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In November 2016, a woman in her 30s who stayed at an insecure, temporary housing facility, a manga café in Tokyo, Japan, for a year was diagnosed with sputum smear-positive tuberculosis (TB). Since the café had 31 staff members and provided with accommodation to many people, the local health office initiated a contact investigation. This study aims to characterise the cases found in the outbreak. A TB case was defined as a person tested bacteriologically positive for TB, or was determined to have TB by a physician. A latent TB infection case was defined as a person tested positive by interferon-γ release assay. From January 2016 through November 2017, there were 31 staff members at the manga café, of which, six developed TB disease (one smear-negative, culture-positive and five smear- and culture-negative) in addition to seven LTBI. Another long-term customer was found having sputum smear-positive TB. Variable numbers tandem repeat (VNTR) test revealed that the index patient and the long-term customer had the identical type of VNTR; however, one staff member had a different VNTR. Local health authorities should intensify screening long-term customers of such facilities for TB regularly as well as once a TB outbreak occurs.
The magnetic field geometry in the central regions of two dark clouds has been mapped by measuring the polarization at 2.2 μm of background stars and of stars embedded in the clouds. The observations were done with the Kyoto polarimeter on the Agematsu 1m IR telescope in December 1984 for Heiles Cloud 2 in the Taurus dark cloud complex, and on the UKIRT 3.8m in May and July 1985 for the ρ Ophiuchus dark cloud core. The main results are:
i)Most of the stars in both regions show polarization and their maxima are 2.7% in Heiles Cloud 2 and 7.6% in ρ Oph, respectively. There are similar positive relations between polarization degree and extinct ion Av's.
ii)The distribution of position angles for Heiles Cloud 2 shows a single mode at about 50° and that for ρ Oph shows a bimode, at about 50° and 150°.
iii)The magnetic fields, as delineated by the infrared polarization, appear perpendicular to the flattened elongations of the molecular clouds.
An infrared complex has been found in the radio arc region near the Galactic center. The complex consists of three sources that are close (< 10″) to each other, and are almost identical in every point of their characteristics; having the same energy spectrum and the same polarization. The observed polarizations are large; 5% at the K-band, and are parallel to the galactic plane. Both behaviors are compatible to those of the galactic center sources, suggesting that the sources are located near the galactic center. The energy spectra are very similar to each other, with large infrared excesses, peaking near the M-band. The luminosity of each source is estimated to be as high as 3-5x105 L⊙, after correcting for interstellar extinction assuming that they are located near the Galactic center; their luminosity is comparable to those of supergiant stars. By CVF spectrophotometry no CO-band absorption nor Brγ emission has been detected, thus no evidence for either M-supergiant nor OB supergiant has been obtained. On the other hand, the very close linear distances, 0.5 pc among each other, suggests their physical relationship, i.e., they should be very young objects, otherwise they would have been dispersed far apart.
Extensive reflection nebulae have been discovered around GGD27 IRS and around W75N IRS by mapping the infrared polarization in the K band.
It was found that the infrared radiation from both objects is extended at λ = 2.2 μm, by using the Agematsu 1-m, the UH 2.2-m, and the UKIR 3.8-m telescopes. We have carried out polarization mapping with the Kyoto polarimeter on the UKIRT in August 1985.
High dietary energy density (ED) has been associated with weight gain. However, little is known about the long-term effects of ED on weight changes among free-living subjects, particularly in Japanese and other Asian populations. In this study, we assessed dietary habits and weight changes in participants (5778 males and 7440 females, 35–69 years old) of the Takayama study. ED was estimated using a validated FFQ at baseline only. Information on body weight (BW) was obtained by self-administered questionnaires at baseline and follow-up. Mean BW difference in 9·8 years was 17 (se 4221) g for men and −210 (se 3889) g for women. In men, ED was positively associated with BW at follow-up after controlling for age, BW, height, physical activity score, alcohol consumption, energy intake, years of education at the baseline and change of smoking status during the follow-up. On average, men in the highest quartile of ED (>5·322 kJ/g (>1·272 kcal/g)) gained 138 (se 111) g, whereas men in the lowest ED (<1·057) lost 22 (se 111) g (Pfor trend=0·01). The association between ED and BW gain was stronger in men with normal weight. In women, the association between ED and weight change was not statistically significant. In conclusion, contrary to some studies that report an association between ED and weight gain in the overweight only, our data suggest that high-ED diets may be associated with weight gain in the lean population as well, at least in male subjects.
