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Nipah virus (NiV) outbreak occurred in Kozhikode district, Kerala, India in 2018 with a case fatality rate of 91% (21/23). In 2019, a single case with full recovery occurred in Ernakulam district. We described the response and control measures by the Indian Council of Medical Research and Kerala State Government for the 2019 NiV outbreak. The establishment of Point of Care assays and monoclonal antibodies administration facility for early diagnosis, response and treatment, intensified contact tracing activities, bio-risk management and hospital infection control training of healthcare workers contributed to effective control and containment of NiV outbreak in Ernakulam.
Although the science of team science is no longer a new field, the measurement of team science and its standardization remain in relatively early stages of development. To describe the current state of team science assessment, we conducted an integrative review of measures of research collaboration quality and outcomes.
Collaboration measures were identified using both a literature review based on specific keywords and an environmental scan. Raters abstracted details about the measures using a standard tool. Measures related to collaborations with clinical care, education, and program delivery were excluded from this review.
We identified 44 measures of research collaboration quality, which included 35 measures with reliability and some form of statistical validity reported. Most scales focused on group dynamics. We identified 89 measures of research collaboration outcomes; 16 had reliability and 15 had a validity statistic. Outcome measures often only included simple counts of products; publications rarely defined how counts were delimited, obtained, or assessed for reliability. Most measures were tested in only one venue.
Although models of collaboration have been developed, in general, strong, reliable, and valid measurements of such collaborations have not been conducted or accepted into practice. This limitation makes it difficult to compare the characteristics and impacts of research teams across studies or to identify the most important areas for intervention. To advance the science of team science, we provide recommendations regarding the development and psychometric testing of measures of collaboration quality and outcomes that can be replicated and broadly applied across studies.
Impaired illness awareness or insight into illness (IIA) is a common feature of schizophrenia that contributes to medication nonadherence and poor clinical outcomes. Neuroimaging studies suggest IIA may arise from interhemispheric imbalance in frontoparietal regions, particularly in the posterior parietal area (PPA) and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC). In this pilot study, we examined the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) on brain regions implicated in IIA.
Eleven patients with schizophrenia with IIA (≥3 PANSS G12) and 10 healthy controls were included. A crossover design was employed where all participants received single-session bi-frontal, bi-parietal, and sham stimulation in random order. For each condition, we measured (i) blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response to an illness awareness task pre- and post-stimulation, (ii) regional cerebral blood-flow (rCBF) prior to and during stimulation, and (iii) changes in illness awareness.
At baseline, patients with schizophrenia showed higher BOLD-response to an illness awareness task in the left-PPA compared to healthy controls. Bi-parietal stimulation reduced the interhemispheric imbalance in the PPA compared to sham stimulation. Relatedly, bi-parietal stimulation increased rCBF beneath the anode (21% increase in the right-PPA), but not beneath the cathode (5.6% increase in the left-PPA). Bi-frontal stimulation did not induce changes in rCBF. We found no changes in illness awareness.
Although single-session tDCS did not improve illness awareness, this pilot study provides mechanistic justification for future investigations to determine if multi-session bi-parietal tDCS can induce sustained changes in brain activity in the PPA in association with improved illness awareness.
In this brief report, computed tomography perfusion (CTP) thresholds predicting follow-up infarction in patients presenting <3 hours from stroke onset and achieving ultra-early reperfusion (<45 minutes from CTP) are reported. CTP thresholds that predict follow-up infarction vary based on time to reperfusion: Tmax >20 to 23 seconds and cerebral blood flow <5 to 7 ml/min−1/(100 g)−1 or relative cerebral blood flow <0.14 to 0.20 optimally predicted the final infarct. These thresholds are stricter than published thresholds.
In the Western world, a significant portion of college students have gambled. College gamblers have one of the highest rates of problem gambling. To date, there have been no studies on gambling participation or the rates of problem gambling in India.
This study evaluated the prevalence of gambling participation and problem gambling in college students in India. It also evaluated demographic and psychosocial correlates of gambling in that population.
We surveyed 5784 college students from 58 colleges in the district of Ernakulam, Kerala, India, using cluster random sampling. Students completed questionnaires that addressed gambling, substance use, psychological distress, suicidality and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).
