomass. Furthermore, the lipids-dominant biochemical composition of bottom-ice algae suggests strong nutrient limitation relative to the distinctly different carbohydrates-dominant composition of phytoplankton. Together, the results confirm strong nitrate limitation of the local marine system.
Levels of serotonin in the body are regulated by the serotonin transporters (SERT), which are predominantly located on the presynaptic terminals of serotonin-containing neurons. Alterations in the density of SERT have been implicated in the pathophysiology of many neuropsychiatric disorders.
To evaluate 123-I mZIENT (2(S)-[(S)-2b-carbomethoxy-3b-[3′-((Z)-2-iodoethenyl)phenyl]nortropane), a novel radiopharmaceutical for imaging SERT. The bio-distribution of the radiopharmaceutical in humans was investigated and dosimetry performed.
The study includes three healthy volunteers and three patients receiving SSRIs. Whole body images obtained on a gamma camera at 10 minutes, 1, 2, 3, 6, 24 and 48 hours post administration. Dosimetry was performed. ROIs were drawn over the brain, heart, kidneys, liver, lungs, salivary glands, spleen, thyroid and intestines. Blood was sampled at 5, 15, & 30 minutes and 1, 2, 3, 6, 24 and 48 hours post administration. Urine was collected at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 24 and 48 hours. Brain SPECT images were obtained using a neuroSPECT scanner at 4 hours, evaluated visually and analysed using ROI analysis.
High quality SPECT images can be obtained after 100–150 MBq 123-ImZEINT. Regional brain uptake was observed in midbrain and basal ganglia in healthy volunteers, consistent with the known distribution of SERT. Biodistribution images demonstrated highest uptake in the lungs, brain, liver and intestines. The effective dose was within range of other commonly used ligands and is acceptable for clinical imaging.
123-ImZIENT is a promising agent for imaging SERT in humans with acceptable dosimetry.
Activation of microglial cells is currently explored in schizophrenia pathophysiology. Post-mortem immunohistochemistry remains the most accurate method to investigate microglial morphology and function, since high microglial plasticity limits extrapolation of in vitro and animal research results to the human brain.
To investigate microglial morphology and activation patterns, we performed immunohistochemistry with specific microglial markers: Iba1 (marker of resting and activated microglia), CD68 (marker of microglial lysosomes, indicative of phagocytic microglia) and CD64 (FcγRI, binds IgG) on formalin fixed paraffin embedded brain tissue from the Corsellis Collection (BRAIN UK), in 15 schizophrenia cases and 15 nonneurological controls. Immunostaining was quantified by image capture and analysis (Image J, NIH, US) to provide a measure of protein load. We also reviewed existing literature on microglial immunostaining in schizophrenia using Pubmed.
Few studies have examined post-mortem microglia in schizophrenia, mostly with HLA-DP/DQ/DR markers. Although frequently studied in neurological disorders Iba1, but also CD64 were never previously investigated in schizophrenia patients. Two studies explored CD68, but results were misinterpreted for resting state tissue macrophages. Our pilot study shows Iba1, CD68 and CD64 can detect microglial cells in schizophrenia brain tissue, but considerable heterogeneity exists both in patients and controls, probably due to confounding by clinical variables, e.g. age and cause of death.
Future research needs careful selection of cases and controls to minimize heterogeneity due to confounding clinical variables. Highly specific microglial markers such as Iba1, CD64 and CD68 are very useful and ought to be introduced into schizophrenia research.
The opioid epidemic has led to the wide-spread distribution of naloxone to emergency personnel and to the general public. Recommended storage conditions based on prescribing information are between 15°C and 25°C (59°F and 77°F), with excursions permitted between 4°C and 40°C (39°F and 104°F). Actual storage likely varies widely with potential exposures to extreme temperatures outside of these ranges. These potentially prolonged extreme temperatures may alter the volume of naloxone dispensed from the nasal spray device, which could result in suboptimal efficacy.
The aim of this study was to assess the naloxone volume deployed following nasal spray device storage at extreme temperatures over an extended period of time.
Naloxone nasal spray devices were exposed to storage temperatures of −29°C (−20°F), 20°C (68°F), and 71°C (160°F) to simulate extreme temperatures and a control for 10 hours. First, the density was measured under each temperature condition. Following the density calculation part of the experiment, the mass of naloxone dispensed from each nasal spray device at each temperature was captured and used to calculate volume: calculated volume (microliter, µl) = spray mass (mg converted to g)/mean density (g/mL). Measurements and calculations are reported as means with standard deviation and standard error, and a one-way ANOVA was used to evaluate mean dispensed volume differences at different temperatures.
