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Investigation of personality traits and pathology in large, generalizable clinical cohorts has been hindered by inconsistent assessment and failure to consider a range of personality disorders (PDs) simultaneously.
We applied natural language processing (NLP) of electronic health record notes to characterize a psychiatric inpatient cohort. A set of terms reflecting personality trait domains were derived, expanded, and then refined based on expert consensus. Latent Dirichlet allocation was used to score notes to estimate the extent to which any given note reflected PD topics. Regression models were used to examine the relationship of these estimates with sociodemographic features and length of stay.
Among 3623 patients with 4702 admissions, being male, non-white, having a low burden of medical comorbidity, being admitted through the emergency department, and having public insurance were independently associated with greater levels of disinhibition, detachment, and psychoticism. Being female, white, and having private insurance were independently associated with greater levels of negative affectivity. The presence of disinhibition, psychoticism, and negative affectivity were each significantly associated with a longer stay, while detachment was associated with a shorter stay.
Personality features can be systematically and scalably measured using NLP in the inpatient setting, and some of these features associate with length of stay. Developing treatment strategies for patients scoring high in certain personality dimensions may facilitate more efficient, targeted interventions, and may help reduce the impact of personality features on mental health service utilization.
In Canada, recreational use of cannabis was legalized in October 2018. This policy change along with recent publications evaluating the efficacy of cannabis for the medical treatment of epilepsy and media awareness about its use have increased the public interest about this agent. The Canadian League Against Epilepsy Medical Therapeutics Committee, along with a multidisciplinary group of experts and Canadian Epilepsy Alliance representatives, has developed a position statement about the use of medical cannabis for epilepsy. This article addresses the current Canadian legal framework, recent publications about its efficacy and safety profile, and our understanding of the clinical issues that should be considered when contemplating cannabis use for medical purposes.
We conducted this study to determine what sample volume, concentration, and limit of detection (LOD) are adequate for environmental validation of Legionella control. We also sought to determine whether time required to obtain culture results can be reduced compared to spread-plate culture method. We also assessed whether polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and in-field total heterotrophic aerobic bacteria (THAB) counts are reliable indicators of Legionella in water samples from buildings.
Comparative Legionella screening and diagnostics study for environmental validation of a healthcare building water system.
Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facility water system in central Texas.
We analyzed 50 water samples (26 hot, 24 cold) from 40 sinks and 10 showers using spread-plate cultures (International Standards Organization [ISO] 11731) on samples shipped overnight to the analytical lab. In-field, on-site cultures were obtained using the PVT (Phigenics Validation Test) culture dipslide-format sampler. A PCR assay for genus-level Legionella was performed on every sample.
No practical differences regardless of sample volume filtered were observed. Larger sample volumes yielded more detections of Legionella. No statistically significant differences at the 1 colony-forming unit (CFU)/mL or 10 CFU/mL LOD were observed. Approximately 75% less time was required when cultures were started in the field. The PCR results provided an early warning, which was confirmed by spread-plate cultures. The THAB results did not correlate with Legionella status.
For environmental validation at this facility, we confirmed that (1) 100 mL sample volumes were adequate, (2) 10× concentrations were adequate, (3) 10 CFU/mL LOD was adequate, (4) in-field cultures reliably reduced time to get results by 75%, (5) PCR provided a reliable early warning, and (6) THAB was not predictive of Legionella results.
Alterations of foetal development in utero can affect the structure and physiology of the adult offspring, a process known as “foetal programming” (Barker, 1994). Results from the first phase of this study indicated that offspring from mature ewes offered a restricted energy intake in early pregnancy were heavier at birth and had improved survival rates to weaning (Muñoz et al., 2006). The aim of the second phase of the study was to determine the effects of plane of ewe nutrition in early and mid pregnancy on carcass characteristics of male offspring and on reproductive performance and concentrations of the adiposity indicator, leptin, in female offspring, post-weaning.
Lameness is a significant problem leading to reduced dairy cow productivity and welfare. Housing and management factors are known to influence lameness levels in dairy cows (Haskell et al., 2006). Furthermore, lameness management strategies are also key factors affecting the incidence of lameness (e.g. early detection of lameness (Whay, 2002) and claw trimming (Manske et al., 2002)). It is likely that knowledge factors influence lameness management strategies (Mill and Ward, 1994). The current study aimed to gain a better understanding of the relationship between lameness knowledge levels and the incidence of lameness on-farm. This is part of a wider survey aimed at understanding how knowledge, attitude, perception, and management factors affect lameness levels on dairy farms.
