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From foraging patterns in a single tree to social interactions across a home range, how primates use space is a key question in the field of primate behavioral ecology. Drawing on the latest advances in spatial analysis tools, this book offers practical guidance on applying geographic information systems (GIS) to central questions in primatology. An initial methodological section discusses niche modelling, home range analysis and agent-based modelling, with a focus on remote data collection. Research-based chapters demonstrate how ecologists apply this technology to study intensity of range use and travel routes, as well as to population-level questions; how GIS can help to assess the impact of logging, mining and hunting, as well as to inform primate conservation strategies. Offering best practice guidelines on cutting-edge technologies, this is an indispensable resource for any primatologist or student of animal behaviour.
Over the past twenty years, several taxonomies of personality and psychopathology have been developed. More recently, many studies have compared dimensional models of personality pathology to categorical diagnoses of personality disorders. Altogether, this proliferation of research suggests the value of articulating the desirable properties of a good taxonomic system. Here, the authors extend basic research in cognitive science on the limitations of representational capacity, which suggests that humans need to compress complex clinical presentations to make good judgments. With this in mind, the authors propose that information compression and information fidelity are two principles that are essential to good taxonomy. The principle of information compression is that taxonomies should prune the complexities of a detailed clinical presentation to focus on important sources of covariation. The principle of information fidelity is that a good taxonomy should maintain essential features that reasonably approximate the structure of an individual or the population. They conclude with the claim that the overarching goal of taxonomic science in classifying personality pathology is to provide clinicians and researchers with empirically based informative priors that help to bias thinking toward useful clinical distinctions.
Sophisticated measurements of fluid velocity near to an undulating air–water boundary have traditionally been confined to the laboratory setting. Developments in camera technology and the opening of novel modes of analysis have allowed for sensitive measurements of the current profile in the ocean’s uppermost layer. Taking advantage of the Research Platform R/P FLIP as a ‘laboratory at sea’, here we present first-of-their-kind thermal and polarimetric camera-based observations of wave orbital velocities and mean shear flows in the upper centimetres of the ocean surface layer. Measurements reveal a well-defined logarithmic layer as seen in laboratory measurements and described by classical surface layer theory; however, substantial spread of observations is found at low levels of wind forcing, where the Stokes drift of swell may have a substantial impact on the near-surface current profile. A novel application of short time window Fourier transforms allows for the estimation of near-surface wave orbital velocity magnitudes. These are found to be in general agreement with the prescriptions of linear wave theory, although observations diverge from theory at high levels of wind forcing where the interface is subject to surface wave breaking. Finally, the surface gravity wave phase-coherent short wave growth is presented and discussed in the context of hydrodynamic wave and airflow modulation.
The Empire of Aksum was one of Africa's most influential ancient civilisations. Traditionally, most archaeological fieldwork has focused on the capital city of Aksum, but recent research at the site of Beta Samati has investigated a contemporaneous trade and religious centre located between Aksum and the Red Sea. The authors outline the discovery of the site and present important finds from the initial excavations, including an early basilica, inscriptions and a gold intaglio ring. From daily life and ritual praxis to international trade, this work illuminates the role of Beta Samati as an administrative centre and its significance within the wider Aksumite world.
