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Death is a universal and profoundly emotive human experience with social and economic implications that extend to communities as a whole. As such, the act of disposing of the dead is typically laden with deep meaning and significance. Archaeological investigations of funerary practices are thus important sources of information on the social contexts and worldviews of ancient societies. Changes in funerary practices are often thought to reflect organisational or cosmological transformations within a society (Carr 1995; Robb 2013). The focus of this volume is the role of cognition and consciousness in the accelerated sociocultural developments of the Neolithic Period in the Near East. In the introduction to this volume, Hodder identifies three commonly cited cognitive changes that can be measured against various archaeological datasets from Çatalhöyük. The funerary remains at Çatalhöyük are an obvious source of data for validating Hodder’s third measure of change: a shift from a fluid and fragmented conception of the body and of selfhood to a greater awareness of an integrated, bounded personal self.
Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is the most frequently reported hospital-acquired infection in the United States. Bioaerosols generated during toilet flushing are a possible mechanism for the spread of this pathogen in clinical settings.
To measure the bioaerosol concentration from toilets of patients with CDI before and after flushing.
In this pilot study, bioaerosols were collected 0.15 m, 0.5 m, and 1.0 m from the rims of the toilets in the bathrooms of hospitalized patients with CDI. Inhibitory, selective media were used to detect C. difficile and other facultative anaerobes. Room air was collected continuously for 20 minutes with a bioaerosol sampler before and after toilet flushing. Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to assess the difference in bioaerosol production before and after flushing.
Rooms of patients with CDI at University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics.
Bacteria were positively cultured from 8 of 24 rooms (33%). In total, 72 preflush and 72 postflush samples were collected; 9 of the preflush samples (13%) and 19 of the postflush samples (26%) were culture positive for healthcare-associated bacteria. The predominant species cultured were Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, and C. difficile. Compared to the preflush samples, the postflush samples showed significant increases in the concentrations of the 2 large particle-size categories: 5.0 µm (P = .0095) and 10.0 µm (P = .0082).
Bioaerosols produced by toilet flushing potentially contribute to hospital environmental contamination. Prevention measures (eg, toilet lids) should be evaluated as interventions to prevent toilet-associated environmental contamination in clinical settings.
We used a survey to characterize contemporary infection prevention and antibiotic stewardship program practices across 64 healthcare facilities, and we compared these findings to those of a similar 2013 survey. Notable findings include decreased frequency of active surveillance for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, frequent active surveillance for carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and increased support for antibiotic stewardship programs.
The disease caused by the influenza virus is a global public health problem due to its high rates of morbidity and mortality. Thus, analysis of the information generated by epidemiological surveillance systems has vital importance for health decision making. A retrospective analysis was performed using data generated by the four molecular diagnostic laboratories of the Mexican Social Security Institute between 2010 and 2016. Demographics, influenza positivity, seasonality, treatment choices and vaccination status analyses were performed for the vaccine according to its composition for each season. In all cases, both the different influenza subtypes and different age groups were considered separately. The circulation of A/H1N1pdm09 (48.7%), influenza A/H3N2 (21.1%), influenza B (12.6%), influenza A not subtyped (11%) and influenza A/H1N1 (6.6%) exhibited well-defined annual seasonality between November and March, and there were significant increases in the number of cases every 2 years. An inadequate use of oseltamivir was determined in 38% of cases, and the vaccination status in general varied between 12.1 and 18.5% depending on the season. Our results provide current information about influenza in Mexico and demonstrate the need to update both operational case definitions and medical practice guidelines to reduce the inappropriate use of antibiotics and antivirals.
To ascertain opinions regarding etiology and preventability of hospital-onset bacteremia and fungemia (HOB) and perspectives on HOB as a potential outcome measure reflecting quality of infection prevention and hospital care.
Hospital epidemiologists and infection preventionist members of the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America (SHEA) Research Network.
A web-based, multiple-choice survey was administered via the SHEA Research Network to 133 hospitals.
A total of 89 surveys were completed (67% response rate). Overall, 60% of respondents defined HOB as a positive blood culture on or after hospital day 3. Central line-associated bloodstream infections and intra-abdominal infections were perceived as the most frequent etiologies. Moreover, 61% thought that most HOB events are preventable, and 54% viewed HOB as a measure reflecting a hospital’s quality of care. Also, 29% of respondents’ hospitals already collect HOB data for internal purposes. Given a choice to publicly report central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) and/or HOB, 57% favored reporting either HOB alone (22%) or in addition to CLABSI (35%) and 34% favored CLABSI alone.
