Please note, due to essential maintenance online transactions will not be possible between 02:30 and 04:00 BST, on Tuesday 17th September 2019 (22:30-00:00 EDT, 17 Sep, 2019). We apologise for any inconvenience.
To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
More than sixty years ago, Sylvester (13) proposed the following problem: Let n given points have the property that the straight line joining any two of them passes through a third point of the set. Must the n points all lie on one line?
An alleged solution (not by Sylvester) advanced at the time proved to be fallacious and the problem remained unsolved until about 1933 when it was revived by Erdös (7) and others.
A Lagrangian study was conducted in a eutrophic estuary (Guanabara Bay, Brazil) to investigate in situ plankton trophodynamics under the influence of the cold, nutrient-rich South Atlantic Coastal Water in a short-term temporal variability (scale of hours). We tested the hypothesis that the base of the plankton food web is composed of small cells and that microzooplankton is the main consumer of this assemblage. Samples of pico-, nano- and microplankton, as well as copepods, were collected during spring, when the entry of upwelling water in the Bay is commonly observed, and near the surface every 3 h during the 1-day sampling period. Potential predation of dinoflagellates, ciliates, copepod nauplii, copepodites and adult copepods was estimated based on predator-prey size relationships. The main trophic links in the Guanabara Bay food web for the period analysed were nanophytoplankton-copepods, nanophytoplankton-ciliates, and autotrophic dinoflagellates-heterotrophic dinoflagellates. According to microphytoplankton availability, adult copepods could not satisfy their food requirement, and nanophytoplankton represented an important supplementary food source. In fact, diel variations of nano- and microplankton biomass were opposite to that of copepods suggesting predation control by the latter on the former. The trophodynamics of Guanabara Bay, under the influence of upwelling water, resulted in marked differences from other eutrophic estuaries around the world.
Semantic memory may be impaired in clinically recognized states of cognitive impairment. We investigated the relationship between semantic memory and depressive symptoms (DS) in patients with cognitive impairment.
323 cognitively healthy controls and 848 patients with subjective cognitive decline (SCD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia were included. Semantic knowledge for famous faces, world capitals, and word vocabulary was investigated.
Compared to healthy controls, we found a statistically significant difference of semantic knowledge in the MCI groups and the AD group, respectively. Results of the SCD group were mixed. However, two of the three semantic memory measures (world capitals and word vocabulary) showed a significant association with DS.
We found a difference in semantic memory performance in MCI and AD as well as an association with DS. Results suggest that the difference in semantic memory is due to a storage loss rather than to a retrieval problem.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) patients typically overmonitor their own behavior, as shown by symptoms of excessive doubt and checking. Although this is well established for the patients’ relationship with external stimuli in the environment, no study has explored their monitoring of internal body signals, a process known to be affected in anxiety-related syndromes. Here, we explored this issue through a cardiac interoception task that measures sensing of heartbeats. Our aim was to explore key behavioral and electrophysiological aspects of internal-cue monitoring in OCD, while examining their potential distinctiveness in this condition.
We administered a heartbeat detection (HBD) task (with related interoceptive confidence and awareness measures) to three matched groups (OCD patients, panic disorder patients, healthy controls) and recorded ongoing modulations of two task-relevant electrophysiological markers: the heart evoked potential (HEP) and the motor potential (MP).
Behaviorally, OCD patients outperformed controls and panic patients in the HBD task. Moreover, they exhibited greater amplitude modulation of both the HEP and the MP during cardiac interoception. However, they evinced poorer confidence and awareness of their interoceptive skills.
Convergent behavioral and electrophysiological data showed that overactive monitoring in OCD extends to the sensing of internal bodily signals. Moreover, this pattern discriminated OCD from panic patients, suggesting a condition-distinctive alteration. Our results highlight the potential of exploring interoceptive processes in the OCD spectrum to better characterize the population's cognitive profile. Finally, these findings may lay new bridges between somatic theories of emotion and cognitive models of OCD.