We investigate the impact and penetration of a solid sphere passing through gelatine at various impact speeds up to
. Tests were performed with several concentrations of gelatine. Impacts for low elastic Froude number
, a ratio between inertia and gelatine elasticity, resulted in rebound. Higher
values resulted in penetration, forming cavities with prominent surface textures. The overall shape of the cavities resembles those observed in water-entry experiments, yet they appear in a different order with respect to increasing inertia: rebound, quasi-seal, deep-seal, shallow-seal and surface-seal. Remarkably, similar to the
phase diagram in water-entry experiments, the elastic Froude number
and elastic Grashof number
(a ratio between gravity and gelatine elasticity) classify all five different phenomena into distinguishable regimes. We find that
can be a good indicator to describe the cavity length
, particularly in the shallow-seal regime. Finally, the evolution of cavity shape, pinch-off depth, and lower cavity radius are investigated for different
Doveweed is a problematic weed species in many agricultural ecosystems as well as on roadsides and rights-of-way. Effective POST chemical control options for doveweed are limited in many cropping systems. Greenhouse studies were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of metsulfuron-methyl dose and the impact of mixtures and sequential applications of either trifloxysulfuron-sodium or bentazon with metsulfuron-methyl for doveweed control. By 14 d after the initial treatment, applying 0.04 kg ai ha−1 metsulfuron-methyl, either once or sequentially, provided 100% control of doveweed. Application of trifloxysulfuron-sodium at 0.04 kg ai ha−1 alone or in mixture with metsulfuron-methyl (0.04 kg ha−1) did not provide consistent doveweed control nor did it reduce biomass. Trifloxysulfuron-sodium applied alone at 0.08 kg ha−1 or in a mixture with metsulfuron-methyl (0.04 kg ha−1) provided consistent doveweed control (>80%). A single application of bentazon (0.56 kg ai ha−1) was ineffective at controlling doveweed. A single application of the bentazon and metsulfuron-methyl mixture (0.56 + 0.04 kg ha−1, respectively) or sequential applications of either bentazon alone (0.56 kg ha−1) or in mixture with metsulfuron-methyl (0.04 kg ha−1) provided excellent doveweed control (100%) by 35 d after treatment. Overall, single applications of metsulfuron-methyl (0.02 to 0.17 kg ha−1) or mixtures of metsulfuron-methyl with trifloxysulfuron-sodium (0.04 + 0.08 kg ha−1, respectively) or bentazon (0.04 + 0.56 kg ha−1, respectively) controlled doveweed and may be useful for enhancing the control spectrum for other weeds. Sequential applications of the bentazon and metsulfuron-methyl mixture (0.56 + 0.04 kg ha−1, respectively) provided doveweed control and are a resistance-management strategy for doveweed.
POST weed control atop the bed during strawberry production is limited to hand weeding, clopyralid, and acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitors. Identification of additional modes of action is desirable to increase available options for producers and alleviate herbicide resistance concerns. The study objective was to screen sulfonylurea herbicides for safety of strawberry coordinated with efficacy against Carolina geranium. Herbicide treatments included metsulfuron-methyl, flazasulfuron, foramsulfuron, thifensulfuron-methyl, trifloxysulfuron-sodium, and rimsulfuron. Strawberry plants were heavily damaged by all herbicides apart from foramsulfuron. Although the strawberry plant was dramatically affected by the evaluated herbicides, demonstrating strong epinasty, there were no differences in resultant biomass at 31 d after treatment (DAT) compared to controls. Carolina geranium was severely injured by metsulfuron-methyl, flazasulfuron, and thifensulfuron-methyl, and moderately injured by foramsulfuron. There were consistent reductions in biomass by 31 DAT by metsulfuron-methyl and flazasulfuron. Overall, metsulfuron-methyl and flazasulfuron are suitable candidates for Carolina geranium control in row-middles. Foramsulfuron is a suitable candidate for additional field-based screening for utility in POST use in strawberry production atop the bed. Consideration toward doses, surfactants, timings, and cultivar tolerance may be necessary to minimize injury as observed in the greenhouse (15% to 20%).
The purpose of this article is to discuss the challenges and opportunities for integrating archaeological information in landscape-scale conservation design while aligning archaeological practice with design and planning focused on cultural resources. Targeting this opportunity begins with statewide archaeological databases. Here, we compare the structure and content of Pennsylvania's and Florida's statewide archaeological databases, identifying opportunities for leveraging these data in landscape conservation design and planning. The research discussed here was part of a broader project, which was working through the lens of Landscape Conservation Cooperatives in order to develop processes for integrating broadly conceived cultural resources with natural resources as part of multistate or regional landscape conservation design efforts. Landscape Conservation Cooperatives offer new ways to think about archaeological information in practice and potentially new ways for archaeology to contribute to design and planning. Statewide archaeological databases, in particular, offer transformative potential for integrating cultural resource priorities in landscape conservation design. Targeted coordination across state boundaries along with the development of accessible derivative databases are two priorities to advance their utility.
