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Dietary protein adjustments can reduce environmental impact and economic losses in production systems. However, we lack information regarding nitrogen (N) metabolism and protein requirements for maintenance of crossbred animals such as Red Norte breed, precluding a precise dietary management. The objective was to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary CP levels (9%, 11%, 13%, 15% and 17%) on intake, digestibility and N balance, as well as to estimate the metabolizable protein requirements for maintenance (MPm) of growing Red Norte bulls. Thirty five animals averaging 280 ± 4.0 kg BW were fed during 45 days in a 60 : 40 forage : concentrate ratio diet in which the last 5 days were used for the digestibility trial. Intakes of CP and non-fibrous carbohydrates (NFCs) and feed efficiency linearly increased (P < 0.05) as CP levels increased, while DM, NDF, nitrogen efficiency use and ether extract were not influenced by CP levels (P > 0.05). Digestibilities of DM, organic matter, ether extract, NFC and CP as well as metabolizable energy intake linearly increased (P < 0.05), and true digestibility of CP was not affected (P > 0.05) by treatments. Urinary N and retained N linearly increased (P < 0.05) with the increase in dietary N. The MPm were estimated as 4.46 g/BW0.75 and the efficiency of use of MPm was 0.673. In conclusion, obtained MPm requirements of growing Red Norte bulls are greater than the values reported in literature for Zebu cattle and dietary CP levels of 15% and 17% exhibited great responses for growing Red Norte cattle. However, a cost-benefit evaluation should be done before its use.
This study aimed to determine the cutoff and the specificity and sensitivity of the Emotion Thermometers (ET) in a Portuguese sample of cancer patients.
A total of 147 patients (mean age = 49.2; SD = 12.6) completed the ET, the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI), and the Subjective Experiences of Illness Suffering Inventory. Data were collected in a cancer support institution and in a major hospital in the North of Portugal.
The optimal cutoff for the Anxiety Thermometer was 5v6 (until 5 and 6 or more), which identified 74% of the BSI-anxiety cases and 70% of noncases. The Depression Thermometer cutoff was 4v5 (until 4 and 5 or more), which identified 85% of BSI-depression cases and 82% of noncases. Cutoff for the Anger Thermometer was 4v5 (until 4 and 5 or more), which identified 83% of BSI-hostility cases and 73% of noncases; for the Distress Thermometer, the optimal cutoff was 4v5 (until 4 and 5 or more), which identified 84% of the suffering cases and 73% of noncases. Finally, for the Help Thermometer, it was 3v4 (until 3 and 4 or more), which helped to identify 93% of the suffering cases and 64% of noncases.
Significance of results
Results supported the Portuguese version of the ET as an important screening tool for identifying the emotional distress in cancer patients.
The food processing industry highlights the daily generation of large amounts of eggshell solid residue. In this way, this residue becomes a non renewable raw material to be reused as an additive in red ceramics, in order to reduce the volume of disposal to the environment and improve the physical properties of the product. The objective of this work was to evaluate the forming moisture, linear shrinkage of drying and shrinkage of drying burning of ceramic test pieces (CS’s) with formulations with 2% and 3% of white eggshell residue (ER) incorporated in clay. The clay and ER were collected in the city of Pelotas-RS. The ER sample was analyzed by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). After pressing, natural and artificial drying was carried out and the CS’s were burned. These were evaluated through normative parameters C-020/95, C-021/95 and C-026/95. The values obtained for the forming moisture were between 5.82 and 8.78%, for the linear shrinkage of drying between 0.10 and 0.43% and, for the linear contraction burning between -0.29 and 0.08%. The results showed that the addition of ER to the ceramic mass helped in the reduction of the forming moisture and the linear shrinkage of the ceramic test pieces.
To compare the accuracy of Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in tracking mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s Disease (AD).
