Sodium fluoride (NaF) is an anion that has been previously shown to block the moulting process of Ascaris suum larvae. This study describes moulting and development-specific protein expression profiles of A. suum lung-stage L3 (AsLL3) following NaF exposure. AsLL3s cultured in the presence or absence of NaF were prepared for protein analysis using two-dimensional (2D) electrophoresis. NaF exposure inhibited at least 22 proteins in AsLL3 compared with moulted larvae (i.e. AsLL4). A further comparison of AsLL4 with those of pre-cultured AsLL3 and NaF-exposed AsLL3 revealed 8 stage-specifically and 4 over-expressed proteins. Immunoblot analysis revealed an inhibition by NaF of 19 immunoreactive proteins. Enzyme assay and immunochemical data showed an inhibition of the moulting-specific inorganic pyrophosphatase activity by 41% and a decreased expression in NaF-treated larvae, indicating its significance in the moulting process. A protein spot associated with NaF inhibition was isolated and identified by peptide mass spectrometry and bioinformatics approaches to be a member of 3–hydroxyacyl–CoA dehydrogenase/short-chain dehydrogenase enzyme families. These results have implications for the identification of proteins specific to the moulting process as potential chemotherapeutic targets.