Previous literature suggests that economic performance affects government approval asymmetrically, either because voters are quicker to blame incompetence than to credit ability (grievance asymmetry) or because they understand that the degree to which policy-makers can affect the economy varies depending on economic openness (clarity of responsibility asymmetry). We seek to understand whether these asymmetries coexist, arguing that these theories conjointly imply that globalization may have the capacity to mitigate blame for bad outcomes but should neither promote nor reduce credit to policy-makers for good economic outcomes. We look for evidence of these asymmetries in three survey experiments carried out in the USA and Canada in 2014 and 2015. We find ample experimental evidence in support of the grievance asymmetry, but our results are mixed on the impact of economic openness on blame mitigation, with some evidence of this phenomenon in the USA, but not in Canada.
Late-life depression, falls, and fall worry are public health problems. While previous research confirms the cross-sectional relationship between depression and fall worry, few longitudinal studies have examined whether changes in fall worry are associated with changes in depressive illness and vice versa. This study examined longitudinal relationships between probable major depression (PMD) and activity-limiting fall worry (ALW).
Design, Setting, Participants, Measurements:
This longitudinal panel observational study used data from the National Health and Aging Trends Study (NHATS) waves 5 (referred to as T1 in this study) and 6 (T2), conducted in 2015 and 2016, respectively (N = 6,299, aged 65 and older). We examined associations of new and continued ALW between T1 and T2 with T2 PMD, controlling for T1 PMD; and associations of new and continued PMD between T1 and T2 with T2 ALW, controlling for T1 ALW. We used χ2 and t tests for descriptive statistics and logistic regression for multivariable analysis.
Those with new ALW at T2 had significantly greater odds of T2 PMD compared to those without ALW at both time points (AOR = 2.64, 95% CI = 1.98−3.51), and those with new PMD at T2 had significantly greater odds of T2 ALW (AOR = 2.42, 95% CI = 1.66−3.52). Those with continued PMD also had greater odds of T2 ALW compared to those without PMD at either time point (AOR = 2.31, 95% CI = 1.62−3.29).
The findings add to knowledge about bidirectional (mutually reinforcing) relationships between depression and activity-limiting fall worry. Innovative interventions are needed to reduce both late-life depression and activity-limiting fall worry.
Using existing data from clinical registries to support clinical trials and other prospective studies has the potential to improve research efficiency. However, little has been reported about staff experiences and lessons learned from implementation of this method in pediatric cardiology.
We describe the process of using existing registry data in the Pediatric Heart Network Residual Lesion Score Study, report stakeholders’ perspectives, and provide recommendations to guide future studies using this methodology.
The Residual Lesion Score Study, a 17-site prospective, observational study, piloted the use of existing local surgical registry data (collected for submission to the Society of Thoracic Surgeons-Congenital Heart Surgery Database) to supplement manual data collection. A survey regarding processes and perceptions was administered to study site and data coordinating center staff.
Survey response rate was 98% (54/55). Overall, 57% perceived that using registry data saved research staff time in the current study, and 74% perceived that it would save time in future studies; 55% noted significant upfront time in developing a methodology for extracting registry data. Survey recommendations included simplifying data extraction processes and tailoring to the needs of the study, understanding registry characteristics to maximise data quality and security, and involving all stakeholders in design and implementation processes.
Use of existing registry data was perceived to save time and promote efficiency. Consideration must be given to the upfront investment of time and resources needed. Ongoing efforts focussed on automating and centralising data management may aid in further optimising this methodology for future studies.
