To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
In recent years, the theory of Borel summability or multisummability of divergent power series of one variable has been established and it has been proved that every formal solution of an ordinary differential equation with irregular singular point is multisummable. For partial differential equations the summability problem for divergent solutions has not been studied so well, and in this paper we shall try to develop the Borel summability of divergent solutions of the Cauchy problem of the complex heat equation, since the heat equation is a typical and an important equation where we meet diveregent solutions. In conclusion, the Borel summability of a formal solution is characterized by an analytic continuation property together with its growth condition of Cauchy data to infinity along a stripe domain, and the Borel sum is nothing but the solution given by the integral expression by the heat kernel. We also give new ways to get the heat kernel from the Borel sum by taking a special Cauchy data.
This study aimed to evaluate the incidence of cardiac disorders among children with mid-exertional syncope evaluated by a paediatric cardiologist, determine how often a diagnosis was not established, and define potential predictors to differentiate cardiac from non-cardiac causes.
We carried out a single-centre, retrospective review of children who presented for cardiac evaluation due to a history of exertional syncope between 1999 and 2012. Inclusion criteria included the following: (1) age ⩽18 years; (2) mid-exertional syncope; (3) electrocardiogram, echocardiogram and an exercise stress test, electrophysiology study, or tilt test, with exception of long QT, which did not require additional testing; and (4) evaluation by a paediatric cardiologist. Mid-exertional syncope was defined as loss of consciousness in the midst of active physical activity. Patients with peri-exertional syncope immediately surrounding but not during active physical exertion were excluded.
A total of 60 patients met the criteria for mid-exertional syncope; 32 (53%) were diagnosed with cardiac syncope and 28 with non-cardiac syncope. A majority of cardiac patients were diagnosed with an electrical myopathy, the most common being Long QT syndrome. In nearly half of the patients, a diagnosis could not be established or syncope was felt to be vasovagal in nature. Neither the type of exertional activity nor the symptoms or lack of symptoms occurring before, immediately preceding, and after the syncopal event differentiated those with or without a cardiac diagnosis.
Children with mid-exertional syncope are at risk for cardiac disease and warrant evaluation. Reported symptoms may not differentiate benign causes from life-threatening disease.
The stability of green phosphorescent OLEDs with different structures was evaluated through constant-current stressing. Through the modifications of the ITO anode by different plasma treatments and the hole transport layer (HTL) by incorporating inorganic dopants, we proved that energy level misalignment at the ITO/HTL interface leads to localized joule heating, accelerating defect generation and luminescence decay. Pulsed current stressing was then employed to suppress the joule-heating effect so as to differentiate the thermal and nonthermal factors governing the device degradation. For OLEDs with a large energy barrier at the ITO/HTL interface, the effective lifetime was markedly increased under pulsed operation, whereas in OLEDs with an appropriate interfacial energy level alignment, pulsed stressing with 10% duty cycle only improved the effective half life by ∼15% as compared to continuous-wave stressing, indicating a minor role played by joule heating.
Strontium titanate (SrTiO3) is a wide-band-gap semiconductor with a variety of novel properties. In this work, bulk single crystal SrTiO3 samples were heated to 1200°C, resulting in the creation of point defects. These thermally treated samples showed large persistent photoconductivity (PPC) at room temperature. Illumination with sub-gap light (>2.9 eV) caused an increase in free-electron concentration by over two orders of magnitude. After the light is turned off, the conductivity persists at room temperature, with essentially zero decay over several days. The results of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements suggest that a point defect is responsible for PPC because the photo-induced response of one of the EPR signals is similar to that seen for the PPC. Due to a large barrier for recapture, the photo-excited electron remains in the conduction band, where it contributes to the conductivity.
The physical mechanisms responsible for electrically-induced parametric degradation in GaN-based high electron mobility transistors are examined using a combination of experiments, device simulation, and first-principles defect analysis. A relatively simple formulation is developed under the assumption that the hot-electron scattering cross-section is independent of the electron energy. In this case, one can relate the change in defect concentration to the operational characteristics of a device, such as the spatial and energy distribution of electrons (electron temperature), electric field distribution, and electron energy loss to the lattice.
Introduction: Digoxin or propranolol are used as first-line enteral agents for treatment of infant supraventricular tachycardia. We used a large national database to determine whether enteral digoxin or propranolol was more effciacious as first-line infant supraventricular tachycardia therapy. Materials and Methods: The Pediatric Health Information System database was queried over 10 years for infants with supraventricular tachycardia initiated on enteral digoxin or propranolol monotherapy. Patients were excluded for Wolff–Parkinson–White, intravenous antiarrhythmics (other than adenosine), or death. Success was considered as discharge on the initiated monotherapy. Risk factors for successful monotherapy and risk factors for readmission for supraventricular tachycardia for patients discharged on monotherapy were determined. Results: A total of 374 patients (59.6% male) met the study criteria. Median length of stay was 7 days (interquartile range of 3–16 days). Patients had CHD (n=199, 53.2%) and underwent cardiac surgery (n=123, 32.9%), ICU admission (n=238, 63.6%), mechanical ventilation (n=146, 39.0%), and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (n=3, 0.8%). Pharmacotherapy initiation was at median 37 days of life (interquartile range of 12–127 days) and 47.3% were initiated on digoxin. Success was similar between digoxin (73.1%) and propranolol (73.5%). Initial therapy with digoxin was not associated with success (odds ratio 1.01, 95% CI 0.64–1.61, p=0.93). Multivariable analysis demonstrated hospital length of stay (odds ratio 0.98, 95% CI 0.98–1.00) and involvement of a paediatric cardiologist (odds ratio 0.46, 95% CI 0.29–0.75) associated with monotherapy failure, and male gender (odds ratio 1.66, 95% CI 1.03–2.67) associated with monotherapy success. No variables were significant for readmission on multivariable analysis. Discussion: Digoxin or propranolol may be equally efficacious for inpatient treatment of infant supraventricular tachycardia.
