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The Rio Grande Cone is a major fanlike depositional feature in the continental slope of the Pelotas Basin, Southern Brazil. Two representative sediment cores collected in the Cone area were retrieved using a piston core device. In this work, the organic matter (OM) in the sediments was characterized for a continental vs. marine origin using chemical proxies to help constrain the origin of gas in hydrates. The main contribution of OM was from marine organic carbon based on the stable carbon isotope (δ13C-org) and total organic carbon/total nitrogen ratio (TOC:TN) analyses. In addition, the 14C data showed important information about the origin of the OM and we suggest some factors that could modify the original organic matter and therefore mask the “real” 14C ages: (1) biological activity that could modify the carbon isotopic composition of bulk terrestrial organic matter values, (2) the existence of younger sediments from mass wasting deposits unconformably overlying older sediments, and (3) the deep-sediment-sourced methane contribution due to the input of “old” (>50 ka) organic compounds from migrating fluids.
Schizotypal traits are considered a phenotypic-indicator of schizotypy, a latent personality organization reflecting a putative liability for psychosis. To date, no previous study has examined the comparability of factorial structures across samples originating from different countries and cultures. The main goal was to evaluate the factorial structure and reliability of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire (SPQ) scores by amalgamating data from studies conducted in 12 countries and across 21 sites.
The overall sample consisted of 27 001 participants (37.5% males, n = 4251 drawn from the general population). The mean age was 22.12 years (s.d. = 6.28, range 16–55 years). The SPQ was used. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Multilevel CFA (ML-CFA) were used to evaluate the factor structure underlying the SPQ scores.
At the SPQ item level, the nine factor and second-order factor models showed adequate goodness-of-fit. At the SPQ subscale level, three- and four-factor models displayed better goodness-of-fit indices than other CFA models. ML-CFA showed that the intraclass correlation coefficients values were lower than 0.106. The three-factor model showed adequate goodness of fit indices in multilevel analysis. The ordinal α coefficients were high, ranging from 0.73 to 0.94 across individual samples, and from 0.84 to 0.91 for the combined sample.
The results are consistent with the conceptual notion that schizotypal personality is a multifaceted construct and support the validity and utility of SPQ in cross-cultural research. We discuss theoretical and clinical implications of our results for diagnostic systems, psychosis models and cross-national mental health strategies.
Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, is one of the most important pests of tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L. The Mi-1 gene mediates tomato resistance to the Middle East-Asia Minor 1 (MEAM1) and Mediterranean (MED) species of B. tabaci, three species of root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., and the potato aphid, Macrosiphum euphorbiae. Tomato seedlings bearing the Mi-1 gene are resistant to nematodes soon after germination but resistance to aphids is developmentally regulated; a reliable conclusion about Mi-1 resistance to B. tabaci was not available to date. In the present work, 3-, 5- and 8-week-old plants of the tomato cultivars Motelle and Moneymaker (bearing and lacking the Mi-1 gene, respectively) were simultaneously tested under free-choice (antixenosis) and no-choice (antibiosis) conditions, to assess the real influence of plant age on the Mi-1-mediated resistance to the MED species of B. tabaci. Subsequently, plants of the same age but with different level of development were compared to check whether the plant size can also affect this tomato resistance. Obtained results demonstrated that Mi-1-mediated resistance to B. tabaci is developmentally regulated, as variations in the age of bearing-Mi-1 plants affects most infestation parameters tested. Differences between cultivars with and without the Mi-1 gene were significant for 8- but not for 3-week-old plants. For 5-week-old plants, differences between cultivars were less pronounced than in older plants, expressing an intermediate level of resistance in Motelle. Plant size also influenced whitefly infestation and reproductive activity on the resistant cultivar. However, plant age has more impact than plant size on the Mi-1-mediated resistance of tomato to B. tabaci.