Among the majority of SHEA Research Network respondents, HOB is perceived as preventable, reflective of quality of care, and potentially acceptable as a publicly reported quality metric. Further studies on HOB are needed, including validation as a quality measure, assessment of risk adjustment, and formation of evidence-based bundles and toolkits to facilitate measurement and improvement of HOB rates.
There is substantial evidence that many depressed individuals experience impaired executive functioning. Understanding the causes of executive dysfunction in depression is clinically important because cognitive impairment is a substantial contributor to functional impairment. This study investigated whether elevated levels of an inflammatory cytokine [interleukin-6 (IL-6)] and/or higher body mass index (BMI) concurrently and/or prospectively accounted for the relationship between depressive symptoms and impaired executive functioning in adolescents.
A diverse, community sample of adolescents (N = 288; mean age = 16.33; 51.4% female; 59.0% African-American) completed assessments of height and weight, IL-6, depressive symptoms, and self-report/behavioral measures of executive functioning (selective attention, switching attention) and future orientation annually over 3 years. Adolescents experiencing acute illness or medical conditions that affect inflammation were excluded from analyses. Path analysis within a structural equation modeling framework simultaneously examined the concurrent and prospective relationships between BMI, IL-6, depressive symptoms, and the measures of cognitive functioning across three timepoints.
Across all timepoints, higher BMI was prospectively associated with higher levels of IL-6 and depressive symptoms, while higher levels of IL-6 were associated with worse performance on three behavioral and self-report measures of cognitive functioning. Higher depressive symptoms also were prospectively associated with elevated IL-6 and both higher depressive symptoms and a higher BMI predicted worse future executive functioning via increased IL-6.
More severe depressive symptoms and increased BMI may disrupt executive functioning via elevated IL-6.
This study reports the fabrication of high mass loading (32 mg/cm2) electrodes of niobium pentoxide (Nb2O5) nanoparticles and carbon nanotubes (CNTs) using a facile procedure. The as-obtained Nb2O5 nanoparticles by microwave-assisted hydrothermal synthesis presented pseudohexagonal (TT) phase, and when exposed to the thermal treatment, the Nb2O5 nanoparticles changed to orthorhombic (T) phase. Distinct morphologies were obtained, which exhibited a specific surface area of 216 m2/g and 47 m2/g to pseudohexagonal and orthorhombic phases, respectively. Cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques were performed in a three-electrode system using 1 M Li2SO4 as electrolyte with a potential window of 0–0.9 V (versus standard calomel electrode). Both materials showed capacitive behavior with a specific capacitance of 0.11 F/cm2 and 0.09 F/cm2 to nanocomposites CNT + TT-Nb2O5 and CNT + T-Nb2O5 at 2 mV/s, respectively. Thus, an efficient, simple, and promising process to produce electrodes for supercapacitors was demonstrated.
Due to the lack of basic information on water required by maize (Zea mays L.) in Brazil, the large amount of water applied usually exceeds crop requirements, wasting water and energy. In this study, we measured crop evapotranspiration (ETc) as evaporative heat flux from a centre pivot-irrigated maize plantation in Southern Brazil during winter and summer seasons, using the Bowen ratio method to evaluate how the degree of canopy-atmosphere coupling affects crop water needs and irrigation management. Irrigation requirements were determined by comparing ETc with reference evapotranspiration (ETo), derived from the Penman–Monteith equation and expressed as the ETc/ETo (Kc) ratio. In this study, the average Kc values obtained were 1.31 and 0.90 for the winter and summer, respectively. Using aerodynamic and canopy resistance measurements, the decoupling factor (Ω) was computed. Ω values tending to zero (0.09 and 0.20 for winter and summer, respectively) showed that strong coupling of maize plants to the atmosphere and sensitivity to high air temperatures, vapour pressure deficits and wind speed caused variations in Kc in relation to ETo ranges. During the experimental period, the Kc value ranged from 0.92 when the ETo exceeded 4 mm d−1 to 1.64 when the ETo was less than 2 mm d−1.