The crystallinity of a GaN epitaxial layer on a sapphire substrate after the mechanical ding process was estimated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Raman spectroscopic analysis. TEM observation results showed that, the screw dislocations as a threading dislocation were induced by the mechanical dicing process in the limited area up to approximately 1.2 μm from the dicing-line. On the other hand, the crystal strains were up to approximately 7 μm from the dicing-line edge measured by the Raman spectroscopic analysis. The distance difference between the area of the screw dislocations and of the residual strain is caused by the stress relaxation.
The effect of numerous plasma reative ion etch and physical milling processes on the electrical behavior of GaAs bulk substrates has been investigated by means of electric microwave absorption. It was seen that plasma treatments at quite low energies may significantly affect the electrical quality of the etched semiconductor. Predominantly physical plasma etchants (Ar) were seen to create significant damage at very low energies. Chemical processes (involving Cl or F), while somewhat less pernicious, also gave rise to electrical substrate damage, the effect greater for hydrogenic ambients. Whereas rapid thermal anneal treatments tend to worsen the electrical integrity, some substrates respond positively to long-time high temperature anneal steps.
The dominant factors governing reactive ion etching of Si, SiO, and SiO2 thin films during bombardment with energetic Ar ions in a Cl atmosphere were investigated. Etch rates were determined in-situ by measuring weight loss as a function of ion fluence for films deposited on a quartz micro-balance. Measurements were made as a function of ion energy and Cl pressure using a Kaufman gun for ion energies from 300 to 1500 eV and an electron cyclotron resonance microwave ion source for ion energies from 50 to 600 eV and for Cl pressures ranging from 0.006 to 0.05 Pa. Results were compared to sputtering in Ar alone. The results indicated that the presence of the C1 enhanced the etch rate for all three materials, with the degree of enhancement being inversely proportional to the oxygen content of the film. It was also discovered that there was an optimum pressure for enhancement of the etching and that at the highest pressures, the etching could actually be suppressed. These results are discussed in terms of physisorbed gas layers, the thickness of which depends on the balance between the flux of energetic particles and the gas flux.
Ferroelectric oxide films have been studied for their potential application as integrated optical materials and nonvolatile memories. Electro-optic properties of potassium niobate (KNbO3) thin films have been measured and the results correlated to the microstructures observed. The growth parameters necessary to obtain single phase perovskite lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin films are discussed. Hysteresis and fatigue measurements of the PZT films were performed to determine their characteristics for potential memory devices.
The short time ion bombardment during ion milling resulted in a dramatic change in the surface composition of alpha-brass, selectively removing up to 2/3 of the Zn atoms during the first 5 to 10 minutes of ion milling. This differential sputtering occurred at various ion beam energies and at target temperatures as low as −196°C (LN2 temperature). The effect of differential sputtering completely disappeared after ion milling times in excess of three hours. Such a dramatic change in composition could not be attributed either to a difference in sputtering yield or to different ion milling conditions. It was shown that under constant ion milling conditions this differential sputtering depends strongly and only on the condition of the foil surface. The unexpected disappearance of the effect of differential sputtering with time was attributed to stabilization of a characteristic surface topography produced by long time ion bombardment.
Epitaxially grown films of Bi4Ti3O12 (BIT) were prepared on the substrate of a sapphire single crystal heated at 650°C using a sintered Bi4Ti3O12 target by electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) plasma sputtering. The BIT film of the same composition with the target was obtained under the conditions of microwave power(Mp) higher than 500 W and RF power(Rp) between 300 to 700 W. Increasing Mp or Rp, the deposition rate of the film was increased and the surface of the film became rough. The film exhibiting flat surface, good crystalline orientation and stoichiometric composition was prepared at such the high rate as 3.5 Å/sec under the conditions of Mp=500W and Rp=500W. Dielectric constants(1KHz) of the films deposited on (1120), (1102) and (0001) of sapphire were 93, 121 and 90, respectively, and refractive indexes of each films for the wave length of 632 nm were 2.32, 2.38 and 2.37, respectively.
