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The current study aims to evaluate the effects of increasing levels of xylanase enzyme (XYL) on sugarcane silage fermentation, fermentative losses, chemical composition, dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) degradation and aerobic stability. A completely randomized design trial was performed with five treatments and 50 experimental silos. Treatments were: 0, 100, 200, 300 and 400 mg of XYL per kg of DM. XYL contained 10 000 U/g. There was a quadratic effect of XYL on silage pH and acetic acid concentration: lower pH and higher acetic acid concentrations were found at intermediary levels of the enzyme. XYL decreased lactic acid concentration linearly. Furthermore, the enzyme had a quadratic effect on effluent and total losses, with higher losses at intermediary XYL levels. There was a quadratic effect of XYL on organic matter (OM), non-fibre carbohydrates (NFC) and crude protein (CP) content. In addition, a quadratic effect of XYL was observed on NDF content and degradation. Intermediary levels of XYL showed higher concentration of OM and NFC. The addition of XYL had no effect on silage temperature and pH after aerobic exposure. Thus, intermediate levels of XYL increased acetic acid and decreased silage pH. Besides positive effects on silage composition, intermediary XYL levels decreased NDF degradation.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the distribution of cases and the social determinants associated with death from human visceral leishmaniasis (HVL) and VL–HIV co-infection in Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais state, Brazil, between 2006 and 2013. Descriptive statistics and analysis of associations were performed using chi-square of the raised variables, such as sex, age, skin colour and schooling of cases of HVL. During the study period, there were 866 cases of HVL with 111 deaths in Belo Horizonte. Morbidity and lethality rates (LR) of HVL in Belo Horizonte remained high over almost all the years evaluated, with an average incidence rate of 4.18 cases/100 000 inhabitants and a LR of 11.16%. With respect to skin colour, it was found that people characterised as black or mulatto had higher morbidity, followed by white. Regarding schooling, LR was more prevalent among individuals with lower education. One of the social risk factors was co-infection with HIV, which was present in many cases of HVL. Furthermore, it was found that older age and the male sex were also risk factors for death from HVL in Belo Horizonte.
Carcass data were collected from 24 kids (average live weight of 12.5±5.5 kg; range 4.5 to 22.4 kg) of Jarmelista Portuguese native breed, to evaluate bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) as a technique for prediction of light kid carcass and muscle chemical composition. Resistance (Rs, Ω) and reactance (Xc, Ω), were measured in the cold carcasses with a single frequency bioelectrical impedance analyzer and, together with impedance (Z, Ω), two electrical volume measurements (VolA and VolB, cm2/Ω), carcass cold weight (CCW), carcass compactness and several carcass linear measurements were fitted as independent variables to predict carcass composition by stepwise regression analysis. The amount of variation explained by VolA and VolB only reached a significant level (P<0.01 and P<0.05, respectively) for muscle weight, moisture, protein and fat-free soft tissue content, even so with low accuracy, with VolA providing the best results (0.326⩽R2⩽0.366). Quite differently, individual BIA parameters (Rs, Xc and Z) explained a very large amount of variation in dissectible carcass fat weight (0.814⩽R2⩽0.862; P<0.01). These individual BIA parameters also explained a large amount of variation in subcutaneous and intermuscular fat weights (respectively 0.749⩽R2⩽0.793 and 0.718⩽R2⩽0.760; P<0.01), and in muscle chemical fat weight (0.663⩽R2⩽0.684; P<0.01). Still significant but much lower was the variation in muscle, moisture, protein and fat-free soft tissue weights (0.344⩽R2⩽0.393; P<0.01) explained by BIA parameters. Still, the best models for estimation of muscle, moisture, protein and fat-free soft tissue weights included Rs in addition to CCW, and accounted for 97.1% to 99.8% (P<0.01) of the variation observed, with CCW by itself accounting for 97.0% to 99.6% (P<0.01) of that variation. Resistance was the only independent variable selected for the best model predicting subcutaneous fat weight. It was also selected for the best models predicting carcass fat weight (combined with carcass length, CL; R2=0.943; P<0.01) and intermuscular fat weight (combined with CCW; R2=0.945; P<0.01). The best model predicting muscle chemical fat weight combined CCW and Z, explaining 85.6% (P<0.01) of the variation observed. These results indicate BIA as a useful tool for prediction of light kids’ carcass composition.
