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Dietary intake of ω-3 fatty acids has been associated with a decreased lower risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Abnormal phospholipids metabolism in the brain has been shown to play a role in the pathophysiology of major psychiatric diseases, such as schizophrenia, mood disorder. This study was conducted to determine whether essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (EPUFAs) levels in the erythrocyte membrane are correlate with severity of behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), as well as cognitive function, in subjects with AD.
The protocol was approved by the Institutional Review Board of the University of Toyama School of Medicine.
Thirty out-patients (male/female = 6/24) with AD (n = 23) or amnesic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI, n = 7) participated in the study. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) were administered to assess cognitive function and severity of BPSD respectively. Caregiver burden was assessed by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory Caregiver Distress Scale (NPI-D). Fatty acids levels were analyzed using a gas chromatography system.
Concentrations of EPUFAs and ω-3 fatty acids were positively correlated with MMSE score. Also, EPUFAs levels were negatively correlated with the NPI Global and caregiver scores. Specifically, EPUFAs levels predicted dysphoria, euphoria and apathy scores of NPI.
These results suggest that abnormal phospholipids metabolism provided a biological basis for BPSD and cognitive impairments of AD.
The purpose of this study was to determine if perospirone, a second generation antipsychotic drug and partial agonist at serotonin-5-HT1A receptors, enhances electrophysiological activity, such as event-related potentials (ERPs), in frontal brain regions, as well as cognitive function in subjects with schizophrenia. P300 current source images were obtained by means of standardized low resolution brain electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) before and after treatment with perospirone for 6 months. Perospirone significantly increased P300 current source density in the left superior frontal gyrus, and improved positive symptoms and performance on the script tasks, a measure of verbal social cognition. Perospirone also tended to enhance verbal learning memory in patients with schizophrenia. There was a significant correlation between the changes in P300 amplitudes on the left frontal lead and those in social cognition. These results suggest the changes in three-dimensional distribution of cortical activity, as demonstrated by sLORETA, may mediate some of the actions of antipsychotic drugs. the distinct cognition-enhancing profile of perospirone may be related to its actions on 5-HT1A receptors.
In this paper, a colloidal solution of copper nanoparticles was prepared from a Cu ion aqueous solution with the protein casein surfactant by a liquid phase reduction method at low temperature below 373K. For the casein concentration ranging from 6g/L to 75g/L, the formation of copper nanoparticle colloid were observed. As a result, the peak was observed at the ranging of 450 to 650 nm corresponding to the copper nanoparticle colloid plasmon absorption. As the surfactant concentration increases, the absorption spectrum tends to blue-shift and the particle diameter decreases. Thus, it indicated that the optical property and particle diameter of copper nanoparticle colloidal solution will be controlled by the protein casein surfactant concentration.
We derive asymptotic theory for the extremogram and cross-extremogram of a bivariate GARCH(1,1) process. We show that the tails of the components of a bivariate GARCH(1,1) process may exhibit power-law behavior but, depending on the choice of the parameters, the tail indices of the components may differ. We apply the theory to five-minute return data of stock prices and foreign-exchange rates. We judge the fit of a bivariate GARCH(1,1) model by considering the sample extremogram and cross-extremogram of the residuals. The results are in agreement with the independent and identically distributed hypothesis of the two-dimensional innovations sequence. The cross-extremograms at lag zero have a value significantly distinct from zero. This fact points at some strong extremal dependence of the components of the innovations.
In this contribution, we show that the dominant electroluminescent emission of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin-film solar cells follows a diode law, whose radiative ideality factor nr is larger than one. This is in contrast to crystalline silicon and Cu(In, Ga)Se2 solar cells for which nr equals one. As a consequence, the existing quantitative analysis for the extraction of the local junction voltage Vj(r) from luminescence images fails for a-Si:H solar cells. We expand the existing analysis method, and include the radiative ideality factor nr into the model. With this modification, we are able to determine the local junction voltage Vj(r) for a-Si:H solar cells and modules. We investigated the local junction voltage Vj(r) and the radiative ideality factor nr for both initial and stabilized a-Si:H solar modules. Furthermore, we show that the apparent radiative ideality factor is affected by the spectral sensitivity of the used camera system.
PECVD growth of the microcrystalline silicon junction on a highly textured amorphous top cell often leads to defective absorber layers and finally to low quality bottom cell. This paper reports on the current status of using an innovative smoothening/reflective layer (SRL) as alternative intermediate reflector between top and bottom cell of a Micromorph tandem device deposited on as-grown highly textured LPCVD ZnO layer. Manufacturing of the SRL layer is realized by “liquid phase” deposition technologies. Optical and electrical properties, smoothening effect and photoelectrical results of Micromorph tandem devices are discussed. The implementation of our novel SRL results in the growth of a crack-free bottom cell and to an efficient current transfer from the bottom to the top cell.
