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Partly as a consequence of an aging global population, radiology departments have seen an increase in imaging in patients older than 65 years of age . One department in the United Kingdom found a 51% increase in radiological studies performed in patients over 90 years of age over a recent 7-year period .
Complex new functionalities and dissimilar stakeholder groups pose challenges to the requirement analysis for driverless vehicles. To overcome these challenges, we propose a value-oriented reference process for innovative functionalities of an autonomous family vehicle. The value-oriented measures are taken from the approach of Value Sensitive Design. In our application, we have found that the consideration of the human values involved is of great importance for the identification of stakeholders and the management of their potentially conflicting interests throughout the development process.
Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) values were measured by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in different regions of the brain in 27 patients with DAT. Significant correlations were found between rCBF in left parieto-temporooccipital regions and psychometric test scores. Patients with hemisphere asymmetry in SPECT performed worse on psychometric tests. SPECT did not permit prediction of or differentiation between depressive and psychotic symptoms.
The deep subsurface of other planetary bodies is of special interest for robotic and human exploration. The subsurface provides access to planetary interior processes, thus yielding insights into planetary formation and evolution. On Mars, the subsurface might harbour the most habitable conditions. In the context of human exploration, the subsurface can provide refugia for habitation from extreme surface conditions. We describe the fifth Mine Analogue Research (MINAR 5) programme at 1 km depth in the Boulby Mine, UK in collaboration with Spaceward Bound NASA and the Kalam Centre, India, to test instruments and methods for the robotic and human exploration of deep environments on the Moon and Mars. The geological context in Permian evaporites provides an analogue to evaporitic materials on other planetary bodies such as Mars. A wide range of sample acquisition instruments (NASA drills, Small Planetary Impulse Tool (SPLIT) robotic hammer, universal sampling bags), analytical instruments (Raman spectroscopy, Close-Up Imager, Minion DNA sequencing technology, methane stable isotope analysis, biomolecule and metabolic life detection instruments) and environmental monitoring equipment (passive air particle sampler, particle detectors and environmental monitoring equipment) was deployed in an integrated campaign. Investigations included studying the geochemical signatures of chloride and sulphate evaporitic minerals, testing methods for life detection and planetary protection around human-tended operations, and investigations on the radiation environment of the deep subsurface. The MINAR analogue activity occurs in an active mine, showing how the development of space exploration technology can be used to contribute to addressing immediate Earth-based challenges. During the campaign, in collaboration with European Space Agency (ESA), MINAR was used for astronaut familiarization with future exploration tools and techniques. The campaign was used to develop primary and secondary school and primary to secondary transition curriculum materials on-site during the campaign which was focused on a classroom extra vehicular activity simulation.