A total of 5580 completed questionnaires were returned, and while only 1090 (19.5%) college students reported having ever gambled, 415 (7.4%) reported problem gambling. Lotteries were the most popular form of gambling. Problem gamblers in comparison with non-gamblers were significantly more likely to be male, have a part-time job, greater academic failures, higher substance use, higher psychological distress scores, higher suicidality and higher ADHD symptom scores. In comparison with non-problem gamblers, problem gamblers were significantly more likely to have greater academic failures, higher psychological distress scores, higher suicidality and higher ADHD symptom scores.
This study, the first to look at the prevalence of gambling in India, found relatively low rates of gambling participation in college students but high rates of problem gambling among those who did gamble. Correlates of gambling were generally similar to those noted in other countries. Since 38% of college students who had gambled had a gambling problem, there is a need for immediate public health measures to raise awareness about gambling, and to prevent and treat problem gambling in this population.
A controversy at the 2016 IUCN World Conservation Congress on the topic of closing domestic ivory markets (the 007, or so-called James Bond, motion) has given rise to a debate on IUCN's value proposition. A cross-section of authors who are engaged in IUCN but not employed by the organization, and with diverse perspectives and opinions, here argue for the importance of safeguarding and strengthening the unique technical and convening roles of IUCN, providing examples of what has and has not worked. Recommendations for protecting and enhancing IUCN's contribution to global conservation debates and policy formulation are given.
Purpose: We measured anterior cerebral artery (ACA)-middle cerebral artery (MCA) and posterior cerebral artery (PCA)-MCA pial filling on single-phase computed tomography angiograms (sCTAs) in acute ischemic stroke and correlate with the CTA-based Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) and digital subtraction angiography (DSA)-based American Society of Interventional and Therapeutic Neuroradiology (ASITN) score. Methods: Patients with acute stroke and M1 MCA±intracranial internal carotid artery occlusion on baseline CTA were included. Baseline sCTA was assessed for phase of image acquisition. An evaluator assessed collaterals using the Calgary Collateral (CC) Score (measures pial arterial filling in ACA-MCA and PCA-MCA regions separately), the CTA-based MGH score, and on DSA using the ASITN score. Infarct volumes were measured on 24- to 48-hour magnetic resonance imaging/ computed tomography. Results: Of 106 patients, baseline sCTA was acquired in early arterial phase in 9.9%, peak arterial in 50.7%, equilibrium in 32.4%, early venous in 5.6%, and late venous in 1.4%. Variance in ACA-MCA collaterals explained only 32% of variance in PCA-MCA collaterals on the CC score (Spearman’s correlation coefficient rho [rho]=0.56). Correlation between ACA-MCA collaterals and the MGH score was strong (rho=0.8); correlation between PCA-MCA collaterals and this score was modest (rho=0.54). Correlation between ACA-MCA collaterals and the ASITN score was modest (n=53, rho=0.43); and correlation between PCA-MCA collaterals and ASITN score was poor (rho=0.33). Of the CTA-based scores, the CC Score (Akaike [AIC] 1022) was better at predicting follow-up infarct volumes than was the MGH score (AIC 1029). Conclusion: Collateral assessments in acute ischemic stroke are best done using CTA with temporal resolution and by assessing regional variability. ACA-MCA and MCA-PCA collaterals should be evaluated separately.
Background: MRI criteria are used to support multiple sclerosis diagnosis and evolution. However, normal age-related lesions (ARLs) can be cofounded with MS white matter lesion (MSL). Methods: Two Multiparametric 7T MRI scans 4 motnhs apart from 5 relapsing MS (RMS) patients were analyzed and compared to 5 matched healthy controls (HC) aiming to differentiate MSLs from ARLs. Six-echo GRE, FLAIR and MPRAGE sequences were acquired. Results: Average size of ARLs was 51 mm3 and of MSLs was 69 mm3 (p=0.27). Both have the same general appearance on FLAIR and MPRAGE contrasts, but different contrast on the R2* and QS maps. Inter-visit variation on MPRAGE was significantly higher in MSLs. Inter-visit signal change in the other contrasts (QSM, R2* and FLAIR) was not significant. Conclusions: R2*, QS maps and inter-visit variation using MPRAGE allowed differentiating MSLs from ARLs in 5 RMS with mean long term disease duration. This could improve correct early diagnosis and accurate lesion load accumulation evolution.
