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When Thomas Stokesley, Bishop of London, ‘commaunded Barlowes dyaloges to be preached of the curates through out all hys dyocese,’ he was recommending one of the most interesting English accounts of the Reformation in Germany: William Barlow's A dyaloge descrybyng the orygynall ground of these Lutheran faccyons and many of theyr abusys (1531). The interlocutor William, recently returned from the Continent, names to his friend Nicholas the leading reformers he has met and outlines Luther's controversies with Henry VIII, Carlstadt, and Zwingli. He discusses the quarrel between the Lutheran and Zwinglian factions over the eucharist and their subsequent meeting at Marburg (1529). His account of the ‘third faccyon,’ the Anabaptists, constitutes an early source for England's knowledge of Anabaptist beliefs and many of their startling practices.
Studies estimating the human health impact of the foodborne disease often include estimates of the number of gastroenteritis hospitalisations. The aims of this study were to examine the degree to which hospital discharge data underreport hospitalisations due to bacterial gastroenteritis and to estimate the frequency of stool sample submission among patients presenting with gastroenteritis. Using linked laboratory and hospital discharge data from a healthcare organisation and its affiliated hospital, we examined the International Classification of Disease (ICD-9-CM) diagnosis codes assigned to hospitalised adults with culture-confirmed Campylobacter, Salmonella, or Escherichia coli O157 infections and determined the frequency of stool sample submission. Among 138 hospitalised patients with culture-confirmed infections, 43% of Campylobacter patients, 56% of Salmonella patients and 35% of E. coli O157 patients had that pathogen-specific code listed on the discharge record. Among patients without their infection listed as a diagnosis, 65% were assigned a nonspecific gastroenteritis code. Submitting a specimen for culture ⩾3 days before discharge was significantly associated with having the pathogen-specific diagnosis listed. Of 6181 patients assigned a nonspecific gastroenteritis code, 69% had submitted a stool sample for bacterial culture. This study can be used to understand differences and adjust for the underreporting and underdiagnosed of Campylobacter, Salmonella and E. coli O157 in hospital discharge and surveillance data, respectively.
The water content of feedstuffs is an important factor when considering both the nutritive value of a feed for dietary rationing purposes and when assessing the functional properties associated with the practical inclusion of a feedstuff in animal diets. Water is a vital nutrient in its own right and must be supplied on a daily basis. Feed associated water provides one source of this obligatory requirement. In addition, the water holding capacity (WHC) of a feedstuff and its relationship with other constituents of the feed may have important effects. Water can be associated with feedstuff in one of three ways (Robertson and Eastwood, 1981b). Firstly, water can be bound by the hydrophilic polysaccharides of the fibre component of feeds. Secondly, water can be held within the structural fibre matrix of feeds and finally, water can be associated with feedstuff fibre other than bound or matrix water and is usually considered as water trapped within the cell wall lumen.
Cereal grains are often subjected to physical processing before being fed to equids. However, little information is available on how physical processing of cereals affects degradation dynamics in equids. This experiment examines the effect of two physical processing methods (micronisation and extrusion) on in situ degradation of barley in the caecum of ponies
Three caecally fistulated mature Welsh-cross pony geldings (approx. LW 270kg) were offered ad libitum grass hay plus minerals. Incubation bags (monofilament polyester 6.5 x 20cm, 41μm pores, 16mg/cm2 sample size) containing either unprocessed barley (UB), micronised barley (MB) or extruded barley (EB) were incubated in the caecum for fixed times according to both a forward (0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 8, 24, 48h) and reverse (48, 24, 8, 4, 12, 6, 2, 0h) incubation sequence. For each feedstuff residues from each time were bulked within pony and across incubation sequence for subsequent analysis of dry matter (DM) and starch (STC). Degradation profiles were fitted to the DM and STC disappearance data according to Ørskov and McDonald (1979).
A QTL (TM-QTL) identified on ovine chromosome 18 (Walling et al., 2004), which increases loin muscle depth by 4-8% in UK Texel sheep, is of interest for the sheep industry as a potential means to increase carcass value. Since the contribution of Texel genes to the UK slaughter generation is generally through use of Texel sires to produce crossbred slaughter lambs (e.g. Texel x Mule lambs), it is necessary to verify the effects of the TM-QTL on loin muscularity and other carcass traits in such crossbred progeny of Texel sires before explotiation of the TM-QTL in commercial sheep populations.