This study aimed to examine the association between vitamin B6, folate and vitamin B12 biomarkers and plasma fatty acids in European adolescents. A subsample from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence study with valid data on B-vitamins and fatty acid blood parameters, and all the other covariates used in the analyses such as BMI, Diet Quality Index, education of the mother and physical activity assessed by a questionnaire, was selected resulting in 674 cases (43 % males). B-vitamin biomarkers were measured by chromatography and immunoassay and fatty acids by enzymatic analyses. Linear mixed models elucidated the association between B-vitamins and fatty acid blood parameters (changes in fatty acid profiles according to change in 10 units of vitamin B biomarkers). DHA, EPA) and n-3 fatty acids showed positive associations with B-vitamin biomarkers, mainly with those corresponding to folate and vitamin B12. Contrarily, negative associations were found with n-6:n-3 ratio, trans-fatty acids and oleic:stearic ratio. With total homocysteine (tHcy), all the associations found with these parameters were opposite (for instance, an increase of 10 nmol/l in red blood cell folate or holotranscobalamin in females produces an increase of 15·85 µmol/l of EPA (P value <0·01), whereas an increase of 10 nmol/l of tHcy in males produces a decrease of 2·06 µmol/l of DHA (P value <0·05). Positive associations between B-vitamins and specific fatty acids might suggest underlying mechanisms between B-vitamins and CVD and it is worth the attention of public health policies.
Cognitive impairment and depression often co-occur in older adults, but it is not clear whether depression is a risk factor for cognitive decline, a psychological reaction to cognitive decline, or whether changes in depressive symptoms correlate with changes in cognitive performance over time. The co-morbid manifestation of depression and cognitive impairment may reflect either a causal effect or a common cause, depending on the specific symptoms experienced and the cognitive functions affected.
The study sample comprised 1506 community-dwelling older adults aged ⩾65 years from the Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam (LASA). We conducted cross-domain latent growth curve analyses to examine longitudinal associations between late-life depression dimensions (i.e. depressed affect, positive affect, and somatic symptoms) and specific domains of cognitive functioning (i.e. processing speed, inductive reasoning, immediate recall, and delayed recall).
Poorer delayed recall performance at baseline predicted a steeper increase in depressed affect over time. Steeper decline in processing speed correlated with a steeper increase in somatic symptoms of depression over time.
Our findings suggest a prospective association between memory function and depressed affect, whereby older adults may experience an increase in depressed affect in reaction to poor memory function. Somatic symptoms of depression increased concurrently with declining processing speed, which may reflect common neurodegenerative processes. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that depression symptoms may be a risk factor for cognitive decline in the general population. These findings have potential implications for the treatment of late-life depression and for the prognosis of cognitive outcomes.
Aluminum alloys are in high demand for additive manufacturing (AM) processing. However, the physical properties of Al alloys are less favorable for the production of repeatable and reliable parts, with factors such as surface oxide scales, high thermal conductivity, and large solidification shrinkage. Despite these characteristics, processing strategies have been developed to overcome these hurdles. The objective of this article is to highlight the different microstructure–processing–properties characteristics for the three main families of aluminum alloys: pure, casting, and wrought chemistries. The article focuses on AM processes involving solidification, including powder bed and direct energy deposition for both powder and wire feedstock.
We analyze the effect of functionalization in the surface of zinc oxide crystal structure by 3-mercaptopropionic acid. X-ray powder diffraction data and extended x-ray absorption fine structure studies confirms a wurtzite structure. However, the morphology of the surface seems to be reduced and shows a film-like surface as demonstrated by x-ray absorption near edge structure and scanning electron microscopy. As a result of surface functionalization, the energy levels of the semiconductor were shifted toward reductive potentials (by 50 mV) as determined by diffuse reflectance and cyclic voltammetry.
In this paper, we study an adsorption model arising in the dynamics of several surfactants at the air-water interface, where the Langmuir isotherm is employed for modelling the time-dependent surface concentration, providing a nonlinear dynamical boundary condition. Existence of a weak solution is proved by using the Rothe method for a semi-discrete problem in time. After obtaining some a priori estimates and passing to the limit in the time discretization parameter, we conclude that the original Langmuir problem has a bounded solution. An uniqueness result is also given.