On the outskirts of Chennai, land is increasingly being converted from the agricultural to the non-agricultural, a process that is often mediated by land sales. This phenomenon confirms recent findings that agricultural land markets are active and that institutional constraints on the sale of agricultural lands are less of an impediment than they were twenty years ago. So how do these land markets function and what are the implications of such markets for agriculture? There are two broadly divergent views about agricultural land markets. The first sees agricultural markets as a way to improve efficiency of agriculture. The second situates such markets in wider processes of development and capital accumulation and often associates it with land grabbing both within and outside of agriculture. We argue that while the activation of agricultural land markets is the result of particular priorities of development, there is a need for a more regionally grounded conceptual and empirical analysis that discloses how state policies impact land markets, what the micro-politics of land sales entail and how such land transactions affect different categories of farmers. By doing so, we also hope to interrogate the over-simplistic use of the tag land grab that often conceals more than it reveals.
Our discussion takes place in the context of Tamil Nadu's socio-economic development over the last two decades which has been characterized by two important features. First, the economy has witnessed a higher overall growth rate than that of the country as a whole. Coupled with declining rates in fertility and advances in public access to education and healthcare, this growth has been accompanied by higher per capita incomes and improvements in human development (Dreze and Sen, 2013; Kalaiyarasan, 2014). Second, despite having witnessed high levels of both economic growth and social development, the agricultural sector has been stagnant with one of the lowest rates of growth of output in the country and a decline in the gross cropped area (Bhalla and Singh, 2009). While declining returns to agriculture and the accompanying crisis has been an all-India phenomenon, it has been more acute in Tamil Nadu (Vijayabaskar, 2010). Moreover, despite relatively high growth rates in certain sub-sectors of agriculture in the recent past agricultural income, as well as returns from farming, have declined.
Catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs) are among the most common hospital-acquired infections (HAIs). Reducing CAUTI rates has become a major focus of attention due to increasing public health concerns and reimbursement implications.
To implement and describe a multifaceted intervention to decrease CAUTIs in our ICUs with an emphasis on indications for obtaining a urine culture.
A project team composed of all critical care disciplines was assembled to address an institutional goal of decreasing CAUTIs. Interventions implemented between year 1 and year 2 included protocols recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention for placement, maintenance, and removal of catheters. Leaders from all critical care disciplines agreed to align routine culturing practice with American College of Critical Care Medicine (ACCCM) and Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) guidelines for evaluating a fever in a critically ill patient. Surveillance data for CAUTI and hospital-acquired bloodstream infection (HABSI) were recorded prospectively according to National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) protocols. Device utilization ratios (DURs), rates of CAUTI, HABSI, and urine cultures were calculated and compared.
The CAUTI rate decreased from 3.0 per 1,000 catheter days in 2013 to 1.9 in 2014. The DUR was 0.7 in 2013 and 0.68 in 2014. The HABSI rates per 1,000 patient days decreased from 2.8 in 2013 to 2.4 in 2014.
Effectively reducing ICU CAUTI rates requires a multifaceted and collaborative approach; stewardship of culturing was a key and safe component of our successful reduction efforts.
The StratEx program used a self-contained space suit and balloon system to loft pilot Alan Eustace to a record-breaking altitude and skydive from 135,897 feet (41,422 m). After releasing from the balloon and a stabilized freefall, the pilot safely landed using a parachute system based on a modified tandem parachute rig. A custom spacesuit provided life support using a similar system to NASA’s (National Aeronautics and Space Administration; Washington, DC USA) Extravehicular Mobility Unit. It also provided tracking, communications, and connection to the parachute system. A recovery support team, including at least two medical personnel and two spacesuit technicians, was charged with reaching the pilot within five minutes of touchdown to extract him from the suit and provide treatment for any injuries. The team had to track the flight at all times, be prepared to respond in case of premature release, and to operate in any terrain. Crew recovery operations were planned and tailored to anticipate outcomes during this novel event in a systematic fashion, through scenario and risk analysis, in order to minimize the probability and impact of injury. This analysis, detailed here, helped the team configure recovery assets, refine navigation and tracking systems, develop procedures, and conduct training. An extensive period of testing and practice culminated in three manned flights leading to a successful mission and setting the record for exit altitude, distance of fall with stabilizing device, and vertical speed with a stabilizing device. During this mission, recovery teams reached the landing spot within one minute, extracted the pilot, and confirmed that he was not injured. This strategy is presented as an approach to prehospital planning and care for improved safety during crew recovery in novel, extreme events.
AntonsenEL. Crew Recovery and Contingency Planning for a Manned Stratospheric Balloon Flight – the StratEx Program. Prehosp Disaster Med.2016;31(5):524–531.
We have theorized that clots with stasis are longer. We therefore explored the relationship between thrombus imaging characteristics on noncontrast computed tomography (NCCT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with clot length and pial collaterals on baseline computed tomography angiography (CTA).