A cluster of luminous infrared sources has been found near the Galactic Center. It consists of five identical stars clustered in a compact volume, to be called an IR quintuplet. They are all highly reddened, strongly polarized and associated with deep absorptions of silicate band and CO vibration band. They seem to be a cluster of young stars newly born near the Galactic Center.
We are currently conducting three kinds of IR surveys of star forming regions (SFRs) in order to seek for very low-mass young stellar populations. First is a deep JHKs-bands (simultaneous) survey with the SIRIUS camera on the IRSF 1.4m or the UH 2.2m telescopes. Second is a very deep JHKs survey with the CISCO IR camera on the Subaru 8.2m telescope. Third is a high resolution companion search around nearby YSOs with the CIAO adaptive optics coronagraph IR camera on the Subaru. In this contribution, we describe our SIRIUS camera and present preliminary results of the ongoing surveys with this new instrument.
Three spatially extended travelling wave exact coherent states, together with one spanwise-localised state, are presented for channel flow. Two of the extended flows are derived by homotopy from solutions to the problem of channel flow subject to a spanwise rotation investigated by Wall & Nagata (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 727, 2013, pp. 523–581). Both these flows are asymmetric with respect to the channel centreplane, and feature streaky structures in streamwise velocity flanked by staggered vortical structures. One of these flows features two streak/vortex systems per spanwise wavelength, while the other features one such system. The former substantially reduces the value of the lowest Reynolds number at which channel flow solutions ,other than the basic flow, are known to exist down to 665. The third flow has, in contrast, half-turn rotational symmetry about a streamwise axis through a point on the channel centreplane, and is found to be the flow from which one of the asymmetric flows bifurcates in a symmetry-breaking bifurcation. This flow is found to exist on an isolated bifurcation branch, whose upper and lower branches both lie on the boundary basin separating initial conditions that lead to turbulent events, and those that directly decay back to laminar flow. The structure of this flow, in which the disturbance to the basic flow is concentrated in a core region in a spanwise period, allowed the derivation of a corresponding spanwise-localised flow, which is also discussed.
Two new families of exact coherent states are found in plane Poiseuille flow. They are obtained from the stationary and the travelling-wave mirror-symmetric solutions in plane Couette flow by a homotopy continuation. They are characterized by the mirror symmetry inherited from those continued solutions in plane Couette flow. The first family arises from a saddle-node bifurcation and the second family bifurcates by breaking the top–bottom symmetry of the first family. We find that both families exist below the minimum saddle-node-point Reynolds number known to date (Waleffe, Phys. Fluids, vol. 15, 2003, pp. 1517–1534).
Three-dimensional exact, finite-amplitude solutions are presented for the problem of channel flow subject to a system rotation about a spanwise axis. The solutions are of travelling wave form, and may bifurcate as tertiary flows from the two-dimensional streamwise-independent secondary flow, or as secondary flows directly from the basic flow. For the tertiary flows, we consider solutions of spanwise superharmonic and subharmonic type. We distinguish flows on the basis of symmetry, originating eigenmode and major solution branch, and thus identify 15 distinct flows: 5 superharmonic tertiary, 5 subharmonic tertiary and 5 secondary flows. The tertiary flows all feature a single layer of vortical structures in the spanwise–wall-normal plane, the secondary flows feature single-, double-, triple- or quadruple-layer flow structures in this plane. All flows feature low-speed streamwise-orientated streaks in the streamwise velocity component and/or pulses of low-speed streamwise velocity. The streaks may be sinusoidal or varicose. Sinusoidal streaks are flanked by staggered streamwise vortices, varicose streaks and pulses are flanked by aligned vortices. A comparison with previous simulation and experimental studies finds that the simplest three-dimensional flows observed previously correspond to superharmonic tertiary flows bifurcating from the upper branch of the secondary flow. The mean absolute vorticity of the present flows is also considered. A flattening of the profile of this vorticity is observed in the central region of the channel for two-dimensional secondary and many of the three-dimensional flows, with two-step profiles also observed. This phenomenon is attributed to mixing of the vorticity across zones of the channel in which streamwise vortex structures exist, and is demonstrated by a two-dimensional model. The phenomenon appears to be distinct to that observed in fully turbulent rotating channel flows.
