To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Older adults often collaborate with others to recreate past events and reminisce. In the current chapter, we discuss the patterns of gains and losses associated with social memory and aging specifically as they relate to research on collaborative remembering and social contagion. Within the collaborative remembering literatures, we focus on different methods of measuring group and individual memory performance and the role of partner familiarity. Within social contagion, we focus on age differences in susceptibility to socially suggested false memories and how perceptions of age influence the effects. Across literatures, there is some disagreement on precisely how and when collaboration benefits and/or disrupts older adults’ memories. However, there is strong agreement that collaboration influences memory and that social influence is an important contextual factor on older adults’ cognition.
The paper describes the adaptation and psychometric evaluation of the Hungarian version of the quality of life in depression scale. The adaptation procedure involved: bilingual translation; field-testing for face and content validity; and assessment of instrument's reliability and construct validity. The new language version was shown to be well-accepted by respondents and to have excellent psychometric properties.
Uncontrolled pain in advanced cancer is a common problem and has significant impact on individuals’ quality of life and use of healthcare resources. Interventions to help manage pain at the end of life are available, but there is limited economic evidence to support their wider implementation. We conducted a case study economic evaluation of two pain self-management interventions (PainCheck and Tackling Cancer Pain Toolkit [TCPT]) compared with usual care.
We generated a decision-analytic model to facilitate the evaluation. This modelled the survival of individuals at the end of life as they moved through pain severity categories. Intervention effectiveness was based on published meta-analyses results. The evaluation was conducted from the perspective of the U.K. health service provider and reported cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY).
PainCheck and TCPT were cheaper (respective incremental costs -GBP148 [-EUR168.53] and -GBP474 [-EUR539.74]) and more effective (respective incremental QALYs of 0.010 and 0.013) than usual care. There was a 65 percent and 99.5 percent chance of cost-effectiveness for PainCheck and TCPT, respectively. Results were relatively robust to sensitivity analyses. The most important driver of cost-effectiveness was level of pain reduction (intervention effectiveness). Although cost savings were modest per patient, these were considerable when accounting for the number of potential intervention beneficiaries.
Educational and monitoring/feedback interventions have the potential to be cost-effective. Economic evaluations based on estimates of effectiveness from published meta-analyses and using a decision modeling approach can support commissioning decisions and implementation of pain management strategies.
A controversy at the 2016 IUCN World Conservation Congress on the topic of closing domestic ivory markets (the 007, or so-called James Bond, motion) has given rise to a debate on IUCN's value proposition. A cross-section of authors who are engaged in IUCN but not employed by the organization, and with diverse perspectives and opinions, here argue for the importance of safeguarding and strengthening the unique technical and convening roles of IUCN, providing examples of what has and has not worked. Recommendations for protecting and enhancing IUCN's contribution to global conservation debates and policy formulation are given.
Background: Intracranial mycotic aneurysms are rare forms of vascular abnormalities. They are typically fragile and have high tendency to bleed. Even when they are successfully secured upon intervention, the medical management can be challenging in presence of other non-ruptured aneurysms and concomitant cerebral vasospasm. Methods: A 31 year old female was admitted with right sided large intracerebral hemorrhage due to ruptured mycotic MCA aneurysm. She was also known with severe tricuspid regurgitation from drug abuse. Others aneurysms were also located intracranially and extracranially, including subclavian and renal arteries. Results: The MCA aneurysm was successfully clipped during decompressive craniectomy. The non-ruptured left ACA aneurysm was occluded through endovascular intervention. Due to cardiac condition and presence of other non-secured extarcranial aneurysms, we followed the MNI protocol for treating cerebral vasospsam by milrinone infusion. The treatment was successful for over three weeks until another micro-aneurysm had ruptured which had lead to severe and rapid clinical deterioration, that had lead eventually to death. Conclusions: Intracranial mycotic aneurysms remain challenging. Patients should be selected for surgical clipping versus endovascular intervention based on clinical state and radiological features. We suggest using milrinone over induced hypertension therapy for post-intervention cerebral vasospasm in order to lower the risk for rupturing non-secured aneurysms.
By applying a display ecology to the Deeper, Wider, Faster proactive, simultaneous telescope observing campaign, we have shown a dramatic reduction in the time taken to inspect DECam CCD images for potential transient candidates and to produce time-critical triggers to standby telescopes. We also show how facilitating rapid corroboration of potential candidates and the exclusion of non-candidates improves the accuracy of detection; and establish that a practical and enjoyable workspace can improve the experience of an otherwise taxing task for astronomers. We provide a critical road test of two advanced displays in a research context—a rare opportunity to demonstrate how they can be used rather than simply discuss how they might be used to accelerate discovery.
