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The study of electronic structure of materials is at a momentous stage, with new computational methods and advances in basic theory. Many properties of materials can be determined from the fundamental equations, and electronic structure theory is now an integral part of research in physics, chemistry, materials science and other fields. This book provides a unified exposition of the theory and methods, with emphasis on understanding each essential component. New in the second edition are recent advances in density functional theory, an introduction to Berry phases and topological insulators explained in terms of elementary band theory, and many new examples of applications. Graduate students and research scientists will find careful explanations with references to original papers, pertinent reviews, and accessible books. Each chapter includes a short list of the most relevant works and exercises that reveal salient points and challenge the reader.
Collision with power lines is a major cause of mortality for many bird species. Understanding the biotic and abiotic factors that increase collision risk is therefore important for implementing mitigation measures to minimize mortality, such as power line rerouting or wire marking. Here, we used collision events registered during 2003–2015 along 280 km of transmission power lines in southern Portugal to analyse spatio-temporal patterns and collision risk factors in two sympatric, threatened, and collision-prone species: the great bustard Otis tarda and the little bustard Tetrax tetrax. The occurrence of collisions was not uniform across space and time, and variations could be explained by the species' ecological requirements, distribution patterns and behaviour. Although both species fly considerable distances between areas of suitable habitat, collisions were far more likely in power line sections with > 20% (for the little bustard) or > 50% (for the great bustard) of open farmland habitat in the surroundings. Power line configuration was also important: taller pylons and those with a higher number of wire levels posed a higher risk for both species. Wire marking had a small but significant effect for the little bustard, reducing collisions risk. There was, however, no similar effect for the great bustard, possibly a result of limited data. Mitigation measures should be implemented to prevent bustard collisions, including adequate route planning, ideally avoiding areas with > 20% of open habitat. Line configuration and wire marking are particularly important where such localities cannot be avoided and power lines cross areas with a high proportion of bustard habitat, including outside protected areas.
The stress balance within an ice shelf is key to the resistance, or buttressing, it can provide and in part controls the rate of ice discharge from the upstream ice sheet. Unconfined ice shelves are widely assumed to provide no buttressing. However, theory and laboratory-scale analogue experiments have shown that unconfined, floating viscous flows generate buttressing via hoop stresses. Hoop stress results from the viscous resistance to spreading perpendicular to the flow direction in a diverging flow. We build on theoretical work to explore the controls on the magnitude of hoop-stress buttressing, deducing that buttressing increases with increasing effective viscosity and increasing divergence. We use an idealised model calibrated to unconfined sections of Antarctic ice shelves and find that many shelves have low effective viscosity, most likely due to extensive damage resulting from high extensional stresses. Therefore, they are unable to sustain the large hoop stresses required to resist flow. Some ice shelves that are surrounded by sea ice year-round have a greater effective viscosity and can provide buttressing, suggesting that sea ice reduces fracturing. However, we find that most unconfined ice shelves provide insignificant buttressing today, even when hoop stresses are considered in the stress balance.
Psychotropic drugs are frequently and sometimes inappropriately used for the treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms of people with dementia, despite their limited efficacy and side effects. Interventions to address neuropsychiatric symptoms and psychotropic drug use are multifactorial and often multidisciplinary. Suboptimal implementation of these complex interventions often limits their effectiveness. This systematic review provides an overview of barriers and facilitators influencing the implementation of complex interventions targeting neuropsychiatric symptoms and psychotropic drug use in long-term care.
To identify relevant studies, the following electronic databases were searched between 28 May and 4 June: PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Cochrane, and CINAHL. Two reviewers systematically reviewed the literature, and the quality of the included studies was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme qualitative checklist. The frequency of barriers and facilitators was addressed, followed by deductive thematic analysis describing their positive of negative influence. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research guided data synthesis.
Fifteen studies were included, using mostly a combination of intervention types and care programs, as well as different implementation strategies. Key factors to successful implementation included strong leadership and support of champions. Also, communication and coordination between disciplines, management support, sufficient resources, and culture (e.g. openness to change) influenced implementation positively. Barriers related mostly to unstable organizations, such as renovations to facility, changes toward self-directed teams, high staff turnover, and perceived work and time pressures.
Implementation is complex and needs to be tailored to the specific needs and characteristics of the organization in question. Champions should be carefully chosen, and the application of learned actions and knowledge into practice is expected to further improve implementation.
B-vitamins involved in one-carbon metabolism have been implicated in the development of inflammation- and angiogenesis-related chronic diseases, such as colorectal cancer. Yet, the role of one-carbon metabolism in inflammation and angiogenesis among colorectal cancer patients remains unclear.
The objective of this study was to investigate associations of components of one-carbon metabolism with inflammation and angiogenesis biomarkers among newly diagnosed colorectal cancer patients (n=238) in the prospective ColoCare Study, Heidelberg.
