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This study evaluated the longitudinal and long-term effects of radiotherapy on swallowing function after tongue reconstruction.
The study comprised 16 patients who had: undergone glossectomy and tongue reconstruction with free flap transfer, received adjuvant radiotherapy, and survived without recurrence for at least 1 year. Swallowing function, as indicated by tolerance of oral intake, was evaluated before radiotherapy, at radiotherapy completion, and at 6 and 12 months after radiotherapy completion.
Before radiotherapy, all patients could tolerate oral intake. At radiotherapy completion, only three patients could consume all nutrition orally. However, swallowing function improved over time, and by 12 months after radiotherapy completion it had returned nearly to that before radiotherapy.
Acute dysphagia due to radiotherapy after tongue reconstruction is severe, but can improve gradually. Multidisciplinary support of patients during percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy dependence is important to improve long-term functional outcomes.
Gas Technology Institute (GTI), together with its partners University of California at Merced (UC Merced) and MicroLink Devices Inc. (MicroLink) are developing a full spectrum solar energy collection system to deliver variable electricity and on-demand heat. The technology uses secondary optics in a solar receiver to achieve high efficiency at high temperature, collects heat in particles for low fire danger, stores heat in particles instead of molten salt for low cost, and uses double junction (2J) photovoltaic (PV) cells with backside infrared (IR) reflectors on the secondary optical element to raise exergy efficiency. The overall goal is to deliver enhancement to established trough technology while exceeding the heliostat power tower molten salt temperature limit. The use of inert particles for heat transfer may make parabolic troughs safer near population centers and may be valuable for industrial facilities.
A case of salvage supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy after failed radiation therapy and vertical partial laryngectomy had successful oncological and functional outcomes. This is the first reported application of salvage supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy after the failure of two major treatments.
A 65-year-old man was referred for salvage supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy. The right recurrent hemilarynx was successfully resected. After pexis, the right lobe of the thyroid gland was repositioned to overlap and reinforce the pexis gap and fill the devoid portion of the strap muscular closure. Multiple scattered foci (recurrent tumour–node–metastasis stage T2) were identified around the arytenoid cartilage and beneath the musculocutaneous flap. Four years after supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy, the patient's recovery was following a favourable course and he had satisfactory laryngeal function.
Appropriate case selection and proficient surgical skills were essential for a successful outcome. Head and neck surgeons should not be afraid to adopt functional preservation open surgical procedures in well-selected and well-motivated patients. A requirement for more challenging surgical procedures and meticulous rehabilitation processes should not exclude appropriate treatments from a surgeon's repertoire.
We have been monitoring the flux density of Sagittarius A* (Sgr A*) at 22 GHz since DOY=42 (11 Feb. 2013) with a sub-array of the Japanese VLBI Network in order to search the increase of 22-GHz emission from Sgr A* induced by the interaction of the G2 cloud with the accretion disk. The flux densities observed until DOY=322 (18 Nov. 2013) are consistent with the previously observed values before the approaching of the cloud. We have detected no large flare during this period.
We have proposed new magnetic memories using parallel-aligned nanowires without mechanical moving parts, in order to achieve the ultra high transfer rate of more than 144 Gbps for Super Hi-Vision TV. In the magnetic memory using nanowires, the data are stored as the magnetic domains with up or down magnetization in magnetic nanowires, and the domains are shifted quite faster by applying optimum current along the nanowire direction for data writing and reading purpose. Since the electric circuits and the insulation space between the neighbor nanowires are necessary for moving the magnetic domain walls, the areal recording density is essentially reduced as compared with that of conventional hard disk drives. In this study, in order to increase the areal recording density of magnetic nanowire memory, we have tried to act one magnetic nanowire as the virtual multiple data tracks. The shallow scratched trench was introduced using scanning probe microscopy along the length direction on the surface of a single nanowire to form multiple internal tracks, and we have succeeded in realizing a couple of virtual tracks states.