Here we analyze the outcomes of unlimited access to a low-energy (LE) diet in dams and their offspring. At 3 weeks’ gestation, pregnant Wistar rats were divided into two groups: (1) the control group received a normoenergetic diet; and (2) the experimental group received the LE diet. In dams, lactation outcomes, food intake, body weight, plasma IGF-1, prealbumin, transferrin and retinol-binding protein levels were evaluated; in offspring, biometric and biochemical parameters and food intake were evaluated. No differences were observed during pregnancy. However, after lactation, dams that received the LE diet demonstrated significant reductions in body weight (P<0.05), plasma IGF-1 (P=0.01), prealbumin and visceral fat (P<0.001). Pups born to dams that received the LE diet demonstrated reduced body length and weight at weaning (P<0.001) and were lighter than the control animals at the end of the experimental period. Pups also demonstrated reduced plasma, low-density lipoprotein (P=0.04), triglycerides (P=0.002) and glucose levels (P<0.05), and differences were noted in visceral fat. These results indicate that feeding dams with LE diet during the reproductive period induces acute malnutrition and impairs the growth and development of offspring, as well as certain metabolic parameters.
New data and a review of historiographic information from Neolithic sites of the Malaga and Algarve coasts (southern Iberian Peninsula) and from the Maghreb (North Africa) reveal the existence of a Neolithic settlement at least from 7.5 cal ka BP. The agricultural and pastoralist food producing economy of that population rapidly replaced the coastal economies of the Mesolithic populations. The timing of this population and economic turnover coincided with major changes in the continental and marine ecosystems, including upwelling intensity, sea-level changes and increased aridity in the Sahara and along the Iberian coast. These changes likely impacted the subsistence strategies of the Mesolithic populations along the Iberian seascapes and resulted in abandonments manifested as sedimentary hiatuses in some areas during the Mesolithic–Neolithic transition. The rapid expansion and area of dispersal of the early Neolithic traits suggest the use of marine technology. Different evidences for a Maghrebian origin for the first colonists have been summarized. The recognition of an early North-African Neolithic influence in Southern Iberia and the Maghreb is vital for understanding the appearance and development of the Neolithic in Western Europe. Our review suggests links between climate change, resource allocation, and population turnover.
Transposons of the Mutator superfamily have been widely described in plants, but only recently have metazoan organisms been shown to harbour them. In this work we describe novel Mutator superfamily transposons from the genomes of the human parasites Schistosoma mansoni and S. japonicum, which we name Curupira-1 and Curupira-2. Curupira elements do not have Terminal Inverted Repeats (TIRs) at their extremities and generate Target Site Duplications (TSDs) of 9 base pairs. Curupira-2 transposons code for a conserved transposase and SWIM zinc finger domains, while Curupira-1 elements comprise these same domains plus a WRKY zinc finger. Alignment of transcript sequences from both elements back to the genomes indicates that they are subject to splicing to produce mature transcripts. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that these transposons represent a new lineage of metazoan Mutator-like elements with characteristics that are distinct from the recently described Phantom elements. Description of these novel schistosome transposons provides new insights in the evolution of transposable elements in schistosomes.
