A wet chemical approach to preparing one- and two-dimensional arrays of gold nanoparticles assembled onto a polypeptide (poly-L-lysine) scaffold layer is reported. The electrical properties of biopolymer templated and nontemplated gold nanoparticle samples are compared. The electrical response of nontemplated samples is unstable, likely due to nanoparticle mobility. Biopolymer templating provides a simple, chemical method to immobilize the particles and is found to stabilize the electrical response (Coulomb blockade) of the array. A striking feature of the electrical properties is that the electron transport properties are dominated by transport through one-dimensional chains within the sample. Structural studies by AFM and XPS support the transport findings and provide evidence for the formation of one-dimensional assemblies within the arrays.