We cross-sectionally analyzed associations between 12 B-vitamins and one-carbon metabolites and 10 inflammation and angiogenesis biomarkers from pre-surgery serum samples using multivariable linear regression models. We further explored associations among novel biomarkers in these pathways with Spearman partial correlation analyses. We hypothesized that pyridoxal-5’-phosphate (PLP) is inversely associated with inflammatory biomarkers.
We observed that PLP was inversely associated with CRP (r=-0.33, plinear<0.0001), SAA (r=-0.23, plinear=0.003), IL-6 (r=-0.39, plinear <0.0001), IL-8 (r=-0.20, plinear=0.02) and TNFα (r=-0.12, plinear=0.045). Similar findings were observed for 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate and CRP (r=-0.14), SAA (r=-0.14) and TNFα (r=-0.15) among colorectal cancer patients. Folate catabolite apABG was positively correlated with IL-6 (r= 0.27, plinear<0.0001) and pABG was positively correlated with IL-8 (r= 0.21, plinear<0.0001), indicating higher folate utilization during inflammation.
Our data support the hypothesis of inverse associations between PLP and inflammatory biomarkers among colorectal cancer patients. A better understanding of the role and inter-relation of PLP and other one-carbon metabolites with inflammatory processes among colorectal carcinogenesis and prognosis could identify targets for future dietary guidance for colorectal cancer patients.
American essayist, novelist, and screenwriter Joan Didion once observed: “We tell ourselves stories in order to live.”1 If we broaden her idea to include storytelling to others, then Ovid’s claim in the last word of the Metamorphoses (15.879) fully applies: vivam – “I shall live.”2 In the preceding line Ovid had prepared this point: ore legar populi (“people will read me”). In this way an ancient author appended a seal – in Greek, sphragis – to his work. Today a great filmmaker could say: “People will watch my films” – or, in not quite Ovidian (because unmetrical) Latin: oculis spectabor populi.
Chapters 10 and 11 form the final part of the book. They address the concepts of artistic immortality – Ovid asserts his own at the end of the Metamorphoses – and the survival, or eternal returns, of works of art. Chapter 10 examines Ovid’s portrayal of Pythagoras, whose philosophy included reincarnation: the continuation of life after death. Pythagoras, who is often seen as Ovid’s analogue, declares: “everything changes, nothing perishes.” The same idea underlies the Italian film Four Times, one of the most emotionally involving disquisitions on nature and on the nature of life and death. Today, the cinema and related media preserve images of actors and others well beyond their natural lifespans. Screen images, we may say, are freed from time and space. Ovid’s Pythagoras had spoken of the wandering image (or appearance). Ovid, and specifically his praise of Roman ladies, is therefore rightly adduced in Roberto Rossellini’s film The Age of the Medici, one of the most beautiful films ever made on the greatness of the Italian Renaissance and, by extension, of classical and later civilization at large.
Chapter 2 combines one aspect of Eisenstein’s theory, his concept of film sense, with Ovid (and beyond Ovid) and, in addition, applies the idea of cinemetamorphosis introduced in Chapter 1. Eisenstein considered classical antiquity as a kind of foundation for the cinema. On several occasions he related cinematic techniques to his expositions of classic (but not classical) literature: Dickens, Pushkin, Zola. Following Eisenstein’s model, this chapter demonstrates what might be called Ovid’s inherent film sense by transforming parts of two famous myths from the Metamorphoses (Arachne’s tapestry, the fate of Niobe’s children) into preliminary screenplays and by analyzing a famous moment in Alfred Hitchcock’s Rear Window in conjunction with the beginning of Ovid’s Amores 1.5. The mirrored image of Ovid’s Narcissus (also from the Metamorphoses), who is deceived by his own reflection in water, is an analogy to the nature of insubstantial images on screen. Additional observations address the visual qualities in classical literature beginning with Homer. The chapter closes with Christoph Ransmayr’s The Last World, in which some of the tales from the Metamorphoses are being shown as films at the time of Ovid’s exile in Tomis. The intentional anachronism of impossible cinematic images in this postmodern novel illustrates, from a different (textual) perspective, the visual nature of Ovid’s art and his affinity for a creative medium he could not have foreseen.