We note that the mirror-symmetric solution in plane Couette flow, found recently by Gibson, Halcrow & Cvitanović (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 611, 2009, pp. 107–130) and Itano & Generalis (Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 102, 2009, p. 114501), belongs to the solution group classified as ‘ribbon’ in rotating-plane Couette flow (RPCF). It represents a subcritical (in terms of the system rotation) solution at zero rotation rate on the three-dimensional tertiary flow branch which bifurcates from the second streamwise-independent flow in RPCF. The way of its appearance is similar to that of the Nagata solution (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 217, 1990, pp. 519–527), which lies on the subcritical three-dimensional tertiary flow branch bifurcating from the first streamwise-independent flow in RPCF.
Disaster preparedness is one of the national priorities. In Japan, disaster medicine is defined as a part of the national medical plan initiated by Ministry of Health, Welfare and Labor. The Japan Medical Association is the largest professional physicians' group in Japan, and has contributed to all kinds of disaster relief work regionally and nation-wide for years. Based on past successes, the Japan Medical Association proposes a new disaster action plan named Japan Medical Association Team (JMAT). The primary mission of JMAT is to deploy to the disaster scene requested and work for disaster relief. JMAT covers the acute to sub-acute phase of disaster response, and also collaborate with other agencies. In the preparation and mitigation phases, the Japan Medical Association work for establishing mutual disaster aid partnerships, disaster plans, networks with other agencies, team building, disaster medicine training and education, etc. In Japan, the Disaster Medical Assistant Team (DMAT) has been established based on the experience of the 1995 Kobe Earthquake, when lots of preventable trauma deaths occurred because of delayed medical response. The mission of DMAT is to deploy to the scene immediately and triage/transfer the most serious disaster victims outside the scene for advanced medical care. DMAT covers the first 48 hours of disaster response phase, and then JMAT takes charge of the work. JMAT will also respond to chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear disasters, and international humanitarian work. The present issues of establishing JMAT are 1.training and education for Japan Medical Association members, 2.establising cooperation with other agencies, and 3.having presence at the Central Disaster Committee, Cabinet Office, Government of Japan.
Trauma care is one of the key components of disaster medicine. However, it is difficult in Japan to gain extensive experience in trauma surgery, especially penetrating trauma. The Advanced Trauma Operative Management (ATOM) course was developed as a model for teaching operative trauma techniques to surgical residents, fellows, and attending surgeons as the number of these cases decreases in the US. In 2008, a new ATOM training site was established at Jichi Medical University in Japan, and as of December, 2010, five courses have been offered.
The ATOM course consists of lectures and a porcine operative experience. Comprehensive evaluation of ATOM was designed to assess participant learning in the cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains. Data on the first 36 participants was retrospectively collected and analyzed.
Participants included: 20 expert trauma surgeons, and 16 general surgeons. All groups showed improvement in knowledge (pre-test score: 61.9 ± 16.4 (mean ± standard deviation), post-test score: 70.6 ± 16.5, p-value < 0.001) with results in the expert and fellow groups reaching statistical significance. Self-confidence also improved (pre-evaluation score: 65.4 ± 17.6, post-evaluation score: 82.0 ± 9.4, p-value < 0.001), with all groups reaching statistical significance.
This course creates real operative situations in a standardized fashion that improves knowledge and operative confidence for trauma operations, which may be of great benefit in disaster medicine training.