Prospective study of acute ischemic stroke patients (2005-2009) from Keimyung University. Patients with known stroke symptom onset time, baseline CTA, MRI, and with M1-Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA)±intracranial internal carotid artery (ICA) occlusions were included. Clot length and pial collaterals were measured on baseline CTA.
A total of 104 patients (mean age 65.1±12.28 years, 56.7% male, median baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale 13) with intracranial ICA + MCA (n=50) or isolated M1-MCA (n=54) occlusions were included. Hyperdense sign on NCCT had a median clot length of 42.3 mm versus 29.5 mm when hyperdense negative (p=0.02). Clots showing blooming artifact on gradient recall echo MRI had a median length of 39.1 mm versus 24.5 mm without blooming (p=0.005). Patients with poor baseline collaterals on CTA had longer clots than those with intermediate/good collaterals (median clot length 49.4 mm vs 34.9 mm vs 20.5 mm respectively, p<0.001). In censored logistic regression modeling, clot length was an independent predictor of hyperdense sign (p=0.05) and of the presence of blooming artifact (p=0.006).
Clot length and baseline collateral status are independent predictors of clot hyperdensity on NCCT and blooming artifact on gradient recall echo. Longer clots are more likely to be hyperdense and to bloom more, probably because portions of these clots are freshly formed locally due to of stasis of blood around the original clot. This stasis could be because of poor collaterals and inefficient angio-architecture within the cerebral arterial tree.
To determine the prognostic value of laryngoscopy in predicting the recovery of unilateral vocal fold paralysis.
A prospective study was carried out of all patients with unilateral vocal fold paralysis without a progressive lesion or arytenoid dislocation.
Among the 66 candidates, 15 recovered. Patients with interarytenoid paralysis (p < 0.001) or posterolateral tilt of the arytenoid (p = 0.028) had less chance of recovery. Among 51 patients who did not recover, 25.49 per cent regained phonatory function by compensatory movement of the normal side; the rest required an intervention. Intervention requirement was significantly less for those patients who had isolated glottic level compensation. The paralysed vocal fold was at the same level in 32.35 per cent of patients, higher in 38.23 per cent and lower in 29.42 per cent. In those in whom vocal folds were in the abducted position (46.67 per cent), the affected vocal fold was at a lower position on phonation. Inter-observer reliability assessment revealed excellent to good agreement for all criteria.
Interarytenoid paralysis and posterolateral tilt of the arytenoid were predictors of poor recovery.
We studied the safety of use of acute reperfusion therapies in patients with stroke- on- awakening using a computed tomographic angiography (Cta) based large vessel occlusion-good scan paradigm in clinical routine.
the Cta database of the Calgary stroke program was reviewed for the period January 2003-March 2010. patients with stroke-on-awakening with large artery occlusions on Cta, who received conservative, iV thrombolytic and/or endovascular treatment at discretion of the attending stroke neurologist were analyzed. time of onset was defined by the time last seen or known to be normal. Baseline non-contrast Ct scan (nCCt) alberta Stroke program early Ct Score (aSpeCtS) > 7 was considered a good scan. hemorrhage was defined on follow-up brain imaging using eCaSS 3 criteria. independence (mrS≤2) at three months was considered a good clinical outcome. Standard descriptive statistics and multivariable analysis were done.
among 532 patients with large artery occlusions, 70 patients with stroke-on-awakening (13.1%) were identified. the median age was 69.5 (iQr 24) and 41 (58.6%) were female; 41 (58.6%) received anti-platelets only and 29 (41.4%) received thrombolytic treatment [iV-12 (17.1%), iV/ia-12 (17.1%) and ia-5(7.1%)]. unadjusted analysis showed that baseline nCCt aSpeCtS ≤ 7 (p=0.002) and higher nihSS scores (p=0.018) were associated with worse outcomes. there were no ph2 hemorrhages in the iV thrombolytic or endovascular treated group. functional outcome was not different by treatment.
When carefully selected using Ct –Cta, by a good scan (aSpeCtS > 7) occlusion paradigm, acute reperfusion therapies in patients with stroke-on-awakening can be performed safely in clinical routine.
Two specimens of Stegastes fasciolatus of total length 110.1 mm and 112.2 mm were collected from gillnet at Visakhapatnam fishing harbour, north-east coast of India on 5 January 2013. The morphometric and meristic characters of the recorded specimens are described and discussed.