To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
As the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) continues to circulate, testing strategies are of the utmost importance. Given national shortages of testing supplies, personal protective equipment, and other hospital resources, diagnostic stewardship is necessary to aid in resource management. We report the low utility of serial testing in a low-prevalence setting.
Subglacial Antarctic aquatic environments are important targets for scientific exploration due to the unique ecosystems they support and their sediments containing palaeoenvironmental records. Directly accessing these environments while preventing forward contamination and demonstrating that it has not been introduced is logistically challenging. The Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling (WISSARD) project designed, tested and implemented a microbiologically and chemically clean method of hot-water drilling that was subsequently used to access subglacial aquatic environments. We report microbiological and biogeochemical data collected from the drilling system and underlying water columns during sub-ice explorations beneath the McMurdo and Ross ice shelves and Whillans Ice Stream. Our method reduced microbial concentrations in the drill water to values three orders of magnitude lower than those observed in Whillans Subglacial Lake. Furthermore, the water chemistry and composition of microorganisms in the drill water were distinct from those in the subglacial water cavities. The submicron filtration and ultraviolet irradiation of the water provided drilling conditions that satisfied environmental recommendations made for such activities by national and international committees. Our approach to minimizing forward chemical and microbiological contamination serves as a prototype for future efforts to access subglacial aquatic environments beneath glaciers and ice sheets.
We present a study of laser-driven ion acceleration with micrometre and sub-micrometre thick targets, which focuses on the enhancement of the maximum proton energy and the total number of accelerated particles at the PHELIX facility. Using laser pulses with a nanosecond temporal contrast of up to
and an intensity of the order of
, proton energies up to 93 MeV are achieved. Additionally, the conversion efficiency at
incidence angle was increased when changing the laser polarization to p, enabling similar proton energies and particle numbers as in the case of normal incidence and s-polarization, but reducing the debris on the last focusing optic.
We propose and demonstrate the use of random phase plates (RPPs) for high-energy sub-picosecond lasers. Contrarily to previous work related to nanosecond lasers, an RPP poses technical challenges with ultrashort-pulse lasers. Here, we implement the RPP near the beginning of the amplifier and image-relay it throughout the laser amplifier. With this, we obtain a uniform intensity distribution in the focus over an area 1600 times the diffraction limit. This method shows no significant drawbacks for the laser and it has been implemented at the PHELIX laser facility where it is now available for users.
Although academics can receive considerable training in selecting appropriate research designs, types of data to collect, and methods for analyzing data, as well as guidance on preparing scholarly manuscripts, there is a dearth of information on how to initiate and manage partnerships with organizations in order to conduct high-quality applied research, particularly when the research is quantitative in nature. In this article, we provide our own experience-based insights and recommendations to help academics more easily (a) initiate a research relationship with senior organizational leadership, (b) decide early whether to pursue or end a research collaboration with an organization, (c) keep the organization engaged during the study, and (d) maintain the relationship with the organization after data collection is complete. This information is proposed as a complement to traditional organizational research methods and as instrumental in the pursuit of research salient to the interests of organizational practitioners.
We performed a new series of measurements on samples that were part of early measurements on radiocarbon (14C) dating made in 1948–1949. Our results show generally good agreement to the data published in 1949–1951, despite vast changes in technology, with only two exceptions where there was a discrepancy in the original studies. Our new measurements give calibrated ages that overlap with the known ages. We dated several samples at four different laboratories, and so we were also able to make a small intercomparison at the same time. In addition, new measurements on samples from other Egyptian materials used by Libby and co-workers were made at UC Irvine. Samples of tree rings used in the original studies (from Broken Flute Cave and Centennial Stump) were obtained from the University of Arizona Laboratory of Tree-Ring Research archive and remeasured. New data were compared to the original studies and other records.