By measuring the deuterium contents of stream water, spring water and melt water, as well as ice and snow samples, the mean contributions to melt water in the run-off from Hintereisferner have been estimated: that of melt water being 60% and that of spring water being 40% in the months of July to September. Spring water is characterized by very low deuterium contents, whereas ice-melt water and snow-melt water in the summer were found to have about the same, rather high deuterium content. The deuterium content in the run-off was subjected to considerable seasonal fluctuations owing to the changing shares in melt water and spring water. The deuterium contents in individual glacier run-offs show similar seasonal fluctuations and are furthermore characterized by a parallel shift of the deuterium concentrations, because of the different altitudes of catchment areas. Differences in the mean altitudes of catchment areas were estimated for the winter and summer discharges on the basis of the isotope altitude effect.
The seasonal fluctuations of the tritium contents in glacier discharges are caused mainly by the melt water from glacier ice, which contains practically no tritium. Minimum values of tritium content in the runoff were thus found during the period of maximum ice ablation. The mean residence time of the base-flow in the ground-water system of a catchment area was roughly estimated to be a few years on account of the tritium content in the winter run-off and in the precipitations of past years.
Profiles of the gross beta activity in firn cores, despite a reduced atmospheric fall-out during the past years, clearly show activity peaks in summer horizons that are suitable for net accumulation analyses. A characteristic peak in the profile of the tritium content which may be attributed to the net accumulation of 1962/63 is well suited for use as a reference horizon.
Management and monitoring of community-based protected areas in Madagascar remain challenging because of a lack of financial, human and technical resources, and capacity. At Lake Alaotra, conversion of marshland for rice cultivation and a lack of effective habitat protection have pushed the locally endemic Alaotra gentle lemur Hapalemur alaotrensis to the brink of extinction. The highest density of the species is found in the locally managed Park Bandro, a high-priority conservation zone within the Lake Alaotra New Protected Area. We evaluated local awareness and perceptions of Park Bandro, and discussed preferred management options with local communities. Two questionnaire surveys were carried out, one with 180 participants at six sites around the lake and marsh, and another with 50 participants in the village adjacent to Park Bandro. The majority of participants knew of the existence of Park Bandro but most did not know its purpose or size. Values and perceptions of local communities were influenced by occupation and distance to the Park, with fishers being most aware of the Park. We found that local people had a high level of environmental awareness and were willing to discuss zonation and alternative resource management strategies as long as these activities could provide a tangible livelihood benefit. Lack of awareness among local resource users regarding the purpose and status of protected areas such as Park Bandro is a challenge that needs to be addressed, and one that is relevant for environmental education and management of protected areas throughout Madagascar.
HD151018 is a normal O-type giant with periodic variability of the wind seen in both spectroscopy and linear polarimetry. The characteristics of the wind emission strongly indicate a magnetically confined wind. This work presents the observational results and an initial modelling of the polarimetric modulation of this star.
Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important issue in the context of dementia care. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between HRQOL and depressive symptoms in patients with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and subtypes of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer´s disease (AD).
In this cross-sectional, observational study, a control group and four experimental groups (SCD, non-amnestic MCI, amnesticMCI, AD) were compared. Neuropsychological measurers (NTBV) and psychological questionnaires were used for data collection.
The control group scored higher than patients with SCD, naMCI, aMCI, or AD for the Mental Health Component Score (MHCS) of the Short Form of the Health Survey (SF-36). The Physical Health Component Score (PHCS) of the SF-36 differed only between some groups. Furthermore, cognitive variables were more strongly associated with the physical aspects of HRQOL, whereas depressive symptoms were more strongly related with the mental aspects of HRQOL.
HRQOL and depressive symptoms are closely related in patients with cognitive impairments. Therefore, it is of great importance to assess patients with subjective impairment carefully in terms of depressive symptoms.