Reports of attitudes to aging from older people themselves are scarce. Which life course factors predict differences in these attitudes is unknown.
We investigated life course influences on attitudes to aging in healthy, community-dwelling people in the UK. Participants in the Lothian Birth Cohort 1936 completed a self-report questionnaire (Attitudes to Aging Questionnaire, AAQ) at around age 75 (n = 792, 51.4% male). Demographic, social, physical, cognitive, and personality/mood predictors were assessed, around age 70. Cognitive ability data were available at age 11.
Generally positive attitudes were reported in all three domains: low Psychosocial Loss, high Physical Change, and high Psychological Growth. Hierarchical multiple regression found that demographic, cognitive, and physical variables each explained a relatively small proportion of the variance in attitudes to aging, with the addition of personality/mood variables contributing most significantly. Predictors of attitudes to Psychosocial Loss were high neuroticism; low extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness; high anxiety and depression; and more physical disability. Predictors of attitudes to Physical Change were: high extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness; female sex; social class; and less physical disability. Personality predictors of attitudes to Psychological Growth were similar. In contrast, less affluent environment, living alone, lower vocabulary scores, and slower walking speed predicted more positive attitudes in this domain.
Older people's attitudes to aging are generally positive. The main predictors of attitude are personality traits. Influencing social circumstances, physical well-being, or mood may result in more positive attitudes. Alternatively, interventions to influence attitudes may have a positive impact on associated physical and affective changes.
Depression is a common and important cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. It is commonly treated with antidepressants and/or psychological therapy, but some people prefer alternative approaches such as exercise. There are a number of theoretical reasons why exercise may improve depression. This is an update of a review first published in 2009.
Disciplining the Poor: Neoliberal Paternalism and the Persistent Power of Race. By Joe Soss, Richard C. Fording, and Sanford F. Schram. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2011. 368p. $75.00 cloth, $25.00 paper.
It is more than 15 years since the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act was passed in 1996, famously described by then-President Bill Clinton as “the end of welfare as we know it.” In Disciplining the Poor, Joe Soss, Richard Fording, and Sanford Schram analyze recent changes in US welfare policy as reflections of broader transformations of the “governance” of poverty, arguing that these transformations represent a new form of “neoliberal paternalism” in which race continues to be an important element. In this symposium, a diverse group of political scientists working on welfare issues have been asked to critically assess the book's account and to comment more broadly on the importance of the “governance of poverty” to the future of American politics.—Jeffrey C. Isaac, Editor
It is now known that health benefits associated with diets rich in fruit and vegetables may be partly derived from intake of polyphenols. Berry polyphenols may influence carbohydrate metabolism and absorption and hence postprandial glycaemia. To date, studies related to polyphenol effects on the glycaemic response have been completed only in liquids using either monosaccharides or disaccharides. It remains to be determined whether berries known to be rich in polyphenols can reduce the glycaemic response (GR) to a solid polysaccharide meal. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether berries alter postprandial hyperglycaemia and consequently the GR to a starchy food. Blood glucose was tested on seven occasions, on three occasions using a reference food and on four occasions using pancakes supplemented with either raspberries or blueberries or control pancakes containing similar amounts of fructose and glucose. Results showed that there were no differences in GR (blueberry 51·3 (sem 5·7); raspberry 54·7 (sem 5·6); blueberry control 43·9 (sem 4·2); raspberry control 41·8 (sem 6·4)), GR area under the curve or satiety index between any of the tests. The present study indicates that the ability of berries to reduce blood glucose from starch-based foods is unsubstantiated.
New evidence suggests that levetiracetam may be as effective as traditional agents, with better safety profile.
To synthesize evidence regarding efficacy and tolerability of levetiracetam as first line, adjunctive or prophylactic antiepileptic agent.
Study Selection & Data Extraction:
Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of levetiracetam used in adults with epilepsy. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINHAL, PAPERSFIRST, PROCEEDINGSFIRST, PROQUEST and conference proceedings identified studies (to September 30, 2010). Two investigators independently selected, appraised studies, collected and analyzed data.