Applied psychologists commonly use personality tests in employee selection systems because of their advantages regarding incremental criterion-related validity and less adverse impact relative to cognitive ability tests. Although personality tests have seen limited legal challenges in the past, we posit that the use of personality tests might see increased challenges under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) and the ADA Amendments Act (ADAAA) due to emerging evidence that normative personality and personality disorders belong to common continua. This article aims to begin a discussion and offer initial insight regarding the possible implications of this research for personality testing under the ADA. We review past case law, scholarship in employment law, Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) guidance regarding “medical examinations,” and recent literature from various psychology disciplines—including clinical, neuropsychology, and applied personality psychology—regarding the relationship between normative personality and personality disorders. More importantly, we review suggestions proposing the five-factor model (FFM) be used to diagnose personality disorders (PDs) and recent changes in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM). Our review suggests that as scientific understanding of personality progresses, practitioners will need to exercise evermore caution when choosing personality measures for use in selection systems. We conclude with six recommendations for applied psychologists when developing or choosing personality measures.
We investigate the old open cluster M67 using ultraviolet photometric data of Ultra-Violet Imaging Telescope in multi-filter far-UV bands. M67, well known for the presence of several blue straggler stars (BSS), has been put to detailed tests to understand their formation pathways. Currently, there are three accepted formation channels: mass transfer due to Roche-lobe overflow in binary systems, stellar mergers either due to dynamical collisions or through coalescence of close binaries. So far, there had not been any confirmed detection of a white dwarf (WD) companion to any of the BSSs in this cluster. Here, we present the detection of WD companions to 5 bright BSSs in M67. The multiwavelength spectral energy distributions covering 0.12 -11.5 μm range, were found to require binary spectral fits for 5 BSSs, consisting of a cool (BSS) and a hot companion. The parameters (Luminosity, Temperature, Radius and Mass) of the hot companions suggest them to be WDs with mass in the range 0.2 - 0.35 M⊙ with Teff ~11000 –24000 K.
Row-middle weed control in Florida vegetable production is challenging and often necessitates several PRE and POST herbicide applications. Coordinating POST spray applications with emergence timings should increase herbicide efficacy by targeting susceptible growth stages. Most published emergence models were developed in temperate climates, and adapting them to subtropical climates can be complex and requires reductionist insights into seed ecology, particularly germination and dormancy. The study objective was to examine the influence of temperature and osmotic potential on seed germination of carpetweed (Mollugo verticillata L.), Carolina geranium (Geranium carolinianum L.), eclipta [Eclipta prostrata (L.) L.], and goosegrass [Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn.]. Mollugo verticillata seed germination was positively photoblastic, with increased germination at high temperatures (≥35 C), more so with high fluctuating temperatures (35/20 and 35/25 C), and occurred at osmotic potentials as low as −0.5 MPa. Geranium carolinianum seed germinated between 10 and 20 C in light or darkness and at osmotic potentials as low as −0.4 MPa. Eclipta prostrata seed germination was entirely positively photoblastic, occurring optimally between 15 and 25 C and at osmotic potentials as low as −1 MPa. Eleusine indica seed germination demonstrated some degree of positive photoblasticity, with greater germination in the light, peak germination at 35 C, and germination occurring at osmotic potentials as low as −0.5 MPa. Described germination ecology for selected species will provide insights for building ecology-based growing degree-day accounting restrictions for empirically derived emergence models.