Livestock farming is a traditional and important contributor to the rural economy in the hills and uplands of the UK. However, significant areas of the uplands have seen a decline in the condition of heath and mire habitats and the loss of dwarf shrubs as a result of over-grazing. Attempts to halt the decline and improve the condition of upland heath and mire habitats have been undertaken by the introduction of agri-environment schemes. In the main, such schemes rely on the reduction of sheep numbers. However, recent Defra funded research (LS1508) has indicated that this can result in dominance by competitive and/or unpalatable species such as purple moor-grass (Molinia caerulea ) or mat-grass (Nardus stricta ), leading in time to a reduction in the physical and financial performance of the flock. The objective of this study is to assess the impact of cattle grazing on Nardus stricta dominated pasture on sheep and cattle performance. It is being carried out as part of a wider project to determine environmentally sustainable and economically viable grazing systems for heather moorland.
Little information is available on how physical processing of cereals affects crude protein (CP) degradation dynamics in equines. In two experiments the effects of two physical processing methods (micronisation and extrusion) on in situ degradation of CP in barley, maize and peas in the caecum of ponies were investigated.
In experiment 1, three caecally-fistulated mature Welsh-cross pony geldings (approx. LW 270kg) were used whilst two of these ponies were used in experiment 2. In both experiments ponies were offered ad libitum grass hay plus minerals. Incubation bags (monofilament polyester, 6.5 x 20cm, 41μm pores, 16mg/cm2 sample size) contained either unprocessed barley (UB), micronised barley (MB) or extruded barley (EB) (experiment 1) and either unprocessed maize (UM), micronised maize (MM), extruded maize (EM), unprocessed peas (UP), micronised peas (MP) or extruded peas (EP) (experiment 2).
A wide variety of starch based feeds are available for inclusion in equine diets. These feeds may be subjected to physical processing (micronisation or extrusion) prior to inclusion. This experiment evaluates a range of starch based feedstuffs using an in vitro batch culture technique.
A total of 15 feedstuffs were incubated in vitro with an inocula prepared from freshly voided faeces which was collected from six ponies fed grass hay ad libitum. The feeds were five starch based feedstuffs; i.e: maize (M), peas (P), wheat (W), naked oats (NO) or barley (Ba) in one of three physically processed forms i.e: unprocessed (Unp), micronised (Mic) or extruded (Ext). All feeds were ground through a 1.0mm screen prior to incubation. Cumulative gas production (GP) was measured using the pressure transducer technique of Theodorou et al (1994) throughout a 72 h incubation period.
Previous work has shown that the mobile bag technique (MBT) can be used to study the dynamics of digestive processes in the whole tract of ponies (Hyslop et al, 1998). This experiment further develops the MBT as a method to study feed degradation dynamics over time in the pre-caecal segment of the digestive tract of ponies.
Two caecally-fistulated mature Welsh-cross pony geldings (LW 270kg) were offered 4kg of dry matter (DM) per day of a 1:3 rolled barley:hay cube mix plus minerals, in 2 equal meals per day at 09:00 and 17:00h. Grass hay was also offered ad libitum between 17:00 and 09:00h. Two sizes of mobile bag (6 x 1 cm Ø-large and 4 x 1 cm Ø- small) made from monofilament polyester with a 7 μm pore size were used.
Maize and peas that have undergone physical processing are used routinely in cereal mixes for equines. However, little information is available on how physical processing of maize and peas affects degradation dynamics in equines. This experiment examines the effect of two physical processing methods (micronisation and extrusion) on in situ degradation of maize and peas in the caecum of ponies
Two caecally-fistulated mature Welsh-cross pony geldings (approx. LW 270kg) were offered ad libitum grass hay plus minerals. Incubation bags (monofilament polyester 6.5 x 20cm, 41? m pores, 16mg/cm2 sample size) containing either unprocessed maize (UM), micronised maize (MM), extruded maize (EM), unprocessed peas (UP), micronised peas (MP) or extruded peas (EP) were incubated in the caecum for fixed times according to both a forward (0, 2, 4, 6, 12, 8, 24, 48h) and reverse (48, 24, 8, 4, 12, 6, 2, 0h) incubation sequence. For each feedstuff residues from each time were bulked within pony and across incubation sequence for subsequent analysis of dry matter (DM) and starch (STC).
Processed cereals are used routinely in diets for equines but little information is available on how physical processing affects the digestibility of cereals in equines. This study examines the effects of three physical processing methods (rolling, micronisation and extrusion) on the in vivo apparent digestibility of barley fed to ponies.