A Systematic review of the PubMed, Bireme, Science Direct, Cochrane Library, and PsycInfo databases was conducted. Using inclusion and exclusion criteria and staring with 1,629 articles, 34 articles were selected. The quality of the selected research was evaluated through the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 tool (QUADAS-2).
More than 80% of the articles showed MoCA to be superior to MMSE in discriminating between individuals with mild cognitive impairment and no cognitive impairment. The area under the curve varied from 0.71 to 0.99 for MoCA, and 0.43 to 0.94 for MMSE, when evaluating the ability to discriminate MCI in the cognitively healthy elderly individuals, and 0.87 to 0.99 and 0.67 to 0.99, respectively, when evaluating the detection of AD. The AUC mean value for MoCA was significantly larger compared to the MMSE in discriminating MCI from control [0.883 (CI 95% 0.855-0.912) vs MMSE 0.780 (CI 95% 0.740-0.820) p < 0.001].
The screening tool MoCA is superior to MMSE in the identification of MCI, and both tests were found to be accurate in the detection of AD.
The current research sought to characterize current mood state profiles in healthy young versus older adults using 100-point visual analogue mood scales (VAMS), provide within-sample and new sample replication of age-group differences, assess sex differences, and compare with commonly used standardized symptom measures.
In two studies, six word-only VAMS (happy, sad, calm, tense, energetic, and sleepy) were administered in a laboratory setting. In Study 1, 22 young and 29 older males completed the VAMS six times (twice per day at weekly intervals). In Study 2, 60 young (30 males) and 60 older (30 males) adults completed on one occasion the VAMS, Beck Depression Inventory-II, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index.
VAMS scores showed that older adults had a tendency to indicate feeling happier, less sad, calmer, less tense, more energetic, and less sleepy than young adults. This pattern occurred across assessment points and irrespective of sex, except for the tense VAMS, which showed higher scores in females than males in young but not older adults. The standardized measures showed significant age-group differences for Trait Anxiety only (lower in older than young adults).
These findings establish current mood state differences in young versus older adults. The absence of age-group differences in past studies may relate to the limited precision of the scales (only 7 points, in contrast to the 100-point scales used here).
This study aimed to molecularly survey Bartonella in dogs from Chile. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) for Bartonella spp. based on nuoG gene was performed in 139 blood samples taken from dogs belonging to rural localities of the Valdivia Province, Los Ríos region, southern Chile. nuoG qPCR-positive samples were submitted to conventional PCR assays for ftsZ, gltA, rpoB and nuoG genes and sequencing for speciation and phylogenetic analysis. Based upon qPCR results, Bartonella spp. occurrence in dogs was 4.3% (6/139). Out of six nuoG qPCR-positive samples, six, three, two and none showed positive results in cPCR assays based on gltA, ftsZ, rpoB and nuoG genes, respectively. Consistent sequencing results were obtained only for the ftsZ gene from sample #1532 (GeneBank accession number: MG252491), and gltA gene from samples #1535 (MG252490) and #1532 (148 bp fragment that was not deposited in GenBank). Phylogenetic analysis of ftsZ and gltA genes allowed speciation of two nuoG-positive samples, one as Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and the other as B. henselae. Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii and B. henselae are detected for the first time in dogs from Chile, highlighting the importance of the canine population as a source of zoonotic agents and potential infection risk to humans.