We report serendipitous detections of line emission with ALMA in band 3, 6, and 7 in the central parsec of the Galactic center at an up to now highest resolution (<0.7″). Among the highlights are the very first and highly resolved images of sub-mm molecular emission of CS, H13CO+, HC3N, SiO, SO, C2H, and CH3OH in the immediate vicinity (~1″ in projection) of Sgr A* and in the circumnuclear disk (CND). The central association (CA) of molecular clouds shows three times higher CS/X (X: any other observed molecule) luminosity ratios than the CND suggesting a combination of higher excitation - by a temperature gradient and/or IR-pumping - and abundance enhancement due to UV- and/or X-ray emission. We conclude that the CA is closer to the center than the CND is and could be an infalling clump consisting of denser cloud cores embedded in diffuse gas. Moreover, we identified further regions in and outside the CND that are ideally suited for future studies in the scope of hot/cold core and extreme PDR/XDR chemistry and consequent star formation in the central few parsecs.
We have presented new observations of the ionized gas, molecular gas and cool dust in the Helix nebula (NGC 7293). The ionized gas is observed in the form of a Hα image, which is constructed using images from the Southern H-Alpha Sky Survey Atlas (SHASSA). The molecular emission was mapped using the H2v = 1 → 0 s(1) line at 2.122μm. The far-infrared (FIR) observations were obtained using ISOPHOT on the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO).
Impairments in facial emotion recognition (FER) have been detected in patients with Parkinson disease (PD). Presently, we aim at assessing differences in emotion recognition performance in PD patient groups with and without mild forms of cognitive impairment (MCI) compared to healthy controls.
Performance on a concise emotion recognition test battery (VERT-K) of three groups of 97 PD patients was compared with an age-equivalent sample of 168 healthy controls. Patients were categorized into groups according to two well-established classifications of MCI according to Petersen's (cognitively intact vs. amnestic MCI, aMCI, vs. non-amnestic MCI, non-aMCI) and Litvan's (cognitively intact vs. single-domain MCI, sMCI, vs. multi-domain MCI, mMCI) criteria. Patients and controls underwent individual assessments using a comprehensive neuropsychological test battery examining attention, executive functioning, language, and memory (Neuropsychological Test Battery Vienna, NTBV), the Beck Depression Inventory, and a measure of premorbid IQ (WST).
Cognitively intact PD patients and patients with MCI in PD (PD-MCI) showed significantly worse emotion recognition performance when compared to healthy controls. Between-groups effect sizes were substantial, showing non-trivial effects in all comparisons (Cohen's ds from 0.31 to 1.22). Moreover, emotion recognition performance was higher in women, positively associated with premorbid IQ and negatively associated with age. Depressive symptoms were not related to FER.
The present investigation yields further evidence for impaired FER in PD. Interestingly, our data suggest FER deficits even in cognitively intact PD patients indicating FER dysfunction prior to the development of overt cognitive dysfunction. Age showed a negative association whereas IQ showed a positive association with FER.
Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) infections are a public health threat associated with increased patient mortality and healthcare costs. Antibiotic usage, particularly cephalosporins, has been associated with VRE colonization and VRE bloodstream infections (VRE BSI). We examined the relationship between antimicrobial usage and incident VRE colonization at the individual patient level. Prospective, weekly surveillance was undertaken for incident VRE colonization defined by negative admission but positive surveillance swab in a medical intensive care unit over a 17-month period. Antimicrobial exposure was quantified as days of therapy (DOT)/1000 patient-days. Multiple logistic regression was used to analyse incident VRE colonization and antibiotic DOT, controlling for demographic and clinical covariates. Ninety-six percent (1398/1454) of admissions were swabbed within 24 h of intensive care unit (ICU) arrival and of the 380 patients in the ICU long enough for weekly surveillance, 83 (22%) developed incident VRE colonization. Incident colonization was associated in bivariate analysis with male gender, more previous hospital admissions, longer previous hospital stay, and use of cefepime/ceftazidime, fluconazole, azithromycin, and metronidazole (P < 0·05). After controlling for demographic and clinical covariates, metronidazole was the only antibiotic independently associated with incident VRE colonization (odds ratio 2·0, 95% confidence interval 1·2–3·3, P < 0·009). Our findings suggest that risk of incident VRE colonization differs between individual antibiotic agents and support the possibility that antimicrobial stewardship may impact VRE colonization and infection.