Silicon dioxide (SiO2) films were fabricated by microwave ECR plasma processing. Two groups of films were fabricated; group A with the substrates placed in a position directly facing the plasma so that the substrates as well as the on-growing films were subjected to bombardment of energetic particles produced in the plasma, and group B with the substrates placed in a processing chamber physically separated from the plasma chamber in order to prevent or suppress the damaging effects resulting from these energetic particle bombardment. The systems used for fabricating these two different groups of samples are described. The films were deposited at various deposition temperatures. On the basis of the deposition rate as a function of deposition temperature the film growth for group A samples is due mainly to mass-limited reaction, and that for group B samples is due to surface rate limited reaction. The stoichiometric level for group A does not change with deposition temperature though the films density increases with increasing deposition temperature. However, group B samples exhibit an off-stoichiometric property but they become highly stoichiometric as the deposition temperature is increased beyond 200 °C
This paper addresses the fundamental aspects of etching semiconductors with inert gas beams in the presence of a suitable precursor gas. In particular, the changes that an energetic bombarding ion/neutral species cause to the surface and sub-surface region of a solid are considered, both in terms of the introduction of damage to the semiconductor and chemical processes that are provoked in the adsorbed states present. The implications for practical etching reactions are then discussed.
We present experiments and a theoretical model for the energy loss distribution of specularly reflected particles after slow (2-5 keV) He ions have been impinging on a Ni(110) surface under grazing incidence. The energy spectra of the backscattered particles are asymmetric with the low-energy tail falling off more slowly than the high-energy tail does.
This asymmetry is accounted for by considering charge exchange events during the interaction with the surface. The main neutralization channel for this system is the Auger-neutralization from the conduction band into the He-1s ground state. The transition rate for this process was calculated from first principles. Assuming that the ‘friction coefficient’ for the system particle-surface depends on the charge state of the particle, we calculate the energy lost by a particle during the interaction as a sum of different contributions belonging to different charge states.
A multiprojectile version of TRIDYN has been employed to simulate ion-induced effects which occur during ion-beam assisted deposition (IBAD) or plasma-assisted chemical vapour deposition (PECVD) of thin films.
Simulations of the formation of boron nitride films deposited from evaporated boron and energetic nitrogen show an excellent agreement with experimental results for nitrogen concentrations below the stoichiometric limit. For high N/B flux ratios, non-collisional mechanisms (ion-induced outdiffusion, surface trapping of outdiffusing nitrogen) have been included in the simulations, again producing good agreement with the experimental results.
Simulations of the PECVD of hydrocarbon films suffer from the poor knowledge of the neutral and ionic fluxes which contribute to the growth of the layers. Nevertheless, the composition of the films and its dependence on ion energy can be predicted with satisfactory agreement with experimental findings. A simple model of preferential displacement yields a reasonable average ratio of sp2 and sp3 coordinated carbon atoms. The energy dependence of the bond ratio is in contradiction to experimental observation.
The growth of synthetic diamond thin films is studied by molecular dynamics computer simulations of low energy carbon atom deposition onto a low temperature diamond (111) surface. A previously reported Stillinger Weber potential, reparameterised for sp3 bonding in carbon using Hartree-Fock calculations for small carbon clusters, is used to model the interatomic interactions. The penetration of 1-100eV neutral carbon atoms into a (111) surface of carbon at 100K and the resultant surface atom rearrangements and induced film stress are studied. For intermediate energies (20-60eV) the incident atoms penetrate beneath the exposed (111) surface and increase the lateral compressive stress in the diamond film. It is suggested that diamond films grow from below the exposed surface in a region of locally high stress and tetrahedral coordination. The predicted radial distribution functions agree reasonably with electron diffraction studies of vacuum arc deposited amorphous diamond.
YBa2Cu3O7 filaments produced from a soluble molecular precursor were reacted using low pressure oxygen heat treatments with and without an applied plasma. Filaments reacted at temperatures between 750 and 800°C with the aid of an oxygen plasma were found to have higher transition temperatures than those reacted under similar conditions without a plasma. The highest zero resistance critical temperature, Tc(0) = 91.6 K, was obtained from a filament reacted in a 0.2 Torr oxygen plasma at 800°C. At the lowest reaction plasma temperature of 700°C a Tc(0) of 88.0 K was observed. X-ray diffraction revealed that filaments reacted at an oxygen pressure of 1 atm were nearly tetragonal while those reacted at 0.2 Torr, with or without a plasma, were quite orthorhombic.
We describe here a novel technique for surface modification in which a metal plasma is employed and by which various blends of plasma deposition and ion implantation can be obtained. The new technique is a variation of the plasma immersion technique described by Conrad and co-workers. When a substrate is immersed in a metal plasma, the plasma that condenses on the substrate remains there as a film, and when the substrate is then implanted, qualitatively different processes can follow, including ‘conventional’ high energy ion implantation, recoil implantation, ion beam mixing, ion beam assisted deposition, and metallic thin film and multilayer fabrication with or without species mixing. Multiple metal plasma guns can be used with different metal ion species, films can be bonded to the substrate through ion beam mixing at the interface, and multilayer structures can be tailored with graded or abrupt interfaces. We have fabricated several different kinds of modified surface layers in this way.