Nitrate (NO3−) is an ergogenic nutritional supplement that is widely used to improve physical performance. However, the effectiveness of NO3− supplementation has not been systematically investigated in individuals with different physical fitness levels. The present study analysed whether different fitness levels (non-athletes v. athletes or classification of performance levels), duration of the test used to measure performance (short v. long duration) and the test protocol (time trials v. open-ended tests v. graded-exercise tests) influence the effects of NO3− supplementation on performance. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted and reported according to the guidelines outlined in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement. A systematic search of electronic databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, SPORTDiscus and ProQuest, was performed in August 2017. On the basis of the search and inclusion criteria, fifty-four and fifty-three placebo-controlled studies evaluating the effects of NO3− supplementation on performance in humans were included in the systematic review and meta-analysis, respectively. NO3− supplementation was ergogenic in non-athletes (mean effect size (ES) 0·25; 95 % CI 0·11, 0·38), particularly in evaluations of performance using long-duration open-ended tests (ES 0·47; 95 % CI 0·23, 0·71). In contrast, NO3− supplementation did not enhance the performance of athletes (ES 0·04; 95 % CI −0·05, 0·15). After objectively classifying the participants into different performance levels, the frequency of trials showing ergogenic effects in individuals classified at lower levels was higher than that in individuals classified at higher levels. Thus, the present study indicates that dietary NO3− supplementation improves physical performance in non-athletes, particularly during long-duration open-ended tests.
Anaplasmataceae agents comprise obligate intracellular bacteria that can cause disease in humans and animals. Between August 2013 and March 2015, 31 Nasua nasua (coati), 78 Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), seven Leopardus pardalis (ocelot), 110 wild rodents, 30 marsupials, and 42 dogs were sampled in the Pantanal wetland, Brazil. In addition, ectoparasites found parasitizing the animals were collected and identified. The present work aimed to investigate the occurrence of Anaplasmataceae agents in wild mammals, domestic dogs and ectoparasites, by molecular and serological techniques. Overall, 14 (17·9%) C. thous, seven (16·6%) dogs and one (3·2%) N. nasua were seroreactive to Ehrlichia canis. Nine dogs, two C. thous, one N. nasua, eight wild rodents, five marsupials, eight Amblyomma sculptum, four Amblyomma parvum, 13 A. sculptum nymphal pools, two Amblyomma larvae pools and one Polygenis (Polygenis) bohlsi bohlsi flea pool were positive for Ehrlichia spp. closely related to E. canis. Seven N. nasua, two dogs, one C. thous, one L. pardalis, four wild rodents, three marsupials, 15 A. sculptum, two Amblyomma ovale, two A. parvum and one Amblyomma spp. larval pools were positive for Anaplasma spp. closely related to A. phagocytophilum or A. bovis. The present study provided evidence that wild animals from Brazilian Pantanal are exposed to Anaplasmataceae agents.
The objective of this study was to validate an electronic system for monitoring individual feeding and drinking behaviour and intake developed for young cattle housed in group. A total of 35 Holstein–Gyr crossbred heifers (BW: 180±52 kg; age: 121.5±32.5 days), fitted with an ear tag containing a unique passive transponder, were distributed in three groups of 12, 12 and 11 animals per period and had free access to 12 electronic feed bins and two electronic water bins (Intergado® Ltd). The dimensions of feed and water bins, as well as the sensors position were appropriate for young cattle. The system documented the visit frequency and duration, as well as the feed and water intakes, by recording the animal’s identification tag, bin number, initial and final times of visits and the difference of feed/water weight at the start and end of each bin visit. Feed bins were monitored using time-lapse video recording over 4 days and the water bins were monitored over 6 days. For each feed bin, two feeding events were monitored using manual weighings with an external scale immediately before and after the animal’s visit and the difference between them was assumed as feed intake (n=24 observations). For the water bins, 60 manual weighings were made. Video and manual weighing data were regressed on the electronic feeding and drinking behaviour and intake data to evaluate the system’s precision and accuracy. The system showed high specificity (98.98% and 98.56% for the feed and water bins, respectively) and sensitivity (99.25% and 98.74%, respectively) for identifying an animal’s presence or absence. Duration of feed and water bin visits as well as feed and water consumption per visit estimated by the system were highly correlated and precise compared with the observed video and manual weighing data (r2=0.917, 0.963, 0.973 and 0.986, respectively). It was concluded that Intergado® system is a useful tool for monitoring feeding and drinking behaviour as well as water and feed intakes in young cattle housed in groups.
