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In an annular spherical domain with separation
, the onset of convective motion occurs at a critical Rayleigh number
. Solving the axisymmetric linear stability problem shows that degenerate points
exist where two modes simultaneously become unstable. Considering the weakly nonlinear evolution of these two modes, it is found that spatial resonances play a crucial role in determining the preferred convection pattern for neighbouring modes
$(\ell ,\ell \pm 1)$
and non-neighbouring even modes
$(\ell ,\ell \pm 2)$
. Deriving coupled amplitude equations relevant to all degeneracies, we outline the possible solutions and the influence of changes in
and Prandtl number
. Using direct numerical simulation (DNS) to verify all results, time periodic solutions are also outlined for small
periodic signature observed to be general for oscillations in a spherical annulus is explained using the structure of the equations. The relevance of all solutions presented is determined by computing their stability with respect to non-axisymmetric perturbations at large
With prevention and treatment of mental disorders a challenge for primary care and increasing capability of electronic medical records (EMRs) to facilitate research in practice, we aim to determine the prevalence and treatment of mental disorders by using routinely collected clinical data contained in EMRs.
We reviewed EMRs of patients randomly sampled from seven general practices, by piloting a study instrument and extracting data on mental disorders and their treatment.
Data were collected on 690 patients (age range 18–95, 52% male, 52% GMS-eligible). A mental disorder (most commonly anxiety/stress, depression and problem alcohol use) was recorded in the clinical records of 139 (20%) during the 2-year study period. While most patients with the common disorders had been prescribed medication (i.e. antidepressants or benzodiazepines), a minority had been referred to other agencies or received psychological interventions. ‘Free text’ consultation notes and ‘prescriptions’ were how most patients with disorders were identified. Diagnostic coding alone would have failed to identify 92% of patients with a disorder.
Although mental disorders are common in general practice, this study suggests their formal diagnosis, disease coding and access to psychological treatments are priorities for future research efforts.
Cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) has been shown to reduce psychological morbidity in people with cancer, but no randomized controlled trial (RCT) exists in palliative care. We aimed to determine whether home care nurses could be taught to deliver basic cognitive behavioural techniques and so reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression.
Clinical nurse specialists (CNSs) at St Christopher's Hospice were randomly allocated to receive training in CBT or continue their usual practice. At the end of the trial, nurses were rated on the Cognitive Therapy First Aid Rating Scale (CTFARS) for CBT competence. Home care patients who scored as possible cases on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) entered the trial. Participants received home care nursing visits. Assessments were carried out at baseline, 6, 10 and 16 weeks.
Eight nurses received CBT training and seven continued practice as usual. The mean CTFARS scores were 35.9 for the CBT nurses and 19.0 for the controls (p=0.02). A total of 328 patients (54%) were possible cases and 80 entered the trial; most of those excluded were too ill to participate. There was an interaction between group and time: individuals receiving CBT had lower anxiety scores over time [coefficient −0.20, 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.35 to −0.05, p=0.01]. No effect of the training was found for depression.
It is possible to conduct a randomized trial of psychological interventions in palliative care but there is considerable attrition from physical morbidity and mortality. Nurses can learn to integrate basic CBT methods into their clinical practice. This training may be associated with better outcomes for symptoms of anxiety.
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