Of ten eligible randomized trials, eight investigated adjunctive levetiracetam for refractory seizures, one as monotherapy for newly diagnosed seizures, one as monotherapy for prophylaxis. Eight RCTs of adjunctive levetiracetam were of moderate quality (GRADE criteria), with two showing lack of allocation concealment. Meta-analyses showed adjunctive levetiracetam was more effective than placebo in achieving at least 50% reduction of seizure frequency, when added to baseline antiepileptic regimen (pooled RR 2.15 [1.65,2.82], I2 = 45%, p value (heterogeneity) = 0.08, p value (overall effect) < 0.01). Likelihood of serious adverse events necessitating withdrawal from study was not significantly different between levetiracetam and control (pooled RR 1.37 [0.88,2.13], I2 = 0%, p value (heterogeneity) = 0.84, p value (overall effect) = 0.17). Subgroup analyses suggested similar effects across different dosages. Sensitivity analysis of studies with adequate concealment showed similar effects.
Levetiracetam is an effective adjunctive agent for refractory epilepsy. More studies are needed to establish whether it is effective as monotherapy for newly diagnosed seizures, and for prophylaxis in traumatic brain injury.
The stakes of political conflict involve contending values and issue definitions as well as policy. Welfare reform was the most important change in American domestic policy since civil rights. Its significance hinges crucially on how participants understood the issue, but existing research fails to resolve what their perceptions were. Most accounts suggest that welfare reform was an ideological contest concerning the proper scope of government, but there are other views. This study gauges the welfare agenda rigorously by coding speakers in congressional hearings on the basis of how they framed the issue and the position they took on it during the six chief episodes of welfare reform that occurred between 1962 and 1996. The reform efforts aroused four distinct divisions. Over time, positions moved rightward, but more important, the dominant issue changed: The ideological debate about government was overtaken by a more practical debate about how to manage welfare. This is the first study to track the substantive meaning of any issue in Congress over an extended period of time using hearing witnesses and a preset analytic scheme.
Enormous progress has been made in the selection of animals, including cattle, for specific traits using traditional quantitative genetics approaches. Nevertheless, considerable variation in phenotypes remains unexplained, and therefore represents potential additional gain for animal production. In addition, the paradigm shift in new disciplines now being applied to animal breeding represents a powerful opportunity to prise open the ‘black box’ underlying the response to selection and fully understand the genetic architecture controlling the traits of interest. A move away from traditional approaches of animal breeding toward systems approaches using integrative analysis of data from the ‘omic’ disciplines represents a multitude of exciting opportunities for animal breeding going forward as well as providing alternatives for overcoming some of the limitations of traditional approaches such as the expressed phenotype being an imperfect predictor of the individual’s true genetic merit, or the phenotype being only expressed in one gender or late in the lifetime of an animal. This review aims to discuss these opportunities from the perspective of their potential application and contribution to cattle breeding. Harnessing the potential of this paradigm shift also poses some new challenges for animal scientists – and they will also be discussed.
Criticism of trends in political science centers on specific methodologies—quantitative methods or rational choice. However, the more worrisome development is scholasticism—a tendency for research to become overspecialized and ingrown. I define that trend more closely and document its growth through increases in numbers of journals, organized sections in the American Political Science Association, and divisions within the APSA conference. I also code articles published in the American Political Science Review to show a growth in scholastic features in recent decades. The changes affect all fields in political science. Scholasticism serves values of rigor. To restrain it will require reemphasizing relevance to real-world issues and audiences. To do this should also help restore morale among political scientists.
In the light of current concerns regarding ciprofloxacin resistance and the changing face of malignant otitis externa, we reviewed cases of malignant otitis externa treated in our centre, in order both to evaluate the current epidemiology of the condition and to assess the status of drug resistance in our patient population.
Retrospective case review of all malignant otitis externa cases managed in a tertiary referral centre in the north-east of England between 2000 and 2009.
Forty-one patients were identified, but the required data were available for only 37 cases. Patients' ages ranged from 51 to 101 years (median, 81 years). Diabetes was present in 51 per cent of patients (19/37), facial nerve palsy in 40 per cent (15/37) and multiple cranial nerve palsy in 24 per cent (9/37). Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most commonly isolated organism (54 per cent), sensitive to ciprofloxacin in all cases.
The incidence of cranial nerve palsy in our study was higher than in previous reports. The incidence of diabetes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in our cohort was much lower than previously reported. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains isolated were all sensitive to ciprofloxacin, despite recent reports on emerging resistance.