Circulating 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) is related to decreased rates of gastrointestinal and ear infections in school-age children. Vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) transports 25(OH)D and exerts immunological functions; however, it is unknown whether DBP is associated with infectious morbidity in children. We quantified plasma DBP concentrations in 540 school-age children at the time of recruitment into a cohort study in Bogotá, Colombia and obtained daily information on infectious morbidity symptoms and doctor visits during the school year. We compared the incidence rates of gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms across quartiles of DBP concentration by estimating adjusted incidence rate ratios (IRRs) with 95% confidence interval (CI). We also estimated the per cent of the associations between DBP and morbidity that were mediated through 25(OH)D using a counterfactual frame. Mean ± s.d. DBP concentration was 2650 ± 1145 nmol/l. DBP was inversely associated with the rates of diarrhoea with vomiting (IRR for quartiles 2–4 vs. 1 = 0.48; 95% CI 0.25–0.92; P = 0.03) and earache/ear discharge with fever (IRR for quartiles 2–4 vs. 1 = 0.29; 95% CI 0.12–0.71; P = 0.006). The DBP–morbidity associations were not mediated through 25(OH)D. We conclude that plasma DBP predicts lower incidence of gastrointestinal and ear infections in school-age children independent of 25(OH)D.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Afebrile septic patients are twice as likely to die and develop nosocomial infections as compared with those with fever; the reason for these differences is unknown. One hypothesis is that elevated temperatures directly boost immunity and inhibit microorganism growth. However, there is little data examining the clinical effects of warming septic patients. The goal of this study was to determine whether warming afebrile septic patients to fever-range hyperthermia with noninvasive forced air warmers is feasible and safe. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This is an ongoing randomized trial on afebrile mechanically ventilated patients with severe sepsis. The intervention consisted of 48 hours of external warming with a forced air warming device to a goal core temperature of 1.5°C higher than the lowest recorded temperature within the 24 hours preceding enrollment. Efficacy of the intervention and adverse event data (i.e., increases in heart rate and vasopressor doses) were collected. Clinical outcomes included 28-day mortality and acquisition of secondary infections. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: In total, 18 patients were randomized to the control and warming groups, respectively. Baseline characteristics (including demographics, comorbidities, and illness severity scores) were similar among the 2 groups, except the control group had more males (61% vs. 28%, p=0.04). Median (IQR) body temperature averaged over the 48-hour intervention period was higher in the warming group [38.2 (37.6, 38.6) vs. 37.1 (36.4, 37.4) °C, p<0.001). Patients in the warming group achieved core temperatures above their goal for a median of 37 (IQR 11, 45) hours during the 48-hour intervention period. There were no differences in heart rate or vasopressor dose changes or acquisition of secondary infections between the groups. Eight (44.4%) control patients and 3 (16.7%) warmed patients died by day 28 (p=0.07). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Externally warming severe septic patients with forced air warming devices effectively raises core body temperature and is safe. Additional research will focus on cellular and immunological changes seen in warmed Versus control patients.
Milk fat composition can be modulated by the inclusion of lipid supplements in ruminant diets. An interaction between the lipid supplement and the forage to concentrate ratio or the type of forage in the rations may affect milk fat composition. However, little is known about the effects of the starch-to-non-forage NDF ratio in the concentrate and lipid supplementation of goat diets. The aim of this work was to determine the role of dietary carbohydrates in goats rations supplemented with linseed oil on animal performance and milk fatty acid (FA) profile. A total of 16 dairy goats were allocated to two simultaneous experiments (two treatments each), in a crossover design with four animals per treatment and two experimental periods of 25 days. In both experiments alfalfa hay was the sole forage and the forage to concentrate ratio (33:67) remained constant. The concentrate in experiment 1 consisted of barley, maize and soybean meal (concentrate rich in starch), whereas it included soybean hulls replacing 25% of barley and 25% maize in experiment 2 (concentrate rich in NDF). As a result, the starch-to-non-forage NDF ratio was 3.1 in experiment 1 and it decreased to 0.8 in experiment 2. Both concentrates were administered either alone or in combination with 30 g/day of linseed oil. Animal performance parameters were not affected by experimental treatments. In contrast, major changes were observed in milk FA profile due to lipid supplementation and the type of concentrate. Linseed oil significantly raised vaccenic and rumenic acids as well as α-linolenic acid and its biohydrogenation intermediates while decreased medium-chain saturated FA (12:0 to 16:0) in milk fat. Milk fat contents of odd and branched-chain FA and trans-10 18:1 responded differently to linseed oil supplementation according to the concentrate fed.