Three mature caecally-fistulated Welsh-cross pony geldings, (LW 284kg ± 3.8kg) were used in a 3 x 4 incomplete latin square changeover design experiment consisting of four 21 day periods. Each period comprised a sixteen day adaptation phase and a five day recording phase when apparent digestibility in vivo was determined. Ponies were offered 4kg dry matter (DM) per day of either 100% hay cubes (HC) or one of three diets consisting of a 50:50 barley:hay cubes mix. The barley in the mixed diets was either rolled barley (RB), micronised barley (MB) or extruded barley (EB). Diets were offered in 2 equal meals per day fed at 09:00 and 17:00 hours respectively.
Estimates of digesta passage through specific segments of the alimentary tract are a vital component of modelling approaches which attempt to quantitatively partition digestive processes in equines. This study reports results from three studies where digesta passage of Chromium (Cr) mordanted feeds was determined in the caecum of ponies.
Caecal outflow rates were determined during three in vivo apparent digestibility studies conducted using three caecally-fistulated ponies as described by Moore-Colyer et al, (1999) for studies 1 and 2; and McLean et al, (1999) for study 3. Pony basal diets consisted of unmolassed sugar beet pulp (USBP), hay cubes (HC) or a 2:1 mix of oat hulls:naked oats (OHNO) in study 1; a 1:1 mix of USBP:HC (USHC) in study 2 and either 100% HC or one of 3 diets consisting of a 1:1 HC:barley mix where the barley was either rolled (RBHC), micronised (MBHC) or extruded (EBHC) in study 3.
Sheep group breeding schemes have gained in popularity in recent years. The objectives of group breeding schemes are to improve desirable traits such as carcass conformation, weight and maternal ability whilst maintaining local type. However, if group breeding schemes were to work together then a larger genetic pool of performance recorded animals would be available to facilitate improvements. The objectives of this project were therefore twofold, 1.) was to improve traits such as weight and carcass conformation and 2.) to demonstrate the benefits of cooperative groups working together. In this project, group breeding schemes from North and Mid Wales have been working together with ram performance testing groups from North, South and Mid Wales to improve results from Welsh Mountain breeding schemes.
Particle size (PS) may be reduced when feeds are ground through small screen sizes leading to increased losses from artificial fibre bags during in situ or mobile bag experiments in equines. Smaller PS may also alter the water holding capacity (WHC) of feeds which in turn may alter bag transit times during mobile bag experiments. This study examines PS and WHC in a range of starch based equine feedstuffs ground through two screen sizes.
Five feedstuffs (F) were used ie: barley (B), maize (M), peas (P), wheat (W) and naked oats (NO). Feedstuffs were subjected to three types of physical pre-processing (Pr) ie: unprocessed (Un), micronised (Mi) or extruded (Ex) and then ground through either a 1.0 or 0.5 mm screen size (SS). For PS analysis a 25g sample of each feedstuff was sieved through a stack of 11 sieves ranging in pore diameter between 45 μm and 2 mm using a mechanical shaker for 20 min.
In vitro techniques have been developed to study the fermentation kinetics of a wide range of animal feedstuffs but relatively few studies have been conducted specifically with purified feed constituents. This study uses the pressure transducer technique of Theodorou et al (1994) to record cumulative gas production (GP) when six purified starch sources were incubated in vitro.
Three replicates of six commercially available purified (98%) starch sources were incubated in vitro with an inoculum prepared from freshly voided faeces collected from six ponies fed hay ad libitum. The starches were a purified wheat starch (ABRA), four purified wheat starches that had been chemically modified with sodium tri-metaphosphate (V1, V21, V33 & V65) and a purified pea starch (PEA). GP was measured using the pressure transducer technique throughout a 72 h incubation period. At the end of the incubation period DM loss (DML) in vitro was determined by filtration.
The magnetic field geometry in the central regions of two dark clouds has been mapped by measuring the polarization at 2.2 μm of background stars and of stars embedded in the clouds. The observations were done with the Kyoto polarimeter on the Agematsu 1m IR telescope in December 1984 for Heiles Cloud 2 in the Taurus dark cloud complex, and on the UKIRT 3.8m in May and July 1985 for the ρ Ophiuchus dark cloud core. The main results are:
i)Most of the stars in both regions show polarization and their maxima are 2.7% in Heiles Cloud 2 and 7.6% in ρ Oph, respectively. There are similar positive relations between polarization degree and extinct ion Av's.
ii)The distribution of position angles for Heiles Cloud 2 shows a single mode at about 50° and that for ρ Oph shows a bimode, at about 50° and 150°.
iii)The magnetic fields, as delineated by the infrared polarization, appear perpendicular to the flattened elongations of the molecular clouds.