The description of Daedalus’ labyrinth, built as prison without possibility of escape for the Minotaur, is one of Ovid’s most famous passages. Modern, and especially postmodern, theory has often regarded the labyrinth as an analogy to complex literary compositions, with Ariadne’s thread as a kind of reader’s guide through such textual mazes. (Scholars regard Daedalus as a creative analogy to Ovid himself.) Chapter 4 accordingly centers on literal and figurative screen labyrinths. Since around 1960, elusive nonlinear plots became prominent in cinematic narratives, especially in French New Wave cinema. One film is of primary importance in this regard. Last Year at Marienbad, directed by Alain Resnais from a script by novelist Alain Robbe-Grillet, is set in and around an intricate maze-like building, in which time and place seem to exert a hallucinatory effect on the film’s characters and, in equal measure, on its viewers. Fascinating labyrinths appear in various film genres as well. Stanley Kubrick’s The Shining features one literal and one figurative maze; the latter, a large and complex building that exerts a demonic will, is the more deadly one. The titular house of Harry Kümel’s cult favorite Malpertuis is even more hellish – literally so because of its connection with classical Underworld mythology. Briefer discussions of two stylish mysteries, Mario Bava’s The Girl Who Knew Too Much and Jean-Jacques Annaud’s The Name of the Rose, lead to a final section with appreciations of other screen labyrinths and Minotaurs.
Chapter 6 continues the subject of screen metamorphosis from a different perspective. It takes the first metamorphosis in Ovid’s epic, that of the evil Lycaon into a wolf, as its cue to discuss different approaches by filmmakers to putting abnormal psychic phenomena on the screen. Transformations of a human into an animal or into a human monster and someone’s possession of another’s mind are staples of horror stories in word and image. This chapter also examines technical aspects of screen metamorphoses from man to beast. Ovid’s Lycaon sets the scene. The name Lycaon derives from the Greek word for wolf. The Wolf Man, a classic series of horror films, can be shown to derive directly from Ovid. Other films are revealing examples of background Ovidianism. The screen metamorphoses of Dr. Jekyll into Mr. Hyde are instructive for the processes by which such transformations were achieved before CGI. The chapter closes with analyses of two films by Ingmar Bergman (Hour of the Wolf, Persona), in which psychological horror replaces the surface thrills of standard shockers.
The next two chapters deal with key aspects of direct and indirect Ovidianism in film history. Chapter 3 details a particular moment, both Ovidian and cinematic, in the artistic development of Gabriele D’Annunzio, once Italy’s pre-eminent writer, and its far-ranging repercussions for D’Annunzio and all of film history. D’Annunzio saw himself as an artistic and spiritual descendent of Ovid. His poems, especially Alcyone, provide ample evidence. Daphne’s metamorphosis into a laurel tree in the Metamorphoses prompted D’Annunzio to abandon his earlier disdain for the new medium of cinema and to make film history himself: in his practical involvement with several productions and in regard to the origins of film stardom. D’Annunzio became one of the first formulators of film theory, perhaps the first ever. This chapter also addresses the Ovidian nature of a pre-cinematic apparatus such as the thaumatrope and the impulse that American educators received from early cinema and D’Annunzio. None of this would have occurred the way it did without Ovid in the background.
Chapter 1 outlines the theoretical basis on which the following chapters build and defines adaptations of literature to cinema, television, and other screens as cinemetamorphoses, an allusion to the title of Ovid’s most famous work. Scholars distinguish between foreground and background Ovidianism: the former indicates intentional, the latter unconscious or not immediately obvious affinities between a work or passage by Ovid and allusions to, or echoes of, this source in later literature or the visual arts. Sergei Eisenstein, the great Russian filmmaker and theoretician of cinema, coined the expression montage of attractions for one of the creative principles of film editing; in the present book, his term is applied in an expanded sense: that of indicating the affinities, either close or loose, between Ovid’s works and films based on or taking up various topics, characters, plot situations, and additional aspects, primarily from famous myths in his Metamorphoses, to which Ovid has given definitive shape. A Roman marble relief showing Hermes, Orpheus, and Eurydice illustrates the close ties between text and image through a classical visual work of art. This chapter also provides a preview of the following chapters’ contents. Finally, Chapter 1 gives examples of the kind of background Ovidianism largely excluded from this book.
Chapter 8 treats the subject of love and death from two different angles. Ovid’s Heroides is a series of letters by famous women in myth, addressed to their absent husbands, lovers, or sweethearts, some of whom write back. A number of the women writers face imminent death. The first part of this chapter examines the main characteristics of the letters in the Heroides and applies these to one particular, and particularly haunting, film: Max Ophüls’ Letter from an Unknown Woman, based on a novella by Stefan Zweig. In this case, background Ovidianism is especially striking, as can be seen and heard in the opening sentence of the letter written by the film’s heroine to her callous lover: “By the Time You Read This Letter, I May Be Dead.” Who could resist such an opening? The chapter’s second part examines a variety of screen responses to the myth of Philemon and Baucis from the Metamorphoses. These range from a big-budget Hollywood “weepie” (The Notebook) to Mr. Sycamore, an independent production with a quirky not-quite-romance. This little gem deserves renewed appreciation. Discussions of some other European and American productions round off the chapter.