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The Rio Grande Cone is a major fanlike depositional feature in the continental slope of the Pelotas Basin, Southern Brazil. Two representative sediment cores collected in the Cone area were retrieved using a piston core device. In this work, the organic matter (OM) in the sediments was characterized for a continental vs. marine origin using chemical proxies to help constrain the origin of gas in hydrates. The main contribution of OM was from marine organic carbon based on the stable carbon isotope (δ13C-org) and total organic carbon/total nitrogen ratio (TOC:TN) analyses. In addition, the 14C data showed important information about the origin of the OM and we suggest some factors that could modify the original organic matter and therefore mask the “real” 14C ages: (1) biological activity that could modify the carbon isotopic composition of bulk terrestrial organic matter values, (2) the existence of younger sediments from mass wasting deposits unconformably overlying older sediments, and (3) the deep-sediment-sourced methane contribution due to the input of “old” (>50 ka) organic compounds from migrating fluids.
This study aimed to determine the cutoff and the specificity and sensitivity of the Emotion Thermometers (ET) in a Portuguese sample of cancer patients.
A total of 147 patients (mean age = 49.2; SD = 12.6) completed the ET, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), and the Subjective Experiences of Illness Suffering Inventory. Data were collected in a cancer support institution and in a major hospital in the North of Portugal.
The optimal cutoff for the Anxiety Thermometer was 5v6 (until 5 and 6 or more), which identified 74% of the BSI-anxiety cases and 70% of noncases. The Depression Thermometer cutoff was 4v5 (until 4 and 5 or more), which identified 85% of BSI-depression cases and 82% of noncases. Cutoff for the Anger Thermometer was 4v5 (until 4 and 5 or more), which identified 83% of BSI-hostility cases and 73% of noncases; for the Distress Thermometer, the optimal cutoff was 4v5 (until 4 and 5 or more), which identified 84% of the suffering cases and 73% of noncases. Finally, for the Help Thermometer, it was 3v4 (until 3 and 4 or more), which helped to identify 93% of the suffering cases and 64% of noncases.
Significance of results
Results supported the Portuguese version of the ET as an important screening tool for identifying the emotional distress in cancer patients.
A study conducted as part of the development of the Eleventh International Classification of Mental Disorders for Primary Health Care (ICD-11 PHC) provided an opportunity to test the relationships among depressive, anxious and somatic symptoms in PHC.
Primary care physicians participating in the ICD-11 PHC field studies in five countries selected patients who presented with somatic symptoms not explained by known physical pathology by applying a 29-item screening on somatic complaints that were under study for bodily stress disorder. Patients were interviewed using the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised and assessed using two five-item scales that measure depressive and anxious symptoms. Structural models of anxious-depressive symptoms and somatic complaints were tested using a bi-factor approach.
A total of 797 patients completed the study procedures. Two bi-factor models fit the data well: Model 1 had all symptoms loaded on a general factor, along with one of three specific depression, anxiety and somatic factors [x2 (627) = 741.016, p < 0.0011, RMSEA = 0.015, CFI = 0.911, TLI = 0.9]. Model 2 had a general factor and two specific anxious depression and somatic factors [x2 (627) = 663.065, p = 0.1543, RMSEA = 0.008, CFI = 0.954, TLI = 0.948].
These data along with those of previous studies suggest that depressive, anxious and somatic symptoms are largely different presentations of a common latent phenomenon. This study provides support for the ICD-11 PHC conceptualization of mood disturbance, especially anxious depression, as central among patients who present multiple somatic symptoms.
The aim of this work is to investigate and quantify the latency on a Stewart Platform caused exclusively by a Classic washout filter. This washout filter is intended to recreate the sensations of motion caused by changes of translational and rotational acceleration that an aircraft can provide, due to changes in attitudes caused by external factors, and those caused by the pilot’s command. The input signal was generated by a FlightGear Simulator in order to obtain the specific forces and angular velocities of a Boeing 747 during a take-off procedure. These signals are then filtered by a washout filter and sent to the inverse kinematics of the movable platform, which will transform the aircraft motion sensations in platforms actuator position, thereby causing a certain signal delay. Experiments were performed in a Stewart Platform to obtain the latency caused by the mathematical modelling of the entire washout filter system. This latency are then compared to the latency caused by the control and dynamics of the platform’s actuators. Results indicate that the washout filter is the most responsible for the latency of the specific force signals to be reproduced by the platform in this experiment, and that the natural frequency and damping coefficient values must be properly estimated in order to optimise the total latency.