High postprandial lipaemia increases cardiovascular risk. Algae consumption may affect postprandial lipoproteinaemia. The effects of dietary alga and cholesterol supplementation on postprandial lipaemia and lipoproteinaemia and arylesterase (AE) activity in growing male Wistar rats were tested in the present study. Six groups of ten rats were fed a casein-based diet for 3 weeks. Three of the diets contained 2·4 % cholesterol-raising agent (Chol), while the other three did not (NChol). Seven percentage of the control diets (NChol-C and Chol-C) consisted of a cellulose–wheat starch mix (35:65), while the Nori alga diets (NChol-N and Chol-N) and Konbu diets (NChol-K and Chol-K) contained 7 % of each respective freeze-dried alga. Postprandial plasma was obtained after a 3 h diet withdrawal. Supplementary cholesterol and alga type significantly affected (at least P < 0·05) the cholesterol, TAG, phospholipid and protein contents of the various lipoprotein fractions. AE enzyme activity increased (P < 0·05) in NChol rats given Nori and Konbu diets. NChol-K, but not NChol-N, rats displayed higher (P < 0·05) plasma cholesterol, TAG and phospholipid levels than NChol-C animals. NChol-K rats presented higher TAG, phospholipid, protein and lipoprotein mass values than their NChol-C counterparts. Inclusion of algae in Chol diets decreased (P < 0·001) the postprandial hypertriacylglycerolaemia. The Chol-N diet affected most lipoprotein fraction contents. Chol-N rats had lower postprandial cholesterolaemia and a better lipoprotein profile (fewer LDL and a tendency toward more HDL and fewer cholesterol-enriched VLDL) than Chol-K rats, suggesting that Nori is the alga of choice in dietary treatment of hypercholesterolaemia.
In addition to constitutive plant resistance against pests or pathogens, plants can activate protective mechanisms upon contact with an invader or a chemical elicitor. Studies on induced plant resistance to herbivores, especially piercing-sucking insects, are less abundant than those devoted to pathogens. Several experiments under controlled conditions have been conducted to demonstrate that infestations by Macrosiphum euphorbiae induce plant resistance to Bemisia tabaci in susceptible tomato plants. After three days of exposure to 20 apterous adult aphids, the plants acquired a transiently induced resistance to B. tabaci when aphid removal occurred one or 18 hours prior to B. tabaci infestation; the effect disappeared when four days passed between aphid and whitefly infestations. The resistance observed was both locally and systemically induced. Other assays were performed to evaluate the effect of preinfestation with ten adults of B. tabaci during 48 h on the tomato responses to two different clones (Sp and Nt) of M. euphorbiae. The numbers of nymph and adult aphids were counted after the same time interval as the pre-reproductive period and 20 (Sp clone) or 22 (Nt clone) days after adult aphid removal. The tomato responses induced by whitefly feeding depend on the aphid clone. For the Sp clone, the number of aphid nymphs ten days after adult removal was significantly higher on whitefly preinfested plants than on uninfested plants. However, no significant differences were observed when the aphid clone Nt was tested. The duration of plant response to a previous infestation by B. tabaci is apparently limited.
The effect of growth hormone (GH) on arylesterase (AE), one of the activities of paraoxonase, has never been studied. The aims of the present study in mice were: (a) to compare the effect of age and sex on serum lipid and lipoprotein levels after consumption of lactalbumin- v. chow-based diets and (b) to study the effect of GH administration, age and sex on serum AE activity, lipid and lipoprotein and body fat levels in mice fed a lactalbumin diet. Seventy-two mice were divided into three age- and sex-matched experimental groups: (1) control chow (CC), (2) non-GH lactalbumin (NGL) and (3) GH-treated lactalbumin (GL) mice. Lactalbumin increased total cholesterol, (LDL+VLDL)-cholesterol and TAG and diminished HDL-cholesterol in all animals (P < 0·05). In comparison with their NGL counterparts, old GL males presented lower total cholesterol (15 %) and (LDL+VLDL)-cholesterol (17 %) levels (P < 0·05), whereas values of the same parameters were higher in adult GL males (P < 0·05) (22 and 23 %, respectively). Adult GL females displayed higher serum HDL-cholesterol concentrations (26 %) (P < 0·05) than adult NGL females. AE activity was lower in old GL females (78 %) and old GL males (20 %) (P < 0·05), but higher in adult GL males (100 %) (P < 0·01). GH, that was inversely related to food intake, decreased abdominal and gonadal fat in all mice (P < 0·05). To conclude, lactalbumin induced an atherogenic lipoprotein profile in NGL mice that was reverted by GH, preferentially in old males, suggesting that GH therapy will be more effective in aged men. The present results suggest that AE activity was age-, sex- and body fat level-dependent and that it diminished as a consequence of improved antioxidant status.