Composite of PZT (lead zirconate titanate) and PLZT (lead lanthanum zirconate titanate) along an organic, renewable, conductive, and flexible matrix have been developed. The conductive paper was obtained through the reaction between the cellulose extracted from banana stem and functionalized MWCNT. This reaction was made in the presence of hydrogen (from H2SO4), which reduced the size of the cellulose by acid hydrolysis and promotes the interaction between its hydroxyls and the carboxyl groups of nanotubes. Afterward, the PZT particles were synthesized and grown up on the conductive paper by microwaves-assisted hydrothermal synthesis (MHS). The composite material was characterized by structure and morphology. Moreover, gas-sensing in the presence of methanol and electrical resistance as a function of temperature were also investigated. In this way, a simple, low-cost and successful synthesis was reported. Also, a promising flexible was obtained using a chemical transformation process from banana residue as source of cellulose.
To determine incidence of and risk factors for readmissions with multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) infections among patients with previous MDRO infection.
Retrospective cohort of patients admitted between January 1, 2006, and October 1, 2015.
Barnes-Jewish Hospital, a 1,250-bed academic tertiary referral center in St Louis, Missouri.
We identified patients with MDROs obtained from the bloodstream, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)/bronchial wash, or other sterile sites. Centers for Disease Control and prevention (CDC) and European CDC definitions of MDROs were utilized. All readmissions ≤1 year from discharge from the index MDRO hospitalization were evaluated for bloodstream, BAL/bronchial wash, or other sterile site cultures positive for the same or different MDROs.
In total, 4,429 unique patients had a positive culture for an MDRO; 3,453 of these (78.0%) survived the index hospitalization. Moreover, 2,127 patients (61.6%) were readmitted ≥1 time within a year, for a total of 5,849 readmissions. Furthermore, 512 patients (24.1%) had the same or a different MDRO isolated from blood, BAL/bronchial wash, or another sterile site during a readmission. Bone marrow transplant, end-stage renal disease, lymphoma, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, or carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa during index hospitalization were factors associated with increased risk of having an MDRO isolated during a readmission. MDROs isolated during readmissions were in the same class of MDRO as the index hospitalization 9%–78% of the time, with variation by index pathogen.
Readmissions among patients with MDRO infections are frequent. Various patient and organism factors predispose to readmission. When readmitted patients had an MDRO, it was often a pathogen in the same class as that isolated during the index admission, with the exception of Acinetobacter (~9%).
Neospora caninum is a coccidian intracellular protozoan capable of infecting a wide range of mammals, although severe disease is mostly reported in dogs and cattle. Innate defences triggered by monocytes/macrophages are key in the pathogenesis of neosporosis, as these cells are first-line defenders against intracellular infections. The aim of this study was to characterize infection and innate responses in macrophages infected with N. caninum using a well-known cell model to study macrophage functions (human monocyte THP-1 cells). Intracellular invasion of live tachyzoites occurred as fast as 4 h (confirmed with immunofluorescence microscopy using N. caninum-specific antibodies). Macrophages infected by N. caninum had increased expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL-1β, IL-8, IFNγ). Interestingly, N. caninum induced expression of host-defence peptides (cathelicidins), a mechanism of defence never reported for N. caninum infection in macrophages. The expression of cytokines and cathelicidins in macrophages invaded by N. caninum was mediated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK 1/2). Secretion of such innate factors from N. caninum-infected macrophages reduced parasite internalization and promoted the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines in naïve macrophages. We concluded that rapid invasion of macrophages by N. caninum triggered protective innate defence mechanisms against intracellular pathogens.
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in the Southern region of the State of Bahia, evaluating the performance of alternative complementary methods for cervical lesion detection. Cervical samples from women who attended healthcare units were collected and diagnosed by visual inspection, cervical cytology and nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Moreover, hemi-nested PCR was performed to detect different HPV genotypes. The prevalence of HPV infection was 47·7%, with genotype 16 detected in most cases. Infection was associated with dyspareunia and bleeding (P < 0·001, odds ratio (OR) 5·6, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2·815–11·14) and hormonal contraceptive use (P = 0·007, OR 2·33, 95% CI 1·25–4·34). There was a positive correlation between positive PCR and positive visual inspection, cervical cytology and symptoms reported. Furthermore, visual inspection was twice as specific, and had a greater positive predictive value than cytology. We showed a high prevalence of HPV infection in Southern Bahia, with HPV 16 being the most common type, and visual inspection being most effective at detecting HPV lesions, corroborating the suggestion that it can be applied in routine gynecologic examinations for low-income populations.