In paediatric pulmonary embolism, cardiac findings and thromboembolic outcomes are poorly defined. We conducted a mixed retrospective-prospective cohort study of paediatric pulmonary embolism at the Children's Hospital Colorado between March, 2006 and January, 2011. A total of 58 consecutive children – age less than or equal to 21 years – with acute pulmonary embolism were enrolled. Data collection included clinical and laboratory characteristics, treatments, serial echocardiographic and electrocardiographic findings, and outcomes of pulmonary embolism non-resolution and recurrence. The median age was 16.5 years ranging from 0 to 21 years. The most prevalent clinical risk factors were oral contraceptive pill use (52% of female patients), presence of a non-infectious inflammatory condition (21%), and trauma (21%). Thrombophilias included heterozygous factor V Leiden in 21%; antiphospholipid antibody syndrome was established in 31% overall. Proximal pulmonary artery involvement was present in 34%. At presentation, nearly half of the patients had hypoxaemia and 37% had tachycardia. The classic electrocardiographic finding of S1Q3T3 was present in 12% acutely; tricuspid regurgitation greater than 3 metres per second, septal flattening, and right ventricular dilation were each present on acute echocardiogram in 25%. Nearly all patients received therapeutic anticoagulation, with initial systemic tissue plasminogen activator administered in 16% for occlusive iliofemoral deep venous thrombosis and/or massive pulmonary embolism. Pulmonary embolism resolution was observed in 82% by 6 months. Recurrent pulmonary embolism occurred in 9%. There were no pulmonary embolism-related deaths. Right ventricular dysfunction was rare in follow-up. These data indicate that acute heart strain is common, but chronic cardiac dysfunction is rare, following aggressive management of acute pulmonary embolism in children.
The current trends in stimulated Brillouin scattering and optical phase conjugation are overviewed. This report is formed by the selected papers presented in the “Fifth International Workshop on stimulated Brillouin scattering and phase conjugation 2010” in Japan. The nonlinear properties of phase conjugation based on stimulated Brillouin scattering and photo-refraction can compensate phase distortions in the high power laser systems, and they will also open up potentially novel laser technologies, e.g., phase stabilization, beam combination, pulse compression, ultrafast pulse shaping, and arbitrary waveform generation.
Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4) is a plasma protein involved in retinol transportation, and recent evidence in rodents suggests that RBP4 is also a metabolic regulator that modifies insulin sensitivity. To assess how RBP4 levels are regulated in ruminants, we determined the RBP4 concentrations in bovine plasma and milk using Western blot analysis. Plasma RBP4 levels in non-pregnant non-lactating (control) cows were around 45 μg/ml, which were sustained during 60-h fasting, but decreased significantly 4 h after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. Basal plasma retinol concentration was around 30 μg/dl, but this decreased to approximately one-third and one-half of these values during fasting and 8 h after LPS challenge, respectively. Plasma RBP4 and retinol levels in cows 3–6 d before parturition were comparable to those of the controls. However, on the day of parturition both were significantly decreased and had returned to basal levels by two weeks after calving. Interestingly, RBP4 was clearly detected in colostrum (16·4±5·6 μg/ml) but was only faintly detected in milk from cows at 7 d and 15 d after calving. Retinol concentrations in colostrum were almost 10-fold higher than those in plasma, while those in milk were comparable to those in plasma. These results suggest that RBP4 and retinol levels are independently regulated under physiological and pathophysiological conditions and that RBP4, like retinol, is transferred from maternal stores to calves through colostrum.
This paper summarizes research activities in National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) for evaluation of the radiation effects on selected terrestrial and aquatic organisms as well as the ecosystems. Seven organisms, conifers, fungi, earthworms, springtails, algae, daphnia and Medaka are presently selected to study. For the estimation of possible radiation dose, transfers of radionuclides and related elements from medium to organisms are evaluated. Dose-effect relationships of acute gamma radiation on the survival, growth, and reproduction of selected organisms have been studied. Studies on the effect of chronic gamma radiation at low dose rate were also started. In order to understand the mechanism of radiation effects and to find possible indicators of the effects, information of genome- and metagenome-wide gene expression has been collected. Evaluation of ecological effects of radiation is more challenging task. Study methods by using three-species microcosm were established, and an index for the holistic evaluation of effects on various ecological parameters was proposed. The microcosm has been simulated as a computer simulation code. Developments of more complicated and practical model ecosystems have been started. The Denaturant Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) has been applied on soil bacterial community in order to evaluate the radiation effects on soil ecosystems.
We have performed supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy or with cricohyoidopexy for tumour (T) stage T2 and T3 laryngeal cancer cases and some T4 cases. We report the clinical symptoms and management, using this technique to avoid complications.