Recent developments in U.S-Cuba relations have resulted in a proliferating global interest in Cuba, including its legal regime. This comprehensive Guide aims to fill a noticeable void in the availability of information in English on this enigmatic jurisdiction's legal order, and on how to conduct research related to it. Covered topics include “The Constitution,” “Legislation and Codes,” “The Judiciary,” “Cuba in the International Arena,” and “The Legal Profession.” A detailed section on “Cuban Legal Materials in U.S. and Canadian Libraries” is also featured. Although the Guide emphasizes sources in English and English-language translation, materials in Spanish are likewise included as English-language equivalents are often unavailable. The Guide's 12 authors are members of the Latin American Law Interest Group of the American Association of Law Libraries’ Foreign, Comparative, and International Law Special Interest Section (FCIL-SIS).
Using variational methods and depending on a parameter
we prove the existence of solutions for the following class of nonlocal boundary value problems of Kirchhoff type defined on an exterior domain
Stable oxygen isotope values of inoceramid marine bivalve shells recovered from Bentiaba, Angola, are utilised as a proxy for paleotemperatures during the Late Cretaceous development of the African margin of the South Atlantic Ocean. The δ18O values derived from inoceramids show a long-term increase from –3.2‰ in the Late Turonian to values between –0.8 and –1.8‰ in the Late Campanian. Assuming a constant oceanic δ18O value, an ∼2‰ increase may reflect cooling of the shallow marine environment at Bentiaba by approximately 10°. Bentiaba values are offset by about +1‰ from published records for bathyal Inoceramus at Walvis Ridge. This offset in δ18O values suggests a temperature difference of ∼5° between coastal and deeper water offshore Angola. Cooler temperatures implied by the δ18O curve at Bentiaba coincide with the stratigraphic distribution of diverse marine amniotes, including mosasaurs, at Bentiaba.
New elasmosaurid plesiosaur specimens are described from the Early Maastrichtian of Angola. Phylogenetic analyses reconstruct the Angolan taxon as an aristonectine elasmosaurid and the sister taxon of an unnamed form of similar age from New Zealand. Comparisons also indicate a close relationship with an unnamed form previously described from Patagonia. All of these specimens exhibit an ostensibly osteologically immature external morphology, but histological analysis of the Angolan material suggests an adult with paedomorphic traits. By extension, the similarity of the Angolan, New Zealand and Patagonian material indicates that these specimens represent a widespread paedomorphic yet unnamed taxon.
We report here a new elasmosaurid from the early Maastrichtian at Bentiaba, southern Angola. Phylogenetic analysis places the new taxon as the sister taxon to Styxosaurus snowii, and that clade as the sister of a clade composed of (Hydrotherosaurus alexandrae (Libonectes morgani + Elasmosaurus platyurus)). The new taxon has a reduced dorsal blade of the scapula, a feature unique amongst elasmosaurids, but convergent with cryptoclidid plesiosaurs, and indicates a longitudinal protraction-retraction limb cycle rowing style with simple pitch rotation at the glenohumeral articulation. Morphometric phylogenetic analysis of the coracoids of 40 eosauropterygian taxa suggests that there was a broad range of swimming styles within the clade.
To develop a software to plan and evaluate school meals according to the main national and international standards for foods and nutrition.
Development of software.
Public schools, Portugal.
School meals for students.
The System of Planning and Evaluation of School Meals (SPARE) is a software that allows the planning of school meals in an effective and organized way, according to the main national and international standards for food and nutrition. The regular use of this tool enables the evaluation, monitoring and verification towards continuous improvement of the quality of school meals.
The SPARE software aims to promote healthy eating by focusing on the planning and production of safe and adequate meals in the school environment. This software can be adapted to different age groups and to different contexts, attending to specific nutritional and food standards.
As marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasingly being utilised as a tool for fishery
management, their impact on the food web needs to be fully understood. However, little is
known about the effect of MPAs on fish assemblages, especially in the presence of
different life history and ecological traits. Modelling the observed changes in fish
population structures may provide a mechanistic understanding of fish assemblage dynamics.
In addition, modelling allows a quantitative estimate of MPA spill-over. To achieve this
purpose, we adapted an existing ecosystem model, OSMOSE (Object-oriented simulator of
marine biodiversity exploitation), to the specific case of the presence of fish with
multiple life histories. The adapted model can manage 4 main categories of life history
identified in an estuary MPA: fish that (1) spend their entire life cycle locally, (2) are
present only as juveniles, (3) enter the area as juveniles and stay permanently except
during reproduction periods, which occur outside the estuary, and (4) are present
occasionally and for a short time for foraging purposes. To take into account these
specific life-history traits, the OSMOSE code was modified. This modelling approach was
developed in the context of the Bamboung Bolong MPA, located in a mangrove area in the
Sine-Saloum Delta, Senegal. This was the ideal case to develop our approach as there has
been scientific monitoring of the fish population structure inside the MPA before fishery
closure, providing a reference state, and continuous monitoring since the closure.