In the last decades many techniques have been proposed to manufacture thin (<50µm) silicon solar cells. The main issues in manufacturing thin solar cells are the unavailability of a reliable method to produce thin silicon foils with contained material losses (kerf-losses) and the difficulties in handling and processing such fragile foils. A way to solve both issues is to grow an epitaxial foil on top of a weak sintered porous silicon layer. The porous silicon layer is formed by electrochemical etching on a thick silicon substrate and then annealed to close the top surface. This surface is employed as seed layer for the epitaxial growth of a silicon layer which can be partially processed while attached on the substrate that provides mechanical support. Afterward, the foil can be bonded on glass, detached and further processed at module level. The efficiency of the final solar cell will depend on the quality of the epitaxial layer which, in turn, depends on the seed layer smoothness.
Several parameters can be adjusted to change the morphology and, hence, the properties of the porous layer, both in the porous silicon formation and the succeeding thermal treatment. This work focuses on the effect of the parameters that control the porous silicon formation on the structure of the porous silicon layer after annealing and, more specifically, on the roughness of the top surface. The reported analysis shows how the roughness of the seed layer can be reduced to improve the quality of the epitaxial growth.
In this paper we present a monolithically integrated wavelength selector based on a double pin/pin a-SiC:H integrated optical active filter that requires optical switches to select visible wavelengths. Red, green, blue and violet pulsed communication channels are transmitted together, each one with a specific bit sequence. The combined optical signal is analyzed by reading out the generated photocurrent, under violet (400 nm) background applied either from the front or the back side of the device. The front and back backgrounds acts as channel selectors that selects one or more channels by splitting portions of the input multi-channel optical signals across the front and the back photodiodes. The transfer characteristics effects due to changes irradiation side are presented. The relationship between the optical inputs and the corresponding digital output levels is established through a 16-element look-up table to perform the optoelectronic conversion.
Results show that the wavelength selector acts as a reconfigurable active filter that enhances the spectral sensitivity in a specific wavelength range and quenched it in the others, tuning a specific band. A binary weighted RGBV code that takes into account the specific weights assigned to each bit position is presented and establishes the optoelectronic functions.
In this paper we present the design of an optical transmission system, using plastic optical fiber (POF), which operates in the visible range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The optical signals are generated by modulated visible LEDs, transmitted through POF and at the reception end a pin-pin photodetector is implemented. A computer simulation tool dedicated to the analysis of optical circuits was used for preliminary analysis of the optical system. The performance of the optical link was analyzed by BER prediction variation on the transmission rate. The tested optical system was assembled using high efficiency LEDs of the same wavelengths, a commercial POF and a pin-pin photodetector based on a-SiC:H/a-SI:H. This detector behaves as an optical filter with controlled wavelength sensitivity. Different optical signals, obtained by adequate modulation of LED optical sources, were coupled into the POF and the combined optical signal at the fiber termination was directed onto the photodetector active area. The output photocurrent was measured with and without optical bias. Results compare the use of a pin-pin transducer device in free space and in a POF transmission link.
We have performed an analysis on three hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H) based solar cells. In order to determine the impact that impurities play in shaping the material properties, the XRD and Raman spectra corresponding to all three samples were measured. The XRD results, which displayed a number of crystalline silicon-based peaks, were used in order to approximate the mean crystallite sizes through Scherrer's equation. Through a peak decomposition process, the Raman results were used to estimate the corresponding crystalline volume fraction. It was noted that small crystallite sizes appear to favor larger crystalline volume fractions. This dependence seems to be related to the oxygen impurity concentration level within the intrinsic nc-Si:H layers.
The purpose of this paper is the design of simple combinational optoelectronic circuit based on SiC technology, able to act simultaneously as a 4-bit binary encoder or a binary decoder in a 4-to-16 line configurations. The 4-bit binary encoder takes all the data inputs, one by one, and converts them to a single encoded output. The binary decoder decodes a binary input pattern to a decimal output code.
The optoelectronic circuit is realized using a a-SiC:H double pin/pin photodetector with two front and back optical gates activated trough steady state violet background. Four red, green, blue and violet input channels impinge on the device at different bit sequences allowing 16 possible inputs. The device selects, through the violet background, one of the sixteen possible input logic signals and sends it to the output.
Results show that the device acts as a reconfigurable active filter and allows optical switching and optoelectronic logic functions development. A relationship between the optical inputs and the corresponding digital output levels is established. A binary color weighted code that takes into account the specific weights assigned to each bit position establish the optoelectronic functions. A truth table of an encoder that performs 16-to-1 multiplexer (MUX) function is presented.