Among patients undergoing the procedure, two cases manifested laryngeal chondritis following laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy. This complication was caused by C3–4 cervical osteophytes physically contacting the cricoid cartilage. Laryngeal microlaryngoscopy was performed, which revealed white, necrotic tissue in the posterior wall of the pharynx and persistent oedema of the neoglottis.
When encountering a patient with an excessive osteophyte formation at the level of C3–4, one needs to take extra precautions when undertaking laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy or with cricohyoidopexy.
Fatigue fracture under cyclic loading of single crystal silicon (SCS) is concerned and fatigue properties and mechanism are investigated widely. Surface oxide is considered to have an important role on fatigue fractures. In this paper, the tensile testing of SCS whose surface was intentionally oxidized and the effect of the oxide thickness on the mechanical properties were reported. After fabrication of SCS specimens, they were oxidized in dry oxidization at 1100 ºC. Quasi-static tensile testing of SCS specimens with no, 100-nm-oxide, and 200-nm-oxide thick oxide was performed. As the results, the deviation in fracture strain was decreased by oxidation, and the fracture origin was observed to be the inner silicon part. These results might be caused by the decrease of surface roughness and defects formation by oxygen precipitation during thermal oxidation.
Two patients who received supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy to treat laryngeal cancers, underwent intra-operative electromyography analysis. After the lesion was removed and the electrodes were inserted into the remaining intrinsic laryngeal muscles, the depth of anaesthesia was carefully reduced. Gentle tactile stimulations were applied to the pharynx to trigger the reflex movement of the remaining arytenoids. Recordings were made when reflex movement was achieved.
Case one: Electromyography (EMG) of the remaining arytenoid demonstrated clear phase differences indicating reciprocal activities between the adductor group (lateral cricoarytenoid muscle, interarytenoid muscle) and the abductor muscle (posterior cricoarytenoid muscle). Case two: EMG of the remaining arytenoid demonstrated reciprocal activities between the interarytenoid muscle and the posterior cricoarytenoid muscle. Activity of the lateral cricoarytenoid muscle was not evident because the muscle was excised during removal of the paraglottic space. Mobility of the arytenoid was attributed to interaction between the interarytenoid muscle and posterior cricoarytenoid muscle. Reciprocal interaction between the interarytenoid muscle and posterior cricoarytenoid muscle alone is also capable of maintaining post-operative laryngeal functions after supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy.
Mathematical computer model is developed to simulate the population dynamics and dynamic mass budgets of the microbial community realized as a self sustainable aquatic ecological system in the tube. Autotroph algae, heterotroph protozoa and saprotroph bacteria live symbiotically with interspecies' interactions as predator-prey relationship, competition for the common resource, autolysis of detritus and detritus-grazing food chain, etc. The simulation model is the individual-based parallel model, built in the demographic stochasticity, environmental stochasticity by dividing the aquatic environment into patches.
Validity of the model is checked by the multifaceted data of the microcosm experiments. In the analysis, intrinsic parameters of umbrella endpoint regarding to lethality are manipulated at the individual level, and tried to find the population level, community level especially focused on predator-prey relationship, and revealed the indirect effect of chronic exposure of radiation on the probability of Tetrahymena's extinction.
The prospect of lattice structure and ferroelectricity of SnTiO3 have been studied by first-principles calculations within local density approximation. The results showed that the SnTiO3 has the minimum total energy within almost tetragonal perovskite structure of a=b=3.80 Å, c=4.09 Å. The calculated electronic structure of SnTiO3 resembles that of PbTiO3 because the Ti 3d states, Sn 5s and 5p states hybridize with the O 2p orbitals. The moment of spontaneous polarization of SnTiO3 was estimated as 73 μ C/cm2, which is as large as that of PbTiO3.
Carbon nanocage structures with Ge and SiC nanoparticles were synthesized by direct current and radio frequency (dc-rf) hybrid arc discharge of C, Ge, and Si elements. High-resolution images showed the formation of Ge and SiC nanoparticles and nanowires encapsulated in carbon nanocapsules and nanotubes. The growth direction of the Ge nanowires was found to be 〈111〉 of Ge, and a structure model for Ge/C interface was proposed. The present work indicates that the various carbon nanostructures with semiconductor nanoparticles and nanowires can be synthesized by the dc-rf hybrid arc-discharge method.