Resist lithography is an important microfabrication technique in the electronics industry. In this, patterns are transferred by irradiation onto a photosensitive polymer. SU-8 has emerged as a favorite photoresist for High Aspect Ratio (HAR) lithography, showing high chemical and mechanical stability and biocompatibility. Unfortunately, its poor adhesion to substrates is a drawback, with possible solutions being the use of low-viscosity SU-8, surface modification with a low molecular weight adsorbate like hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS), or a commercial adhesion promotion reagent. However, HMDS and the commercial reagent require surface dehydration and/or curing, and a modified form of SU-8 is not always desirable. Here, we demonstrate the use of a water-soluble, amine-containing polymer, polyallylamine (PAAm), which spontaneously adsorbs to silica surfaces, as a simple, easy-to-apply, and reactive adhesion promoter for SU-8. Conditions for the use of PAAm are explored, and the resulting materials are characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE), and wetting.
Background: Planning for neurology training necessitated a reflection on the experience of graduates. We explored practice characteristics, and training experience of recent graduates. Methods: Graduates from 2010-2014 completed a survey. Results: Response rate was 37% of 211. 56% were female. 91% were adult neurologists. 65% practiced in an outpatient setting. 63% worked in academics. 85% completed subspecialty training (median 1 year). 36% work 3 days a week or less. 82% took general call (median 1 night weekly). Role preparation was considered very good or excellent for most; however poor or fair ratings were 17% in advocacy and 8% in leadership. Training feedback was at least “good” for 87%. Burnout a few times a week or more was noted by 5% (6% during residency, particularly PGY1 and 5). 64% felt overly burdened by paperwork. Although most felt training was adequate, it was poor or fair at preparing for practice management (85%) and personal balance (55%). Most conditions were under-observed in training environment. Many noted a need for more independent practice development and community neurology. Conclusions: Although our training was found to be very good, some identified needs included advocacy training, and more training in general neurology in the longitudinal outpatient/community settings.
To evaluate the feasibility of implementing psychosocial distress screening in a breast center of a comprehensive cancer center, using a model of structure (personnel, resources), process (screening), and outcome (number of patients screened, number referred).
The first step in the project was to establish administrative support, educate and engage breast center staff, identify stakeholders and persons with expertise in the conduct of evidence based initiatives. A two-phase implementation approach was agreed upon with Phase I being screening of new patients in surgical oncology and Phase II being screening women in medical oncology.
A total of 173 patients were screened. The new patients screened in surgical oncology reported higher average distress scores compared to patients in medical oncology (5.7 vs. 4.0). However, a greater number of patients in medical oncology reported scores >4 compared to the new patients screened in surgery (54% vs. 35%). Psychological distress was the most commonly reported distress for patients in surgery. In contrast, 60% of scores >4 in medical oncology were symptom related, managed by the nurse or physician.
Significance of results:
Nurse led implementation of psychosocial distress screening is feasible, addressing this important quality indicator of patient-centered care.
Cannabis use has been reported to be associated with an earlier onset of symptoms in patients with first-episode psychosis, and a worse outcome in those who continue to take cannabis. In general, studies have concentrated on symptoms of psychosis rather than mania. In this study, using a longitudinal design in a large naturalistic cohort of patients with first-episode psychosis, we investigated the relationship between cannabis use, age of presentation to services, daily functioning, and positive, negative and manic symptoms.
Clinical data on 502 patients with first-episode psychosis were collected using the MiData audit database from seven London-based Early Intervention in psychosis teams. Individuals were assessed at two time points – at entry to the service and after 1 year. On each occasion, the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, Young Mania Rating Scale and Global Assessment of Functioning Scale disability subscale were rated. At both time points, the use of cannabis and other drugs of abuse in the 6 months preceding each assessment was recorded.
Level of cannabis use was associated with a younger age at presentation, and manic symptoms and conceptual disorganization, but not with delusions, hallucinations, negative symptoms or daily functioning. Cannabis users who reduced or stopped their use following contact with services had the greatest improvement in symptoms at 1 year compared with continued users and non-users. Continued users remained more symptomatic than non-users at follow-up.
Effective interventions for reducing cannabis use may yield significant health benefits for patients with first-episode psychosis.
The Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling (WISSARD) project will test the overarching hypothesis that an active hydrological system exists beneath a West Antarctic ice stream that exerts a major control on ice dynamics, and the metabolic and phylogenetic diversity of the microbial community in subglacial water and sediment. WISSARD will explore Subglacial Lake Whillans (SLW, unofficial name) and its outflow toward the grounding line where it is thought to enter the Ross Ice Shelf seawater cavity. Introducing microbial contamination to the subglacial environment during drilling operations could compromise environmental stewardship and the science objectives of the project, consequently we developed a set of tools and procedures to directly address these issues. WISSARD hot water drilling efforts will include a custom water treatment system designed to remove micron and sub-micron sized particles (biotic and abiotic), irradiate the drilling water with germicidal ultraviolet (UV) radiation, and pasteurize the water to reduce the viability of persisting microbial contamination. Our clean access protocols also include methods to reduce microbial contamination on the surfaces of cables/hoses and down-borehole equipment using germicidal UV exposure and chemical disinfection. This paper presents experimental data showing that our protocols will meet expectations established by international agreement between participating Antarctic nations.
We document chemical laboratory procedures and results on international comparison samples at the Hertelendi Laboratory of Environmental Studies, Debrecen, Hungary. We also show results using the new MICADAS system and compare these results to internationally recognized standards and blank materials. The newly developed sample preparation system in HEKAL can handle samples as 1) organic material, 2) cellulose fraction of plant, 3) bones, 4) carbonate and shell, and 5) dissolved inorganic carbon of groundwater. The results of radiocarbon measurements on intercomparison samples confirm the reliability of the sample preparation system at HEKAL Lab and also the good performance of the MICADAS 14C system. The blank levels for each type of sample of 1 mg C carbon content are well reproducible, ∼0.3–0.5 pMC.
Two issues relating to the determination of junction position in thin film CdTe solar cells have been investigated. Firstly, the use of a focussed ion beam (FIB) milling as a method of sample preparation for electron beam induced current (EBIC) analysis is demonstrated. It is superior to fracturing methods. High quality secondary electron and combined secondary electron/EBIC images are presented and interpreted for solar cells with CdTe layers deposited by both close space sublimation (CSS) or RF sputtering. Secondly, it was shown that in an RF-sputtered CdTe device, while the photovoltaic junction was buried ~1.1 μm from the metallurgical interface, the shape of the external quantum efficiency (EQE) curve did not indicate the presence of a buried homo-junction. SCAPS modelling was used to verify that EQE curve shapes are not sensitive to junctions buried < 1.5μm from the CdTe/CdS interface.
We have developed a prototype spectroscopic ellipsometer for imaging/mapping purposes requiring only one measurement cycle (one rotation period of a polarizer or analyzer) for the acquisition of a two-dimensional array of data points. Our new measurement technique serves as a novel form of imaging ellipsometry, using a divergent (uncollimated, diffuse) source system and a detection system consisting of an angle-of-incidence-sensitive pinhole camera. By incorporating broad-band sources and wavelength dispersion optics, the instrument provides continuous high-resolution spectra along a line image of the sample surface. As a result, information on multilayer photovoltaics stacks can be obtained over large areas (several dm2) at high speed. The technique can be expanded to even larger areas by scaling-up the optical geometry. The spatial resolution of the line image is limited by the minimum resolved-angle as determined by the detection system. Small-aperture polarizers (25 mm diameter) are incorporated into the instrument, which reduces its cost. Demonstration mapping measurements have been performed ex situ on a multilayer sample deposited on a polymer substrate, including an intentionally graded 80-350 nm thick hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) layer and an intended uniform 400-500 nm thick transparent conducting ZnO:Al layer, both on opaque silver. Alternative commercial instruments for ex situ SE mapping must translate the sample in two dimensions. Even a 15 x 15 cm2 sample requires > 200 measurements with cm-resolution and at least 15 min. By collecting ex situ data in parallel along one dimension through imaging, the divergent-beam system can measure with similar spatial resolution in < 2 min. In situ measurements on both roll-to-roll polymer and rigid glass will be possible in the future.