There was no difference in the mean volume deployed at −29°C (−20°F), 20°C (68°F), and 71°C (160°F), and measurements were 101.44µl (SD = 9.56; SE = 5.52), 99.01µl (SD = 6.31; SE = 3.64), and 108.28µl (SD = 2.04; SE = 1.18), respectively; P value = .289, F-statistic value = 1.535.
The results of this study suggest that naloxone nasal spray devices will dispense the appropriate volume, even when stored at extreme temperatures outside of the manufacturer’s recommended range.
Lymphopenia is common in adults who have had a Fontan operation although its aetiology and clinical implications remain unknown. Previous work suggests an association between lymphopenia and both liver disease and splenomegaly. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of lymphopenia in adults with a Fontan circulation and evaluate its associations with risk factors and clinical outcomes. Using a retrospective cohort study design, we studied 73 adult Fontan patients (age 25.0 ± 8.4 years) who had a complete blood count and abdominal imaging performed. Patients with protein-losing enteropathy were excluded. Clinical data were extracted from hospital records. The mean white blood cell count was 6580 ± 220/ml with a mean lymphocyte count of 1223 ± 508/ml. Lymphopenia, defined as lymphocyte count <1000/ml, was present in 23 (32%) patients. Patients with lymphopenia had a lower total white blood cell count (5556 ± 2517 versus 7136 ± 1924/ml, p = 0.009) and a lower platelet count (162 ± 69 versus 208 ± 69 k/ml, p = 0.008). Lymphopenia was also associated with findings of portal hypertension, including splenomegaly (36 versus 14%, p = 0.04), varices (22 versus 6%, p = 0.04), and ascites (39 versus 14%, p = 0.02). Lymphopenia did not correlate with any cardiac imaging, haemodynamic or exercise testing variables. In conclusion, lymphopenia is common in adult Fontan patients and is associated with markers of portal hypertension. Larger studies are needed to better define the relationship between lymphopenia and clinical outcomes.
The study investigated antioxidant effects of Se on resilience to diquat-induced oxidative stress in nursery pigs. Thirty-five weaned pigs were individually housed and randomly assigned to one of the five treatments. Pigs were (1) fed a basal diet and intraperitoneally injected with sterile saline (negative control), (2) fed the basal diet and injected with diquat solution (positive control, PC), or fed the basal diet supplemented with 0·3 mg Se/kg as (3) sodium selenite (SS), (4) soyabean protein-chelated Se (SC) or (5) selenised yeast (SY) and intraperitoneally injected with diquat. Pigs were fed the experimental diets for 17 d and injected with diquat at 10 mg/kg body weight or saline on the 11th day of the study (day 0 post-injection (PI)). Diquat exposure induced acute stress and innate immune activation (P < 0·05) at 6 h PI and compromised (P < 0·05) plasma glutathione peroxidase activity on day 2 PI, which was accompanied by an increase in plasma malondialdehyde at 6 h and day 2 PI (P < 0·10). Organic Se, particularly SY, enhanced (P < 0·05) endogenous antioxidant activity in various aspects compared with the PC group. The growth rate and feed intake from day 0 to day 7 PI were significantly lower in the PC, SS and SC groups than the NC group (P < 0·05). Untargeted metabolomics analysis revealed that twenty-two hepatic metabolites (false discovery rate < 0·15) associated with lipid and cellular antioxidant metabolism were altered by diquat. SY restored hepatic metabolic profiles in some but not all samples.
We present the analysis of global sympagic primary production (PP) from 300 years of pre-industrial and historical simulations of the E3SMv1.1-BGC model. The model includes a novel, eight-element sea ice biogeochemical component, MPAS-Seaice zbgc, which is resolved in three spatial dimensions and uses a vertical transport scheme based on internal brine dynamics. Modeled ice algal chlorophyll-a concentrations and column-integrated values are broadly consistent with observations, though chl-a profile fractions indicate that upper ice communities of the Southern Ocean are underestimated. Simulations of polar integrated sea ice PP support the lower bound in published estimates for both polar regions with mean Arctic values of 7.5 and 15.5 TgC/a in the Southern Ocean. However, comparisons of the polar climate state with observations, using a maximal bound for ice algal growth rates, suggest that the Arctic lower bound is a significant underestimation driven by biases in ocean surface nitrate, and that correction of these biases supports as much as 60.7 TgC/a of net Arctic PP. Simulated Southern Ocean sympagic PP is predominantly light-limited, and regional patterns, particularly in the coastal high production band, are found to be negatively correlated with snow thickness.