Poor reproductive performance is a major problem on dairy farms throughout the United Kingdom and has been identified as the single most important problem in two recent farm surveys in Northern Ireland (AgriSearch, personal communication). The decline in reproductive performance is often attributed to increased genetic merit for milk production, but is also influenced by a large number of factors including changes in management practices and nutritional factors. The aim of this study was to examine reproductive performance in a range of dairy herds in Northern Ireland to identify the key factors influencing reproductive performance at farm level. This paper presents the findings of three years of study.
Labour constitutes a major and increasing cost on dairy farms, while at the same time, the availability of skilled labour is decreasing. In addition, younger farmers are placing an increasing emphasis on lifestyle. Consequently, there is an increased interest in milk production systems involving reduced labour inputs. In view of the fact that approximately 33% (O’Brien et al., 2002) of the daily labour input on dairy farms is associated with the milking routine (herding, milking and washing), the adoption of once daily milking would appear to offer considerable potential to reduce labour inputs. This study examined the effect of once-daily milking, in late lactation, on animal performance.
Using a rigorously collected data set of antimicrobial use among patients receiving chronic hemodialysis, antimicrobial use was calculated using 3 different methodologies: daily defined dose, days of therapy, and start–stop days. Estimates of antimicrobial use varied by as much as 10-fold, depending on the type of antimicrobial.
Previous findings have been mixed regarding the relationship between maternal depressive symptoms and child cognitive development. The objective of this study was to systematically review relevant literature and to perform a meta-analysis.
Three electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO) were searched. Initial screening was conducted independently by two reviewers. Studies selected for detailed review were read in full and included based on a set of criteria. Data from selected studies were abstracted onto a standardized form. Meta-analysis using the inverse variance approach and random-effects models was conducted.
The univariate analysis of 14 studies revealed that maternal depressive symptoms are related to lower cognitive scores among children aged ⩽56 months (Cohen's d = −0.25, 95% CI −0.39 to −0.12). The synthesis of studies controlling for confounding variables showed that the mean cognitive score for children 6–8 weeks post-partum whose mothers had high depressive symptoms during the first few weeks postpartum was approximately 4.2 units lower on the Mental Developmental Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID) compared with children with non-symptomatic mothers (B̂ = −4.17, 95% CI −8.01 to −0.32).
The results indicated that maternal depressive symptoms are related to lower cognitive scores in early infancy, after adjusting for confounding factors. An integrated approach for supporting child cognitive development may include program efforts that promote maternal mental health in addition to family economic wellbeing, responsive caregiving, and child nutrition.
The sodium in synthetic faujasite, commercial zeolite-X, was exchanged with copper cations at room temperature. A maximum number of 70 out of 86 Na cations were replaced with 35 copper cations (1). The copper exchanged zeolite was divided in six equal parts. Five of them were calcined at 43, 73, 112, 150 and 195 deg C. After calcination the samples were eluted with saturated solution of ammonium chloride to remove copper cations from open sites (super-cages) of the zeolite (Fig 1). The remaining copper cations were in locked sites (sodalite-cages or hexagonal-prisms). Using XAS edge-jump as a measure of quantitative analysis, we found that 9.0, 11.5, 12.7, 13.3 and 20.0 copper cations were locked at calcination temperatures of 43, 73, 112, 150 and 195 deg C respectively. The analysis of the first shell Fourier Transformed radial distribution shows that cations at site I in the hexagonal-prism and site I ‘ and II ’ in the sodalite-cages, adjacent to site I, are distributed at equal proportion, independent of temperature.
Metal organic framework (MOF) materials are a class of hybrid organic-inorganic crystalline materials whose pore structures and chemical properties can be tailored by the selection of component chemical moieties. Many MOFs have extraordinary intrinsic surface areas, capable of adsorbing large quantities of other chemicals, such as volatile organic compounds or moisture. Upon absorption of guest molecules, many MOFs undergo reversible changes in the dimensions of their unit cells. These properties suggest several routes to chemical sensing in which the transduction mechanisms are: 1) the stress induced at an interface between a flexible MOF layer and a static microcantilever fabricated with a built-in piezoresistive stress sensor; 2) the change in the resonant frequency of an oscillating microcantilever induced by mass adsorption; and 3) the change in the resonant frequency of a acoustic sensor, such as a surface acoustic wave (SAW) sensor through changes in mass loading and film moduli. This paper focuses on humidity sensing by SAWs coated with Cu3(BTC)2 (HKUST-1) over a very broad concentration range.
Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy’s National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.
The creation of ultra-shallow junction for CMOS devices at the sub-100 nm node is driving significant efforts in developing thermal processing to give rise to high dopant activation in combination with limited diffusion. Flash-assist Rapid Thermal Annealing™ (fRTP™) is a promising new annealing technique, which involves the heating of the bulk of the wafer to an intermediate temperature using rather conventional spike RTP, followed by a short and intense pulse of light localized on the implanted wafer surface.
In this work, we have systematically investigated the junction formation of different implants under fRTP anneals in terms of profile and devices. Co-implanted Ge and F species provide more box-like profiles with improved activation. Although leakage currents are higher for fRTP-annealed junctions than for spike-annealed junctions, appropriate fRTP process parameters and correct process conditions provide a critical tool to control and reduce the leakage current of co-implanted fRTP junctions to acceptable levels. Proper implant and anneal are requested for minimizing pattern effect and improving device performance.
The extendability of conventional subtractive lithographic processing using spin-coated polymeric single layer resists (SLR) faces many challenges as feature sizes in microelectronics push below 100 nm. In addition, the opacity of the polymeric materials traditionally used as SLR resins to future exposure sources presents new challenges as the radiation penetration depth decreases (e.g. 157 nm, EUVL, low keV e-beam). One solution to these problems is the use of surface imaging materials and processes. In such surface imaging methods, exposure in only a thin surface layer is used to create a pattern in a substantially thicker etch barrier layer. Conventional surface imaging approaches have mainly focused on silylation techniques which have experienced a variety of problems. This paper presents an update on two novel surface imaging methods under investigation: (1) surface monolayer initiated polymerization (SMIP) and (2) organometallic-organic bilayer resists.
The SMIP process involves using a monolayer that contains a polymerization initiator functionality. Exposure of the monolayer to radiation can deactivate the initiators in selected areas and the remaining initiators can subsequently be used to directly grow patterned polymer structures. This process allows complete decoupling of the imaging properties of the monolayer from the etch properties of the polymer etch barrier. In essence, the polymerization process is used to amplify the pattern initially formed in the monolayer. Recent results are presented that demonstrate the use of x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy in conjunction with dose array experiments to analyze the sensitivity of the initiators used for this process.
The other novel surface imaging method presented in this work uses organometallic-organic bilayers. In these systems, thin films of radiation sensitive organometallic precursors are used as an imaging layer in conjunction with thick organic etch barrier layers. Upon exposure, the organometallic precursor film is selectively converted to metal oxide. After exposure, the unexposed regions of the film can be developed away. Subsequent dry pattern transfer in an oxygen plasma can be used to transfer the pattern defined in the thin oxide layer through the organic etch barrier layer. Organometallic precursor films with sensitivities on the order of 70 μC/cm2 are demonstrated which result in oxide films that possess an etch selectivity of 100:1 with respect to novolac in oxygen plasmas. 500 nm line-space patterns are demonstrated as a first lithographic imaging proof-of-concept.
The microstructural development of Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguides as a function of annealing time and temperature was studied using transmission electron microscopy. The morphological evolution of the deposited Ti film can be characterized by three stages: (i) oxidation beginning at low temperatures, (ii) coarsening and secondary grain growth of the oxide film at higher temperatures and (iii) eventual film breakup and void formation. Secondary grain growth is driven by minimization of interfacial energy of grains which have a special epitaxial relationship with respect to the LiNbO3 substrate.
Low thermal budget annealing approaches, such as millisecond annealing or solid-phase epitaxy (SPE) of amorphized silicon, electrically activate implanted dopants while minimizing diffusion. However, it is also important to anneal damage to the crystal lattice in order to minimize junction leakage. Annealing experiments were performed on low-energy B implants into both crystalline silicon and into wafers pre-amorphized by Ge implantation. Some wafers also received As implants for halo-style doping, and in some cases the halo implants were pre-annealed at 1050°C before the B-doping. The B-implants were annealed by either SPE at 650°C, spike annealing at 1050°C, or by millisecond annealing with flash-assisted RTP™ (fRTP™) at temperatures between 1250°C and 1350°C. Residual damage was characterized by photoluminescence and non-contact junction leakage current measurements, which permit rapid assessment of damage removal efficacy. Damage from the heavy ions used for the halo and pre-amorphization implants dominates the defect annealing behaviour. The halo doping is the critical factor in determining junction leakage current. Millisecond annealing at high temperatures helps to minimize residual damage while limiting diffusion.