An energy loss of 240 MeV argon ions in a Z-pinch
helium plasma has been for the first time observed throughout
the entire pinching process. Standard Stark broadening
analysis gives an electron density ranging from 4 to 6
× 1017 cm−3 during the
pinch. To deduce stopping power from the energy loss, the
target thickness of the helium plasma has been evaluated
assuming the mean charge of helium based on thermal equilibrium.
The observed electron density and the mean charge of helium
give a target thickness of 30 ± 3 μg cm−2
from 1 μs to 1.8 μs after the discharge ignition.
The measured stopping power exceeds a tabulated value for
cold helium gas by a factor of 2 to 3 around the time of
the first pinch. The experimental stopping power is compared
with theoretical values calculated using an equation of
stopping power for a partially ionized plasma.
The beneficial effects of a traditional Chinese medicine, Cordyceps sinensis (Cs), on mice with hypoferric anaemia were evaluated by NMR spectroscopy. Experimental hypoferric anaemia was induced in mice by feeding with an Fe-free diet for 6 weeks. They were then given extract from cultured Cs (200 mg/kg body weight daily, orally) and were placed on an Fe-containing recovery diet (35 mg Fe/kg diet) for 4 weeks. In vivo31P and 2H NMR spectra acquired noninvasively and quantitatively at weekly intervals were used to evaluate hepatic energy metabolism and blood flow in the mice. During the 4-week Cs-extract treatment, consistent increases were observed in liver β-ATP: inorganic phosphate value by liver 31P NMR spectroscopy, representing the high energy state, and in blood-flow rate as determined by 2H NMR spectroscopy of deuterated water (D2O) uptake after intravenous injection of D2O. The haematological variables (the packed cell volume and the haemoglobin level) and the hepatic intracellular pH, which was determined from the NMR chemical shift difference between the inorganic phosphate peak and the α-phosphate peak of ATP, were not significantly different between Cs-extract-treated and control mice. As blood flow and energy metabolism are thought to be linked, the Cs-extract-increased hepatic energy metabolism in the dietary hypoferric anaemic mice was concluded to be due to increased hepatic blood flow.
The present determination of the absolute magnitude .Mv(RR) of RR Lyrae stars is twofold, relying upon Hipparcos proper motions and trigonometric parallaxes separately. First, applying the statistical parallax method to the proper motions, we find < Mv(RR)>= 0.69 ± 0.10 for 99 halo RR Lyraes with <[Fe/H]> = -1.58. Second, applying the Lutz-Kelker correction to the RR Lyrae HIP95497 with the most accurately measured parallax, we obtain Mv(RR) = 0.57-0.74 at [Fe/H]=-1.6. Furthermore, allowing full use of low accuracy and negative parallaxes as well for 125 RR Lyraes with - 2.49≤[Fe/H]≤0.07, the maximum likelihood estimation yields the relation, Mv(RR)= (0.59±0.37)+(0.20±0.63)([Fe/H]+1.60), which formally agrees with the recent preferred relation. The same estimation yields again My (RR) = 0.65 ± 0.33 for the 99 halo RR Lyraes. Although the formal errors in the latter two estimates are rather large, all of the four results suggest the fainter absolute magnitude, My(RR)=0.6-0.7 at [Fe/H]=-1.6. The present results still provide the lower limit on the age of the universe which is inconsistent with a fiat, matter-dominated universe and current estimates of the Hubble constant.
A finite group G is efficient if it has a presentation on n generators and n + m relations, where m is the minimal number of generators of the Schur multiplier M (G)of G. The deficiency of a presentation of G is r–n, where r is the number of relations and n the number of generators. The deficiency of G, def G, is the minimum deficiency over all finite presentations of G. Thus a group is efficient if def G = m. Both the problem of efficiency and the converse problem of inefficiency have received considerable attention recently; see for example , ,  and .
We studied the characteristics of deep-level traps in p-type HgCdTe diodes using the Deep Level Transient Fourier Spectroscopy (DLTFS) method. For both holes and electrons, two types of traps were observed. The DLTFS signal intensity of one type of trap increased with the carrier density in the HgCdTe, while the other did not exhibit a monotonic increase. While measuring the stability of these traps during cooling cycles, the DLTFS signal intensity of the first group was almost constant while that of the latter fluctuated with every cooling cycle. Stable traps originated from Hg vacancies, unstable traps are attributed to vacancy-impurity complex defects.