Herbicides are the foundation for row-middle weed control in Florida plasticulture production. Paraquat is commonly used as a burndown herbicide, and resistance issues have subsequently developed. Halosulfuron is mixed with PRE and POST herbicides to provide additional control of nutsedge. The objective of the study was to determine glufosinate efficacy on weeds emerging in the row-middle and suitability in mixture with halosulfuron for nutsedge control. For total weed control, the high dose of glufosinate (983 g ai ha–1) gave the highest overall control (98% and 64% at 4 wk after treatment for experiments 1 and 2, respectively), and the low rate of glufosinate (656 g ha–1) (67% and 39%) gave results comparable to paraquat (57% and 44%). The high glufosinate dose and paraquat gave comparable control of Brazil pusley (74% to 77% control). Glufosinate + halosulfuron mixture had lower efficacy on Brazil pusley than halosulfuron + paraquat mixture. Glufosinate application reduced grass densities, whereas paraquat did not. Increasing the glufosinate dose did not further decrease grass densities. Similar trends in grass control were also demonstrated in their respective mixtures. Mixing halosulfuron with glufosinate or paraquat did not provide consistent reductions in nutsedge densities, nor did adding paraquat or glufosinate further reduce densities compared with halosulfuron alone for the 4-wk study period. Both paraquat and glufosinate antagonized halosulfuron and reduced efficacy on nutsedge. Compared to controls, there was a reduction between expected and actual nutsedge control for paraquat and glufosinate (25% and 36%), respectively. For total weed control, glufosinate is a suitable alternative to paraquat for row-middle weed management in vegetable production.
Despite established clinical associations among major depression (MD), alcohol dependence (AD), and alcohol consumption (AC), the nature of the causal relationship between them is not completely understood. We leveraged genome-wide data from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) and UK Biobank to test for the presence of shared genetic mechanisms and causal relationships among MD, AD, and AC.
Linkage disequilibrium score regression and Mendelian randomization (MR) were performed using genome-wide data from the PGC (MD: 135 458 cases and 344 901 controls; AD: 10 206 cases and 28 480 controls) and UK Biobank (AC-frequency: 438 308 individuals; AC-quantity: 307 098 individuals).
Positive genetic correlation was observed between MD and AD (rgMD−AD = + 0.47, P = 6.6 × 10−10). AC-quantity showed positive genetic correlation with both AD (rgAD−AC quantity = + 0.75, P = 1.8 × 10−14) and MD (rgMD−AC quantity = + 0.14, P = 2.9 × 10−7), while there was negative correlation of AC-frequency with MD (rgMD−AC frequency = −0.17, P = 1.5 × 10−10) and a non-significant result with AD. MR analyses confirmed the presence of pleiotropy among these four traits. However, the MD-AD results reflect a mediated-pleiotropy mechanism (i.e. causal relationship) with an effect of MD on AD (beta = 0.28, P = 1.29 × 10−6). There was no evidence for reverse causation.
This study supports a causal role for genetic liability of MD on AD based on genetic datasets including thousands of individuals. Understanding mechanisms underlying MD-AD comorbidity addresses important public health concerns and has the potential to facilitate prevention and intervention efforts.
Broadleaf infestations interfere with Florida strawberry production. Broadleaf POST herbicide options applied atop the crop are limited to synthetic auxins and not suitable for conventional multi-cropping and organic systems. Reducing light access and interception during weed emergence may reduce interference. Light-limited growth of two problematic broadleaves, black medic and Carolina geranium, and the most commonly grown strawberry cultivar (‘Florida Radiance’), were examined in the greenhouse. The experimental design was completely randomized, and the trial was repeated. Black medic was susceptible to reductions in incoming solar radiation, wherein reducing the daily maximum available light from 331 to 94 µmol m−2 s−1 reduced leaf number and area by 93% and 89%, respectively. Carolina geranium growth was less susceptible to reduced-light treatments, with leaf area and number each reduced by 66% when light was reduced from 331 to 94 µmol m−2 s−1. Belowground, Carolina geranium biomass was similarly reduced between the 331 and 94 µmol m−2 s−1 treatments. Strawberry was relatively tolerant to shading at 155 µmol m−2 s−1, but further reductions did increase mortality. Shade-induced weed suppression is a promising alternative strategy for conventional and organic Florida strawberry production. Targeted application during periods of weed emergence may play a role within integrated pest management strategies. This approach is most feasible for black medic management but may be useful for Carolina geranium in concert with other strategies.