The treatment of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in HIV-infected patients is characterized by having a protracted course and frequent relapses, despite the use of adequate anti-leishmanial drugs and effective anti-retroviral therapy. A small subset of patients with significant splenomegaly develops severe cytopaenias and chronic leishmania infection. The use of elective splenectomy is effective for restoring the haematological parameters and reduces the need for blood transfusions but it does not avoid relapsing visceral leishmaniasis.
The role of bicarbonated mineral waters on lipid metabolism and lipoprotein concentrations in man has scarcely been investigated. The present study aimed to investigate whether drinking sodium bicarbonated mineral water affects postprandial cholesterol and triacylglycerol metabolism in postmenopausal women. In a three-way, randomised, crossover study, eighteen healthy postmenopausal women consumed two sodium bicarbonated mineral waters (bicarbonated mineral water 1 and bicarbonated mineral water 2) and a low mineral water (500 ml of each) with a standard fat-rich meal (4552 kJ; 75·3 g fat). The bicarbonated waters were rich in sodium and bicarbonate and bicarbonated mineral water 1 contained 5·7 times more fluoride than bicarbonated mineral water 2. Fasting blood samples and postprandial blood samples were taken at 30, 60, 120, 240, 360 and 420 min after the end of the meal consumption. Cholesterol and triacylglycerols were determined in serum and chylomicrons. A significant water consumption effect was observed in the total area under the curve (TAUC) of serum and chylomicron triacylglycerols (ANOVA, P=0·008 and P=0·027, respectively). TAUC of serum triacylglycerols for bicarbonated mineral water 2 was significantly lower compared to low mineral water (Bonferroni, P=0·039). Peak concentration of serum triacylglycerols showed a significant water effect (P=0·025). Changes in chylomicron cholesterol were not significantly affected by the type of water. Bicarbonated mineral waters 1 and 2 did not show any significant differences. Drinking sodium bicarbonate-rich mineral waters reduces postprandial lipaemia in healthy postmenopausal women compared to drinking a low mineral water.
Peroxidation of LDL and other lipoproteins is thought to play a central role in atherogenesis. Dietary thermally oxidised oils may increase atherogenic risk in consumers by increasing their oxidative status. The present paper compares the effects of two diets containing unused sunflower-seed oil (US) or sunflower-seed oil repeatedly used in frying (FS) (both 15 g/100 g diet) on weight gain, food efficiency ratio, serum lipid levels and lipoprotein composition, and the content of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) in the liver, serum, and lipoproteins in growing Wistar rats. After sixty potato fryings the FS contained 27·7 g polar material/100 g oil and 16·6 g oligomers/100 g oil. The FS-fed rats had a significantly lower weight gain and food efficiency ratio. Liver-TBARS increased due to the consumption of the highly altered oil and showed a significant linear relationship (all r<0·68; P>0·002) with the ingestion of thermally oxidised compounds. Serum-, VLDL-, LDL- and HDL-TBARS were significantly higher in the FS-fed rats (all P>0·001). Concentrations of serum total and non-esterified cholesterol and phospholipids were significantly higher in the FS-fed rats (P>0·05, P>0·05, and P>0·001, respectively). Serum triacylglycerol concentrations did not vary between the two dietary groups. Total and esterified cholesterol and phospholipid levels increased significantly in the HDL fraction (P>0·05, P>0·05, and P>0·001, respectively) of the FS-fed rats. HDL-cholesterol and HDL-phospholipids were significantly correlated with liver-TBARS (r<0·747; P>0·0001), VLDL-TBARS (r<0·642; P>0·003), LDL-TBARS (r<0·475; P>0·04), and HDL-TBARS (r<0·787; P>0·0001). The data suggest that the rat increases HDL as a protecting mechanism against the peroxidative stress induced by the consumption of a diet containing the thermally oxidised oil.