We carry out linear and nonlinear analyses on a flow between two infinitely long concentric cylinders with the radii a and b subject to a sliding motion of the inner cylinder in the axial direction. We confirm the linear stability result of Gittler (Acta Mechanica, vol. 101, 1993, p. 1) for the axisymmetric case, namely the flow is linearly stable against axisymmetric perturbations when the radius ratio η = a/b is greater than 0.1415. We extend his analysis to the non-axisymmetric case and find that the stability of the flow is still determined by axisymmetric perturbations. Our nonlinear analysis exhibits that (i) finite-amplitude axisymmetric solutions exist far below the linear critical Reynolds number for η < 0.1415 and (ii) non-axisymmetric travelling wave solutions appear abruptly at a finite Reynolds number even for η > 0.1415 where the linear critical state is absent.
Bi‐Pb‐Sr‐Ca‐Cu‐0 superconductors were prepared by the laser pedestal growth method. The high Tc phase was created only by post annealing. As the growing speed increased, the annealing time necessary to obtain a Tc above 100K decreased. When the low Tc phase was aligned with the growing direction, Tc was under 100K, but a Jc of 15B0A/cm2(77.3K, OT) was obtained. In this case, magnetic field dependence below 300 gauss was superior to that of Pb‐free materials.
An amorphous silicon TFT particularly suited for the full color liquid crystal display driver has been developed and reported here. Various fundamental factors involved in the a-Si TFT, such as the effects of structure, materials, and the method of fabrications were reviewed and investigated in terms of the field effect mobility, the threshold voltage and the reliabilities. An inverted-staggered TFT structure was employed for the purpose wherein the interface states between two layers was successfully lowered by employing the successive deposition procedures of SiNx gate insulator on the a-Si layer. Proper ohmic contacts and the blocking of hole injections were accomplished by forming a n+ layer between the a-Si layer and the source/drain metal electrodes which consists of a double layer of Al/MoSi2 in order to prevent the aluminum diffusion into the a-Si layer during the 300°C heat treatment at the succeeding fabrication processes. The degradation of display images due to the high intensity backlights was minimized by employing a light shielding layer and by making the thickness of a-Si layer 200 Å against the direct sunlight of up to 100,000 luxes. Stable actual performances of TFT for more than 4000 hours at 80 °C were confirmed. The development of a color LCD TV driven by this TFT is also reported.
Composition and strain depth profiles in heterostructures such as AlGaAs/GaAs, InGaAs/InP and SiGe/Si have been analyzed with a high resolution of 0.5 nm by using the thickness fringes in a transmission electron microscope image. This diagnostic method is found to successfully evaluate the compositional disordering caused by annealing multiple quantum well structures with abrupt interfaces, and determine the difference in strain distribution in the strained-layers with various lattice mismatches. Both the composition and strain depth-profiles are analyzed quantitatively by the image simulation based on the dynamical theory of electron diffraction. This method is also useful for sensitively detecting ion-implantation-induced defects.
Superconducting films of Y1Ba2Cu3O7−x have been prepared in-situ onto SrTiO3 (100) substrates by reactive coevaporation with rf activated oxygenozone plasma. Crystal quality and orientation of the films were evaluated as a function of substrate temperature(Ts). The films evaporated at Ta between 680°C, and 690°C had an a,b-axis orientation perpendicular to the substrate. The zero resistance temperature(Tc) of the film evaporated at Ts, of 690°C was 80K. The films evaporated at Ta above 700°C had c-axis orientation. The Ts of the film evaporated at a Ts, of 710°C was 90K.
Increasing demands for LiNbO3 (LN) optical waveguide devices installed into submarine and terrestrial fiber communication systems necessitate that high quality and long-term reliability (over 20 years) be established. In addition to general requirements for reliability in electrooptical devices, the LN devices need to assure of the dc-drift phenomena in the optical output signal. The dc-drift is caused by the complex electrical nature of constituent device materials; i.e. LN substrates and SiO2 buffer layers on LN. Results of theoretical and experimental investigations of the suppression of dc-drift are applied to the design of practical LN devices, and the devices have been in service for 4 years, as of this moment, without any failure. Here, problems on the dc-drift are discussed from the viewpoints of device reliability and actual fabrication processes.