Germany has been an officially bovine tuberculosis (bTB)-free (OTF) country since 1996. Gradually rising numbers of bTB herd incidents due to Mycobacterium bovis and M. caprae in North-Western and Southern Germany during the last few years prompted the competent authorities to conduct a nationwide bTB survey in 2013/2014. This led to the detection of a dairy herd in which as many as 55 cattle reacted positively to consecutive intra vitam testing. Test-positive animals lacked visible lesions indicative of bTB at necropsy. Extensive mycobacterial culturing as well as molecular testing of samples from 11 tissues for members of the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC) yielded negative results throughout. However, caseous lymphadenitis of Ln. mandibularis accessorius was observed during meat inspection of a fattening pig from the same farm at regular slaughter at that time. Respective tissue samples tested MTC positive by polymerase chain reaction, and M. tuberculosis T1 family were identified by spoligotyping. Four human reactors within the farmer's family were also found to be immunoreactive. As exposure of livestock to M. tuberculosis is not generally considered, its impact may result in regulatory and practical difficulties when using protocols designed to detect classical bTB, particularly in OTF countries.
We describe a laboratory plasma physics experiment at Los Alamos National Laboratory that uses two merging supersonic plasma jets formed and launched by pulsed-power-driven railguns. The jets can be formed using any atomic species or mixture available in a compressed-gas bottle and have the following nominal initial parameters at the railgun nozzle exit: ne ≈ ni ~ 1016 cm−3, Te ≈ Ti ≈ 1.4 eV, Vjet ≈ 30–100 km/s, mean charge
≈ 1, sonic Mach number Ms ≡ Vjet/Cs > 10, jet diameter = 5 cm, and jet length ≈20 cm. Experiments to date have focused on the study of merging-jet dynamics and the shocks that form as a result of the interaction, in both collisional and collisionless regimes with respect to the inter-jet classical ion mean free path, and with and without an applied magnetic field. However, many other studies are also possible, as discussed in this paper.
The title of my reflections is “Between a Rock and A Hard Place,” which I think aptly describes the situation of Catholic theologians in the United States since the bishops' meeting of November 1999. The imagery refers to the rock of Peter, the hard place to the problems the mandatum raises for ourselves and our Catholic colleges and universities. My question is: What can the social sciences tell us about our present dilemma? First, I will look at the history of the problem as we have experienced it in the U.S. Next, the bishops' document is now in the hands of the Roman Curia, so I will look at the role of that institution. And finally, I will review quickly events to date in the light of evidence from the social sciences and suggest a possible strategy to deal with the situation in our U.S. context.
The current research examined the association between state disfavoured tax on soda (i.e. the difference between soda sales tax and the tax on food products generally) and a summary score representing the strength of state laws governing competitive beverages (beverages that compete with the beverages in the federally funded school lunch programme) in US schools.
The Classification of Laws Associated with School Students (CLASS) summary score reflected the strength of a state's laws restricting competitive beverages sold in school stores, vending machines, school fundraisers and à la carte cafeteria items. Bridging the Gap (BTG) is a nationally recognized research initiative that provided state-level soda tax data. The main study outcome was the states’ competitive beverage summary scores for elementary, middle and high school grade levels, as predicted by the states’ disfavoured soda tax. Univariate and multivariate analyses were conducted, adjusting for year and state.
Data from BTG and CLASS were used.
BTG and CLASS data from all fifty states and the District of Columbia from 2003 to 2010 were used.
A higher disfavoured soda sales tax was generally associated with an increased likelihood of having strong school beverage laws across grade levels, and especially when disfavoured soda sales tax was >5 %.
These data suggest a concordance between states’ soda taxes and laws governing beverages sold in schools. States with high disfavoured sales tax on soda had stronger competitive beverage laws, indicating that the state sales tax environment may be associated with laws governing beverage policy in schools.