The order Chiroptera is considered the second largest group of mammals in the world, hosting important zoonotic virus and bacteria. Bartonella and hemotropic mycoplasmas are bacteria that parasite different mammals’ species, including humans, causing different clinical manifestations. The present work aimed investigating the occurrence and assessing the phylogenetic positioning of Bartonella spp. and Mycoplasma spp. in neotropical bats sampled from Brazil. Between December 2015 and April 2016, 325 blood and/or tissues samples were collected from 162 bats comprising 19 different species sampled in five states of Brazil. Out of 322 bat samples collected, while 17 (5·28%) were positive to quantitative PCR for Bartonella spp. based on nuoG gene, 45 samples (13·97%) were positive to cPCR assays for hemoplasmas based on 16S rRNA gene. While seven sequences were obtained for Bartonella (nuoG) (n = 3), gltA (n = 2), rpoB (n = 1), ftsZ (n = 1), five 16S rRNA sequences were obtained for hemoplasmas. In the phylogenetic analysis, the Bartonella sequences clustered with Bartonella genotypes detected in bats sampled in Latin America countries. All five hemoplasmas sequences clustered together as a monophyletic group by Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference analyses. The present work showed the first evidence of circulation of Bartonella spp. and hemoplasmas among bats in Brazil.
Fluorescent dyes like Rhodamine B (RB) have been used to identify the spatial distribution of adhesive restorative materials in the tooth/restoration interface. Potential effects of the addition of RB to dental adhesives were addressed in the past, but no further information is available on how to determine suitable concentrations of RB in these bonding agents for imaging in the confocal laser scanning microscope. This study provides systematical strategies for adding RB to viscous dental adhesive resins, focusing on the determination of the lowest range of dye concentrations necessary to achieve an acceptable image of the dentin/adhesive interface. It was demonstrated that optimized images of the resin distribution in dentin can be produced with 0.1–0.02 mg/mL of RB in the (tested) adhesives. Our approaches took into account aspects related to the dye concentration, photophysical parameters in different host media, specimen composition and morphology to develop a rational use of the fluorescent agent with the resin-based materials. Information gained from this work can help optimize labeling methods using dispersions of low-molecular-weight dyes in different monomer blend systems.
The aim of this study was to analyse whether changes in physical activity and body fatness are related to modifications in cardiovascular risk factors among adolescents.
Material and methods
A sample of 89 healthy adolescents was recruited for this study. We assessed habitual physical activity, body fat percentage, arterial thickness, blood sample, and biological maturation. Multivariate models were used to analyse the relationships between independent and dependent variables.
Physical activity (mean difference: 429.4 steps [95% confidence interval=−427 to 1286]) and body fatness (mean difference: −0.7% [95% confidence interval=−1.6–0.2]) remained stable during the study period. Independent of changes in physical activity, for each percentage increase in body fatness, femoral intima-media thickness increased by 0.007 mm (β=0.007 [95% confidence interval=0.001–0.013]). Longitudinal relationships were found for high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (β=−0.477 mg/dl [95% confidence interval=−0.805 to −0.149]) and triacylglycerol (β=2.329 mg/dl [95% confidence interval=0.275–4.384]).
Changes in body fatness are more important than the amount of physical activity on cardiovascular and metabolic risks.
We report the pharmacological activity of organoruthenium complexes containing chloroquine (CQ) as a chelating ligand. The complexes displayed intraerythrocytic activity against CQ-sensitive 3D7 and CQ-resistant W2 strains of Plasmodium falciparum, with potency and selectivity indexes similar to those of CQ. Complexes displayed activity against all intraerythrocytic stages, but moderate activity against Plasmodium berghei liver stages. However, unlike CQ, organoruthenium complexes impaired gametocyte viability and exhibited fast parasiticidal activity against trophozoites for P. falciparum. This functional property results from the ability of complexes to quickly induce oxidative stress. The parasitaemia of P. berghei-infected mice was reduced by treatment with the complex. Our findings demonstrated that using chloroquine for the synthesis of organoruthenium complexes retains potency and selectivity while leading to an increase in the spectrum of action and parasite killing rate relative to CQ.
