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The ‘Portus Project’ investigates the social and economic contexts of the maritime port of Imperial Rome. This article presents the results of analysis of plant, animal and human remains from the site, and evaluates their significance for the reconstruction of the diets and geographic origins of its inhabitants between the second and sixth centuries AD. Integrating this evidence with other material from the recent excavations, including ceramic data, the authors identify clear diachronic shifts in imported foods and diet that relate to the commercial and political changes following the breakdown of Roman control of the Mediterranean.
Background: Perinatal mental health difficulties are highly prevalent. In England, the Improving Access to Psychological Therapy (IAPT) programme provides evidence-based psychological treatment, predominantly in the form of brief manualized cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), to people with mild to moderate depression or anxiety. Yet little is known about the experiences of women referred to IAPT with perinatal mental health difficulties. Aims: The aim of this qualitative study was to investigate how women view IAPT support for perinatal mental health. We also gained the perspective of IAPT therapists. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twelve women who had been referred to and/or received therapy from IAPT during the perinatal period. Additionally, fourteen IAPT therapists participated in two focus groups. Thematic analysis was used. Results: Key themes centred on barriers to access and the need to tailor support to (expectant) mothers. Women and therapists suggested that experiences could be improved by supporting healthcare professionals to provide women with more help with referrals, better tailoring support to the perinatal context, improving perinatal-specific training, supervision and resources, and offering a more individualized treatment environment. Conclusions: Overall, women reported positive experiences of support offered by IAPT for perinatal mental health difficulties. However, services should seek to facilitate access to support and to enable therapists to better tailor treatment.
Seabird populations breeding in the UK Overseas Territories remain relatively understudied compared to UK seabird populations, despite their international importance. Here we present results from one of the first seabird tracking studies in the Caribbean region, of Brown Boobies Sula leucogaster breeding on the Important Bird Area (IBA) of Dog Island, Anguilla. Birds were tracked for 5–7 days during the chick-rearing period using GPS data loggers. We assess how representative the at-sea areas of use (utilisation distributions) identified from our sample of 16 birds are likely to be of those of the whole breeding colony, and examined the effect that grid cell size used in the ‘time-in-area’ analytical approach has on these predictions. We also assess the effectiveness of the BirdLife International’s seaward extension approach to marine IBA designation, where terrestrial IBAs are buffered a set distance using existing information on the foraging radii of the same or similar breeding species. Foraging trips were 125.3 ± 54.4 (SD) km long and lasted for 5.6 ± 1.95 hrs on average. Birds travelled into the waters of four neighbouring territories; Saint Martin, Saba, Saint Eustatius and Saint Barthelemy. Our models suggest that many more individuals would need to be tracked to fully identify important at-sea areas for this colony, although this depends on the scale that important areas are defined. Whilst a smaller grid cell size may be necessary for assessing fine-scale habitat use, a larger grid cell size may be more appropriate for marine spatial planning processes. Although the BirdLife Seaward extension approach using maximum foraging distance recorded from Brown Boobies at a Mexican colony predicted a smaller foraging area than that used by Dog Island birds this approach still incorporated at least 99% of their 50% UD, 98% of their 75% UD and 86% of the 95% UD.
Completion of treatment is key to tuberculosis control. Using national surveillance data we assessed factors associated with tuberculosis patients being lost to follow-up before completing treatment (‘lost’). Patients reported in England, Wales and Northern Ireland between 2001 and 2007 who were lost 12 months after beginning treatment were compared to those who completed, or were still on treatment, using univariable and multivariable logistic regression. Of 41 120 patients, men [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1·29; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·23–1·35], 15- to 44-year-olds (P<0·001), and patients with pulmonary sputum smear-positive disease (aOR 1·25, 95% CI 1·12–1·45) were at higher risk of being lost. Those recently arrived in the UK were also at increased risk, particularly those of the White ethnic group (aOR 6·39, 95% CI 4·46–9·14). Finally, lost patients had a higher risk of drug resistance (aOR 1·41, 95% CI 1·17–1·69). Patients at risk of being lost require enhanced case management and novel case retention methods are needed to prevent this group contributing towards onward transmission.
Cardiac fibroblasts are the most numerous cells in the heart and are
critical in the formation and normal functioning of the organ. Cardiac
fibroblasts are firmly attached to and surrounded by extracellular matrix
(ECM). Mechanical forces transmitted through interaction with the ECM can
result in changes of overall cellular shape, cytoskeletal organization,
proliferation, and gene expression of cardiac fibroblasts. These responses
may be different in the normally functioning heart, when compared with
various pathological conditions, including inflammation or hypertrophy. It
is apparent that cellular phenotype and physiology, in turn, are affected
by multiple signal transduction pathways modulated directly by the state
of polymerization of the actin cytoskeleton. Morphological changes in
actin organization resulting from response to adverse conditions in
fibroblasts and other cell types are basically descriptive. Some studies
have approached quantifying changes in actin cytoskeletal morphology, but
these have involved complex and difficult procedures. In this study, we
apply image analysis and non-Euclidian geometrical fractal analysis to
quantify and describe changes induced in the actin cytoskeleton of cardiac
fibroblasts responding to mechanical stress. Characterization of these
rapid responses of fibroblasts to mechanical stress may provide insight
into the regulation of fibroblasts behavior and gene expression during
heart development and disease.
In 1997 a new collaborative research project was initiated by the British School at Rome. This project draws on a variety of sources of archaeological information to explore the regional impact of the City of Rome throughout the period from 1000 BC to AD 1300. The project provides a common collaborative research framework which brings together a range of archaeologists and historians working in various institutions. In this paper those involved in different aspects of this new project outline their work and its overall objectives.
Excavations at two sites in Gwynedd have produced new evidence for highland zone rural settlement during the Romano-British period. At Bryn Eryr this activity was the culmination of a long sequence of development during the Iron Age. At Bush Farm, similarly, a Romano-British phase succeeded earlier, probably late prehistoric occupation of the site. At both locations significant structural changes took place during the Romano-British period as small stone-walled houses replaced larger, clay-walled buildings. Changes in the local farming economy have been identified and the proximity of the vicus at Segontium provided access to Roman pottery vessels. The quality and range of pottery from Bryn Eryr and Bush Farm are considerable in comparison with other ‘Highland Zone’ settlements and the material is discussed in detail.
No accurate survey of a flint mine exists. It is planned to carry out such a survey at Grime's Graves over a period of several years. Its purpose is to study the growth of the flint-mine complex, the evaluation of mining techniques and ancillary industries, and trade relations; and to discover settlement sites related to the industrial complex. Preliminary field work was carried out in the summer of 1972. This included geophysical and chemical surveys, ground surveys, and aerial photography. Excavations were undertaken to test the results of the scientific surveys. A detailed contour map of the site was prepared by photogrammetry.
Political science is a basic discipline in the social sciences. Although it must necessarily maintain close scholarly association with the disciplines of history, economics, sociology, anthropology, geography, and social psychology, political science cannot be considered a part of any of these other social sciences. Political science has its own area of human experience to analyze, its own body of descriptive and factual data to gather, its own conceptual schemes to formulate and test for truth.
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