We assessed vascular programming in genetically identical monochorionic twin pairs with twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome (TTTS) treated differently in utero by serial amnioreduction or fetal laser arterial photocoagulation. This case–control study re-assessed four twin groups at median 11 years comprising 20 pairs of monochorionic diamniotic twins: nine treated by amnioreduction (TTTS-amnio) and eleven by laser (TTTS-laser) with seven monochorionic and six dichorionic control pairs. Outcome measures were current blood pressure (BP), brachio-radial arterial stiffness derived from pulse wave velocity (PWV), resting microcirculation (Flux) and response to heating and post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia measured using laser Doppler. Potential confounders [PWV and BP at first study, current height, weight, heart rate and twin type (ex-recipient, ex-donor or heavier/lighter of pair)] were accounted for by Mixed Linear Models statistical methodology. PWV dichorionic > monochorionic (P = 0.024); systolic and diastolic BP dichorionic > TTTS-amnio and TTTS-laser (P = 0.004, P = 0.02 and P = 0.005, P = 0.02, respectively). Within-twin pair pattern of PWV discordance was similar in laser treated and dichorionic controls (heavier-born > lighter), opposite to TTTS-amnio and monochorionic controls. Flux monochorionic > dichorionic (P = 0.044) and heavier > lighter-born (P = 0.024). TTTS-laser and dichorionic diamniotic showed greatest hyperaemic responses (dichorionic > TTTS-amnio or monochorionic controls (P = 0.007, P = 0.025). Hyperaemic responses were slower in heavier-born twins (P = 0.005). In summary, monochorionic twins had lower BP, arterial stiffness and increased resting vasodilatation than dichorionic twins implying shared fetal circulation affects vascular development. Vascular responses in laser-TTTS were similar to dichorionic and opposite to TTTS-amnio suggesting a lasting effect of fetal therapy on vascular health.
This study focused on structural and optical properties of ZnO films grown epitaxially on Gd3Ga5O12 substrates. ZnO films (a = 3.2439 Å and c = 5.2036 Å) were deposited on the (001) and (111) planes of Gd3Ga5O12 (GGG: a = 12.383 Å) garnet substrates by a pulsed laser deposition method. From out-of-plane and in-plane X-ray diffraction measurements, the obtained ZnO films showed a single phase with the (0001) orientation on the GGG (001) and (111) substrates. The epitaxial relations between the ZnO film and GGG (001) substrate were [10-10] ZnO ‖  GGG and [10-10] ZnO ‖  GGG, while the epitaxial relations between the ZnO film and GGG (111) substrate were [10-10] ZnO ‖ [11-2] GGG ±21°. Furthermore, transmittance electron microscopy revealed sharp interfaces between ZnO films and GGG substrates. From photoluminescent spectra, the ZnO films showed donor bound emissions superimposed with free excitons at a low temperature of 10 K.
Hydrothermal formation reaction of tobermorite in the autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) process has been investigated by in situ X-ray diffraction. High-energy X-rays from a synchrotron radiation source in combination with a newly developed autoclave cell and a photon-counting pixel array detector were used. XRD measurements were conducted in a temperature range 100–190°C throughout 12 h of reaction time with a time interval of 4.25 min under a saturated steam pressure. To clarify the tobermorite formation mechanism in the AAC process, the effect of Al addition on the tobermorite formation reaction was studied. As intermediate phases, non-crystalline calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H), hydroxylellestadite (HE), and katoite (KA) were clearly observed. Consequently, it was confirmed that there were two reaction pathways via C-S-H and KA in the tobermorite formation reaction of Al containing system. In addition, detailed information on the structural changes during the hydrothermal reaction was obtained.
An in situ time-resolved XRD system for hydrothermal reaction has been developed in order to investigate the phase evolution during autoclave process in autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) formation. The system includes a novel autoclave cell for transmission XRD with thin beryllium windows, a two-dimensional photon-counting pixel array detector, and uses high energy X-rays from a synchrotron radiation source. The temperature and pressure inside the cell are extremely stable during hydrothermal reaction over the course of several hours. The system was utilized for the formation reaction of AAC. Phase evolution was clearly observed, including several intermediate phases, and detailed information on the structural changes during the hydrothermal reaction were obtained.
A hospital disaster drill is commonly carried out based on the activities assigned beforehand by the occupational description. However, it is difficult for each staff the role is fixing to understand the global image of a disaster correspondence in a hospital disaster when their role is assigned and fixed. We have developed the understandable drill about the whole practice at each hospital in disaster. We keenly realized the necessity of a standard disaster medicine. Therefore we have developed the disaster drill which can be held per hospital. As a goal of a course, each hospital personnel could understand the global image of the disaster, and aimed at the daily course which can master necessary minimum skill to correspond a disaster in each hospital. From the reasons above, we created the course which consisted of a lecture, individual skill training, and a gross training. As essential skill, it starts with (1) management of disaster countermeasures office (2) management of triage post (3) treatment at room (4) support of conveyance between hospitals (5) information control. In order to employ these individual skill booths efficiently we divided attendances into five groups. Five hospitals started from 2008, were carried out 11 times, and about 500 persons took this disaster drill on a course. We expect that cost to bellower, the course to be simpler, and the quality of training will improve by holding this course repeatedly.
Parallax measurements of the Galactic Mira variables with VERA have started since 2004 to establish their Period-Luminosity (PL) relationship in the Galaxy. Multi-epoch VLBI observations of a semiregular variable S Crt yielded an accurate parallax of 2.27±0.14 mas corresponding to the distance of 441+29−24 pc. In addition to the distance, we obtained physical properties of S Crt. Temperature of the photosphere was found to be ~3000 K by fitting the infrared spectrum with a blackbody radiation. The stellar radius was obtained based on the distance, apparent magnitude, and the temperature. Internal proper motions of circularly-arranged maser spots in S Crt were detected for the first time. Observations of the other Mira variables, such as R UMa, SY Scl, AP Lyn, and WX Psc are in progress.