To date no comprehensive evaluation has appraised the likelihood of bias or the strength of the evidence of peripheral biomarkers for bipolar disorder (BD). Here we performed an umbrella review of meta-analyses of peripheral non-genetic biomarkers for BD.
The Pubmed/Medline, EMBASE and PsycInfo electronic databases were searched up to May 2015. Two independent authors conducted searches, examined references for eligibility, and extracted data. Meta-analyses in any language examining peripheral non-genetic biomarkers in participants with BD (across different mood states) compared to unaffected controls were included.
Six references, which examined 13 biomarkers across 20 meta-analyses (5474 BD cases and 4823 healthy controls) met inclusion criteria. Evidence for excess of significance bias (i.e. bias favoring publication of ‘positive’ nominally significant results) was observed in 11 meta-analyses. Heterogeneity was high for (I2 ⩾ 50%) 16 meta-analyses. Only two biomarkers met criteria for suggestive evidence namely the soluble IL-2 receptor and morning cortisol. The median power of included studies, using the effect size of the largest dataset as the plausible true effect size of each meta-analysis, was 15.3%.
Our findings suggest that there is an excess of statistically significant results in the literature of peripheral biomarkers for BD. Selective publication of ‘positive’ results and selective reporting of outcomes are possible mechanisms.
The ongoing research carried out by the solar community has been reported in the proceedings of several recent symposia, seminars and workshops, as well as in scientific journals (Kane et al. 1983, Švestka et al. 1982a, Shea et al. 1984, Kundu S Woodgate 1984, Simon 1984). We summarize here some of the novel results with reference to flare research as far as SMM data analysis is concerned. Understanding of impulsive phase phenomena was one of the primary goals of the SMM. The early reports from the analysis of the first ever obtained high-resolution images in the <30 keV energy range stressed the fact that some flares showed hard x-ray (HXR) bright sources at the feet of coronal loops (Hoyng et al. 1981a, b, Machado et al. 1982, Duijveman et al. 1982), the so-called HXR “footpoints,” favoring the thick-target beam mechanism for the production of HXRs, and indicating acceleration efficiencies >20% during the early impulsive phase. This phenomenon was shown to be accompanied by soft x-ray (SXR) line broadening, indicative of strong turbulence, and the immediate appearance of blue shifted spectral lines, which shows that plasma heated to >10-1 K rises from the footpoints of loops with velocities to 300 km s-1 (Antonucci et al. 1982, Antonucci et al. 1984a). This result provides a strong indication of the chromospheric evaporation phenomenon, which has been confirmed in analyses of combined SXR and Ha observations (Acton et al. 1982, Gunkler et al. 1984).
In preparing the present report, which covers the period July 1, 1981, to June 30, 1984, close collaboration has taken place between Commissions 10 and 12, the two solar commissions, in order to avoid duplications and to insure that pertinent subjects are treated. The reader is referred to the report of Commission 12 for further solar topics. It is a pleasure to acknowledge the excellent work of the reviewers who wrote the different sections of this report, and all the members of the commission who provided information on research to be included.
Some results of the photometry multi-site observations of two δ Scuti stars, V624 Tau and HD 23194, are presented. The observations were carried out in the framework of a STEPHI network in 1999. We collected 343 hours of useful data and detected seven frequencies in V624 Tau and two frequencies in HD 23194.