A series of in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to characterise the dialogue between embryo and maternal units relative to the mechanisms controlling embryo survival in dairy cattle. Endometrial explants from pregnant cows had an attenuated PGF2α secretory response following treatment with melittin (stimulator of PLA2) and phorbol 12, 13 dibutyrate (PDBu). Thus previous exposure to the conceptus appears to regulate the endometrial synthetic pathway at a point coincident with or distal to PLA2 as well as inhibit PKC or PKC mediated events. Endometrial explants collected from cows receiving intrauterine infusions of rblFN-τ had a reduced secretory response following stimulation with PDBu indicating attenuation in PKC activity. Based upon tyrosine-phosphorylation of STAT-proteins and their translocation to the nucleus after treatment with rbIFN-τ, the JAK-STAT pathway is functional in immortalised bovine endometrial cells (BEND cells). Bend cells, exposed to rblFN-τ, reduced PDBu induction of PGF2α secretion and also decreased protein expression of Cox-2 and PLA. RblFN-τ clearly reduced PKC mediated events leading to an antiluteolytic response in endometrial cells. Feeding diets containing 2.6, 5.2 and 7.8% Menhaden fish meal to lactating dairy cows reduced uterine secretion of PGF2α following sequential injections of oestradiol and oxytocin. Thus antiluteolytic effects in early pregnancy may be amplified by feeding by-pass fats. Pregnancy rate to a timed insemination at first service post-partum is increased in association with injection of bST(500 mg; sc) given at insemination. Furthermore injection of bST at time of insemination in superovulated donor cows increased the number of blastocysts and reduced number of unfertilised embryos. Prospects of integrating novel strategies to improve embryo development and survival into reproductive management systems appear to be attainable in high producing dairy cows.
The Little Bustard Tetrax tetrax (Linnaeus, 1758) is a medium-sized, ‘Near Threatened’ steppe bird, whose Iberian population has been alarmingly declining over recent decades. Although this population loss has been mainly attributed to agricultural intensification, there is no information on Little Bustard adult mortality levels and their drivers. Based on a joint effort combining all the tracking data on adult Little Bustards collected over a period of 12 years by all research teams working with the species in Iberia, we found that annual anthropogenic mortality is likely to have a critical impact on the species, with values almost as high as the mortality attributed to predation. Collision with power lines was found to be the main anthropogenic threat to the adult population (3.4–3.8%/year), followed by illegal killing (2.4–3%/year), which had a higher impact than initially foreseen. Our work shows how poorly understood and previously unknown threats are affecting the survival of the most important Little Bustard population in Europe.
Non-ruminant animals do not synthesize phytase enzyme, a substance capable to act on phytate molecule to liberate phosphorus. The non-available phosphorus pass through the digestive system of the non-ruminants practically without being digested and the inclusion of inorganic phosphorus sources in diets of those animals is necessary. The use of phytase enzyme in rations for pigs can contribute to the elimination or reduction of the use of inorganic phosphorus sources and reducing the environmental impact caused by the excretion of this mineral. The experiment was designed to evaluate the biological phosphorus flow in pigs fed with diet containing different phytase levels, using the isotope dilution technique.
The metabolism and kinetics model of Fernandez modified by Lopes et al. (2001) is a fundamental tool for the study of the digestive physiology of phosphorus (P) in pigs. In Brazil there is a great potential of use of rock phosphate and those represents approximately 2.9 billion metric tons. Brazilian researchers are interested to evaluate those phosphate as alternative sources in diets of pigs. All of the natural sources of phosphate in Brazil presented low level of fluor, when compared with international sources and levels of heavy metals are considered low too. The main concern resides in the fact that non-absorbed P is excreted and can cause contamination of water. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the digestive physiology of pigs fed diets supplemented with different P sources and the study the environmental pollution provoked by P excreted.
Phosphorus is the second most plentiful mineral in the animal body. It is present as structural component and it is involved in a wide variety of biochemical reactions. Research has been conducted in Brazil to study phosphorus metabolism in pigs using the model of Fernandez modified by Lopes et al. (2001). However there is little published information related to phosphorus metabolism in pigs using the model of Vitti et al. (2000). In the present study, it was considered the hypothesis that P intake regulates P utilisation and flow on gut, blood, soft tissues and bone. The isotopic technique by using labelled P allows the formulation of model of the biological flow of phosphorus in the animal organism. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of phosphorus intake on phosphorus metabolism in pigs, by using isotope and balance techniques. A mathematical model for phosphorus metabolism is formulated.