The challenge of achieving maximal dopant activation with minimal diffusion has re-awakened interest in millisecond-duration annealing processes, almost two decades after the initial research in this field. Millisecond annealing with pulsed flash-lamps or scanned energy beams can create very shallow and abrupt junctions with high concentrations of electrically active carriers, but solutions for volume manufacturing must also meet formidable process control requirements and economic metrics. The repeatability and uniformity of the temperature cycle is the key for viable manufacturing technology, and the lessons from the development of commercial rapid thermal processing (RTP) tools are especially relevant. Advances in the process capability require a fuller understanding of the trade-off between dopant activation, defect annealing. diffusion and deactivation phenomena. There is a strong need for a significant expansion of materials science research into the fundamental physical processes that occur at the short time scales and high temperatures provided by millisecond annealing.
The oxygen isotopic composition of land-snail shells may provide insight into the source region and trajectory of precipitation. Last glacial maximum (LGM) gastropod shells were sampled from loess from Belgium to Serbia and modern land-snail shells both record δ18O values between 0‰ and − 5‰. There are significant differences in mean fossil shell δ18O between sites but not among genera at a single location. Therefore, we group δ18O values from different genera together to map the spatial distribution of δ18O in shell carbonate. Shell δ18O values reflect the spatial variation in the isotopic composition of precipitation and incorporate the snails' preferential sampling of precipitation during the warm season. Modern shell δ18O decreases in Europe along a N–S gradient from the North Sea inland toward the Alps. Modern observed data of isotopes in precipitation (GNIP) demonstrate a similar trend for low-altitude sites. LGM shell δ18O data show a different gradient with δ18O declining toward the ENE, implying a mid-Atlantic source due to increased sea ice and a possible southern displacement of the westerly jet stream. Balkan LGM samples show the influence of a Mediterranean source, with δ18O values decreasing northward.
This experiment examined the long-term effects of offering diets containing low levels of dietary phosphorus (P) on dairy cow health, fertility and bone composition, and the effect of dietary P level on nutrient utilisation. One hundred winter-calving Holstein–Friesian dairy cows were offered diets containing either ‘high’ or ‘low’ levels of dietary P over a 4-year period. Rations offered during the winter included grass silage, maize silage (70 : 30 dry matter (DM) basis, approximately) and concentrates (10.0 to 12.0 kg/cow per day). During the summer periods in years 1 and 2, half of the cows grazed both day and night, while the remaining cows grazed by day, and were housed by night and offered grass silage. During years 3 and 4, all cows grazed both day and night during the summer period. Concentrate feed levels during the summer periods were 3.0 to 4.0 kg/cow per day. Different dietary P levels were achieved by offering concentrates containing either high or low P levels during the winter period (approximately 7.0 or 4.4 g P/kg DM, respectively) and during the summer period (approximately 6.8 or 3.6 g P/kg DM, respectively). Total ration P levels averaged 4.9 and 3.6 g P/kg DM for the high and low P winter diets, respectively, and 4.2 and 3.6 g P/kg DM for the high and low P summer diets, respectively. A total of 95, 70, 50 and 22 cows completed each of lactations from 1 to 4, respectively. Neither the incidence of lameness or mastitis, or milk somatic cell count, were affected by dietary P level (P > 0.05), while none of the fertility parameters recorded in any of lactations from 1 to 4 was affected by the dietary P level (P > 0.05). Dietary P level had no effect on the specific gravity, ash or calcium content of rib cortical bone cores (n = 78 cows), while the P content of cortical bone (g/kg fresh, g/kg DM and mg/ml fresh bone) was lower with cows offered low P diets (P < 0.05). Dietary P level had no significant effect on the digestibility of either the DM, nitrogen, energy or acid detergent fibre fraction of the diet (P > 0.05), while faecal P excretions were reduced by a mean of 27 g/cow per day with cows offered the low P diets during the winter period. The results of this study indicate that dietary P levels can be reduced to proportionately 0.8 (approximately) of current UK feeding standards (Agricultural and Food Research Council, 1991), with no detrimental effect on dairy cow health or fertility, while having only minor effects on bone composition.