The δ Scuti stars are pulsating variables located in the lower part of the Cepheid instability strip with spectral types from A2 to F0 on the main sequence, and from A3 to F5 at luminosity class III. These variables show short periods (< 0.3day) and luminosity amplitudes ranging from a few thousandths of a magnitude to several tenths. Over the last few years, significant progress has been made in the detection of pulsating modes in the framework of the multisite campaigns, e.g. STACC (Frandsen et al. 1996), DSN (Breger et al. 1998), STEPHI (Michel et al. 2000). For the 1998 STEPHI IX photometry campaign, the δ Scuti star V534 Tau of the Pleiades cluster (see Table 1) was monitored during a three week, three continent run. Preliminary results are reported here.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the fatty acid profile and qualitative characteristics of meat from feedlot young bulls fed ground soybean or ground cottonseed, with or without supplementation of vitamin E. A total of 40 Red Norte young bulls, with an initial average age of 20 months, and an initial average BW of 339±15 kg, were allotted in a completely randomized design using a 2×2 factorial arrangement, with two oilseeds, and daily supplementation or not of 2500 IU of vitamin E. The experimental period was for 84 days, which was preceded by an adaptation period of 28 days. The treatments were ground soybean (SB), ground soybean plus vitamin E (SBE), ground cottonseed (CS) and ground cottonseed plus vitamin E (CSE). The percentage of cottonseed and soybean in the diets (dry matter basis) was 24% and 20%, respectively. Diets were isonitrogenous (13% CP) and presented similar amount of ether extract (6.5%). The animals were slaughtered at average live weight of 464±15 kg, and samples were taken from the longissimus dorsi muscle for the measurement of fatty acid concentration and the evaluation of lipid oxidation and color of the beef. Before fatty acid extraction, muscle tissue and subcutaneous fat of the longissimus dorsi were separated to analyze fatty acid profile in both tissues. Supplementation of vitamin E did not affect fatty acid concentration, lipid oxidation and color (P>0.05). Subcutaneous fat from animals fed CS diet had greater C12:0, C16:0 and C18:0 contents (P<0.03). In addition, CS diets reduced the C18:1 and C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 contents in subcutaneous fat (P<0.05). The muscle from animals fed CS tended to higher C16:0 and C18:0 contents (P<0.11), and decreased C18:1, C18:2 cis-9, trans-11 and C18:3 contents (P<0.05) compared with SB. The Δ9-desaturase index was greater in muscle from animals fed SB (P<0.01). At 42 days of age, meat from cattle fed SB had a greater lipid oxidation rate (P<0.05). Meat from animals fed SB diets had less lightness and redness indices than meat from animals fed CS diets after 14 days of age. In conclusion, the addition of ground cottonseed in the finishing diets did increase the saturated fatty acid content of the longissimus dorsi. However, animals fed cottonseed exhibited greater lightness and redness of beef. In this study, the addition of vitamin E did not affect qualitative characteristics of meat.
Certain trypanosomatids co-evolve with an endosymbiotic bacterium in a mutualistic relationship that is characterized by intense metabolic exchanges. Symbionts were able to respire for up to 4 h after isolation from Angomonas deanei. FCCP (carbonyl cyanide-4-(trifluoromethoxy)phenylhydrazone) similarly increased respiration in wild-type and aposymbiotic protozoa, though a higher maximal O2 consumption capacity was observed in the symbiont-containing cells. Rotenone, a complex I inhibitor, did not affect A. deanei respiration, whereas TTFA (thenoyltrifluoroacetone), a complex II activity inhibitor, completely blocked respiration in both strains. Antimycin A and cyanide, inhibitors of complexes III and IV, respectively, abolished O2 consumption, but the aposymbiotic protozoa were more sensitive to both compounds. Oligomycin did not affect cell respiration, whereas carboxyatractyloside (CAT), an inhibitor of the ADP-ATP translocator, slightly reduced O2 consumption. In the A. deanei genome, sequences encoding most proteins of the respiratory chain are present. The symbiont genome lost part of the electron transport system (ETS), but complex I, a cytochrome d oxidase, and FoF1-ATP synthase remain. In conclusion, this work suggests that the symbiont influences the mitochondrial respiration of the host protozoan.