Genomic regions under high selective pressure present specific runs of homozygosity (ROH), which provide valuable information on the genetic mechanisms underlying the adaptation to environment imposed challenges. In broiler chickens, the adaptation to conventional production systems in tropical environments lead the animals with favorable genotypes to be naturally selected, increasing the frequency of these alleles in the next generations. In this study, ~1400 chickens from a paternal broiler line were genotyped with the 600 K Affymetrix® Axiom® high-density (HD) genotyping array for estimation of linkage disequilibrium (LD), effective population size (Ne), inbreeding and ROH. The average LD between adjacent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in all autosomes was 0.37, and the LD decay was higher in microchromosomes followed by intermediate and macrochromosomes. The Ne of the ancestral population was high and declined over time maintaining a sufficient number of animals to keep the inbreeding coefficient of this population at low levels. The ROH analysis revealed genomic regions that harbor genes associated with homeostasis maintenance and immune system mechanisms, which may have been selected in response to heat stress. Our results give a comprehensive insight into the relationship between shared ROH regions and putative regions related to survival and production traits in a paternal broiler line selected for over 20 years. These findings contribute to the understanding of the effects of environmental and artificial selection in shaping the distribution of functional variants in the chicken genome.
Chagas disease and sleeping sickness are neglected tropical diseases closely related to poverty, for which the development of plant-derived treatments has not been a promising prospect. Thus, we systematicaly review the preclinical in vivo evidence on the applicability of plant-based products in the treatment of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei infections. Characteristics such as disease models, treatments, toxicological safety and methodological bias were analysed. We recovered 66 full text articles from 16 countries investigating 91 plant species. The disease models and treatments were highly variable. Most studies used native (n = 36, 54·54%) or exotic (n = 30, 45·46%) plants with ethnodirected indication (n = 45, 68·18%) for trypanosomiasis treatment. Complete phytochemical screening and toxicity assays were reported in only 15 (22·73%) and 32 (48·49%) studies, respectively. The currently available preclinical evidence is at high risk of bias. The absence of or incomplete characterization of animal models, treatment protocols, and phytochemical/toxicity analyses impaired the internal validity of the individual studies. Contradictory results of a same plant species compromise the external validity of the evidence, making it difficult determine the effectiveness, safety and biotechnological potential of plant-derived products in the development of new anti-infective agents to treat T. cruzi and T. brucei infections.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of nerolidol free (N-F) and nerolidol-loaded in nanospheres (N-NS) on the hepatic antioxidant/oxidant status of mice experimentally infected by Trypanosoma evansi. In the liver it was measured: reactive oxygen species (ROS), thiobarbituric reactive acid substances (TBARS) and non-protein thiols (NPSH), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and performed histopathological examination. In addition, seric levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured. Liver samples from mice infected by T. evansi showed increased (P < 0·05) ROS, TBARS, AST and ALT levels and SOD activity, and decreased NPSH levels and CAT activity (P < 0·05) compared with uninfected animals. N-NS treatment prevented (P < 0·05) ROS and TBARS increase, and increased NPSH levels, and ameliorate CAT and SOD activities on liver of infected mice. Moreover, N-NS treatment reduced (P < 0·05) AST and ALT levels, and prevented histopathological changes caused by the parasite. N-NS protected the liver from the oxidative stress caused by T. evansi, which might be due to its antioxidant properties. Nerolidol might be considered a promising therapeutic agent against oxidative stress, and nanotechnology is an encouraging approach to be explored.
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is frequently associated with poorer reading ability; however, the specific neuropsychological domains linking this co-occurrence remain unclear. This study evaluates information-processing characteristics as possible neuropsychological links between ADHD symptoms and RA in a community-based sample of children and early adolescents with normal IQ (⩾70).
The participants (n = 1857, aged 6–15 years, 47% female) were evaluated for reading ability (reading single words aloud) and information processing [stimulus discriminability in the two-choice reaction-time task estimated using diffusion models]. ADHD symptoms were ascertained through informant (parent) report using the Development and Well-Being Assessment (DAWBA). Verbal working memory (VWM; digit span backwards), visuospatial working memory (VSWM, Corsi Blocks backwards), sex, socioeconomic status, and IQ were included as covariates.