A prototype expanded-beam spectroscopic ellipsometer has been developed that uses uncollimated (non-parallel, diffuse) illumination with a detection system consisting of an angle-of-incidence-sensitive pinhole camera for high-speed, large-area imaging/mapping applications. The performance of this novel instrument is being tested for imaging/mapping of mixed-phase hydrogenated silicon films having graded amorphous (a-Si:H) and nanocrystalline (nc-Si:H) components throughout the film depth. The speed of the measurement system makes the instrument suitable for use on production lines. The precision enables detection of subnanometer thicknesses, and refractive index and extinction coefficient changes of 0.01. Angle-of-incidence and mirror calibrations are made via well-known sample structures. Alternative commercial instrumentation for mapping by spectroscopic ellipsometry must translate the sample or ellipsometer in two dimensions. For this instrumentation, even a 15 × 15 cm2 sample with cm2 resolution requires > 200 measurements and at least 15 min. By imaging along one dimension in parallel, the expanded-beam system can measure with similar resolution in < 2 min. The focus of recent instrumentation efforts is on improving the overall system spectral range and its performance.
A high-precision atmospheric CO2 monitoring station was developed as a field unit. Within this, an integrating CO2 sampling system was applied to collect samples for radiocarbon measurements. One sampler was installed in the second largest city of Hungary (Debrecen station) and 2 independent 14CO2 sampling lines were installed ∼300 km from Debrecen in a rural site at Hegyhátsál station as independent background references, where high-precision atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios have been measured since 1994. Fossil fuel CO2 content in the air of the large Hungarian city of Debrecen was determined during the winter of 2008 using both the measurements of CO2 mixing ratio and 14C content of air. Fossil fuel CO2 was significantly enhanced at Debrecen relative to the clean-air site at Hegyhátsál.
In the year 1911 the heading “Status Lymphaticus” was first used in the publications of the Registrar-General of England and Wales and, in that year, 121 deaths were assigned primarily to this heading; Status Lymphaticus was also mentioned in the certificates relating to 25 of the deaths which occurred under anaesthesia. The heading was retained in the published tabulations as first introduced until 1921, when certifications of Status Lymphaticus were classified under the heading of “Diseases of the Thymus,” of which statistical group they have, so far, formed the whole. Between 1911 and 1924 (inclusive) the annual deaths—inclusive of those associated with anaesthesia—have fluctuated between 145 and 273. In the last four years there has been little variation, 209 in 1921, 204 in 1922, 200 in 1923 and 199 in 1924. Most of the deaths are in the age group 0–5 and a considerable majority are of males. Thus in the last two available years, 1923 and 1924, of 399 deaths 289 were at ages 0–5 and 258 were of males (respectively 72 and 65 per cent.). If the 85 deaths in which anaesthesia was an associated condition are excluded, 81 per cent. are of children aged 0–5 and 64 per cent. of males (Table I).
Towards the close of the Great War, when economy of food consumption was an urgent necessity, considerable attention was paid to the determination of the energetic needs of various kinds of muscular work. The majority of scientific papers then published dealt with the problem.
The early stage formation mechanisms operating during the sublimation growth of CdTe films on CdS has been evaluated using a growth interrupt methodology for deposition under 100 Torr of N2. Key stages of the growth were identified and are discussed in terms of the processes of island nucleation, island growth/coalescence, channel formation and secondary nucleation that have been reported for other materials systems. It was demonstrated that the grain size could be manipulated by means of controlling the gas pressure in the range 2 – 200 Torr, with the grain diameter increasing with pressure linearly as D (μm) = 0.027(± 0.011) × P (Torr) + 0.90(± 0.31). For a series of solar cells made using such material, the performance parameters were seen to increase with grain size up to a plateau corresponding to grains of ∼4 μm in this case. Equivalent circuit parameters for resistive components arising from grain boundaries, and the contact to the CdTe, were measured. It is considered that grain boundary barriers in CdTe are harmful to PV performance, and that the plateau in performance occurs when the grain size is increased to the level where the contact resistance is greater than that due to grain boundaries.