In a moderated mediation model, stimulus discriminability mediated the effect of ADHD on reading ability. This indirect effect was moderated by age such that a larger effect was seen among younger children.
The findings support the hypothesis that ADHD and reading ability are linked among young children via a neuropsychological deficit related to stimulus discriminability. Early interventions targeting stimulus discriminability might improve symptoms of inattention/hyperactivity and reading ability.
The Radiocarbon Laboratory of the Universidade Federal Fluminense, in Brazil, has been successfully applying the zinc reduction method for graphitization of carbon samples since the development of its early protocols in 2009. Successive methodological research aiming to improve and, ultimately, optimize the precision and accuracy of our results indicates that graphitization temperatures as low as 460°C promote erratic 13C isotopic fractionation, but an approximately constant fractionation of about –5‰ is achieved at 520°C. In this work, we present isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) δ13C results for 14C reference materials graphitized at 550°C with variable amounts of zinc. Based on the results obtained from the addition of 20, 35, and 50 mg of zinc, we conclude that a slightly lower variation in 13C isotope fractionation during graphitization is obtained with less zinc. Moreover, the average isotopic fractionation is not altered by increasing the graphitization temperature from 520°C to 550°C.
We report the pharmacological activity of organoruthenium complexes containing chloroquine (CQ) as a chelating ligand. The complexes displayed intraerythrocytic activity against CQ-sensitive 3D7 and CQ-resistant W2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum, with potency and selectivity indexes similar to those of CQ. Complexes displayed activity against all intraerythrocytic stages, but moderate activity against Plasmodium berghei liver stages. However, unlike CQ, organoruthenium complexes impaired gametocyte viability and exhibited fast parasiticidal activity against trophozoites for P. falciparum. This functional property results from the ability of complexes to quickly induce oxidative stress. The parasitaemia of P. berghei-infected mice was reduced by treatment with the complex. Our findings demonstrated that using chloroquine for the synthesis of organoruthenium complexes retains potency and selectivity while leading to an increase in the spectrum of action and parasite killing rate relative to CQ.
Evergreen trees in the tropical rain forest of the Amazonas Basin can produce growth rings which are not necessarily related to annual events. Therefore, estimation of growth rate cannot be done by dendrochronology. This report presents a technique for determining the growth rate of these trees based on radiocarbon measurements of two segments of equal radial distance from the outer part of the tree trunk. The measured 14C activity is compared to local 14C fallout and growth rates are derived from models taking into account bomb 14C effects. Eleven trees from various parts of the Amazon Basin were analyzed. The average growth rates range from ca 5 to > 40 yr per centimeter corresponding to extrapolated ages from ca 60 to > 400 yr.
Equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) was carried out on extruded ZK60 magnesium alloy until an equivalent strain of ∼4 (corresponding to 4 passes) at 523K following route Bc. The effect of the deformation on both microstructure and texture was investigated by analysis of inverse pole figures and pole figures respectively, determined by EBSD. Additionaly, the mechanical properties were evaluated through tensile tests. The ECAPed processed ZK60 alloy showed the presence of dynamic recrystallization (DRX) process, correlated with a strong basal fiber texture. The presence of pyramidal slip was also observed, which can be correlated with the presence on twin-oriented boundaries in the material. Both the grain size reduction and the existence of texture influenced the ductility of the magnesium alloy processed by ECAP, as the ductility of the ZK60 alloy after four ECAP passes increased two times in comparation with the initial (un-processed) material.
Using Finite Element Method (FEM) simulations is possible to study the homogeneity of deformation in the Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP) process. In this work an investigation about the influence of a modified die on strain distribution in an ecaped Al6060 alloy was carried out. Due to that, tensile stress occurs in the vicinity of upper surface of the specimen in the severe plastic deformation zone, which increases the cracking and fracture tendency of the specimen and impedes further ECAP processing, the conventional ECAP die was modified to eliminate the tensile stress and enhance the compressive stress in the severe plastic deformation zone and reducing the cracking and fracture tendency of the specimen. Finite element analysis demonstrated that the stress state changes from tensile to strongly compressive when using the modified die. The aim of this study is to evaluate the advantages/disadvantages of the modified ECAP die and processing conditions.