Ecologically similar species were pooled by trophic traits into 15 groups that represented
97% of the total biomass. Lower trophic levels (LTL) were represented by 6 compartments.
The biomass of the model species was calibrated to reproduce the reference situation
before fishery closure. Model predictions of fish assemblage changes after fishery closure
corresponding to the Bamboung MPA creation scenario were compared to field observations;
in most cases the model reproduces observed changes in biomass (at least in direction). We
suggest the existence of a “sanctuary effect”, that was not taken into account in the
model, this could explain the observed increase in biomass of top predators not reproduced
by the model. Finally, the annual MPA fish spill-over was estimated at 11 tons (~33% of
the fish biomass) from the model output, mainly due to diffusive effects.
The economics of coffee plantations is intrinsically linked to pruning, which can improve the canopy architecture and thereby increase productivity. However, recommended pruning times on conilon coffee plantations have been made on an entirely empirical basis. In this study, by evaluating growth, photosynthetic gas exchanges, starch accumulation and crop productivity, the effects of pruning at different times between harvest and flowering were investigated for six conilon coffee clones with distinct stages of fruit maturation (early, intermediate and late). Clones with an early maturation stage were pruned at four different times: 0, 30, 60 and 90 days after harvest (DAH). Intermediate clones were pruned at 0, 30 and 60 DAH, and late clones were pruned at 0 and 30 DAH. Overall, the rates of shoot growth and net photosynthesis, the stomatal conductance and the crop yield were not affected by the pruning treatments in any of the clones. In addition, pruning times did not affect the concentrations of starch or the photochemical efficiency of photosystem II. The carbon isotope composition ratio was marginally affected by the treatments. These results suggest that the pruning time after harvests is relatively unimportant and pruning operations can be scheduled to optimise the use of labour, which directly impacts the production costs of coffee.
To date, there are several reported exoplanet detections within binary star systems. These findings are based on radial velocity data for the target star. However, the companion star could in turn have a companion of which we are not aware. We describe how this hidden binary system affects the radial velocity of the target star, mimicking a planet in some circumstances We also explain what can be done in practice in order to distinguish between these two effects.
ArcelorMittal Monlevade is an integrated plant with sinter plant,
blast furnace, BOF, ladle furnace, continuous caster, and rolling mill,
with a capacity of 1.2 million tpy. During the last years, Monlevade
has been raising the ladle free open index through refractory quality
improvement and standardization of operational parameters. The main
actions were changing of the geometry of ladle well block and nozzle,
use of two-layer sand, and control of sand residence time before BOF
tapping. Based on these facts, the ladle free open index has increased
from 98.5 to 99.8% from 2002 to 2006.
In this paper we present results of indium doped zinc oxide deposited at room temperature by rf magnetron sputtering, with electron mobility as high as 60 cm2/Vs. The films present a resistivity as low as 5 × 10-4 ωcm with an optical transmittance of 85%. The structure of these films look-like polymorphous (mixed of different amorphous and nanocrystalline phases from different origins) as detected from XRD patterns (no clear peak exists) with a high smooth surface, as detected from SEM micrographs, highly important to ensure long life time when used in display devices.
Epitaxial La0.67Ca0.33MnO3 films have been prepared on LaAlO3 crystals by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) and by a novel all-alkoxide sol-gel technique. Different out-of-plane lattice parameters are found for the as-prepared films, and scanning electron microscopy shows a more porous structure for sol-gel films as compared to PLD films. These differences are largely removed by post-annealing at 1000 °C. Transport measurements show maximum temperature coefficient of resistivity of 8.2 % K−1 at 258 K (PLD) and 6.1 % K−1 at 241 K (sol-gel) and colossal magnetoresistance at 7 kOe of 35 % at 263 K (PLD) and 32 % at 246 K (sol-gel).
We have demonstrated a uniform, robust interface for high-k deposition with significant improvements in device electrical performance compared to conventional surface preparation techniques. The interface was a thin thermal oxide that was grown and then etched back in a controlled manner to the desired thickness. Utilizing this approach, an equivalent oxide thickness (EOT) as low as 0.87 nm has been demonstrated on high-k gate stacks having improved electrical characteristics as compared to more conventionally prepared starting surfaces.
MOS capacitors were fabricated from MOCVD HfO2 and HfxSiyO gate dielectrics with ALD TaN / PVD Ta metal electrodes. Dielectrics with 1.8 to 2.6 nm capacitance equivalent thickness (CET) were investigated with gate leakage (Jg) of 1×10−7 to 1×10−3 A/cm2 at Vg = Vfb−1V in accumulation. In addition to the C-V and I-V characterization of the MOSCAPs, XPS physical characterization was performed on monitor wafers to determine composition and physical thickness. From the combined results of the electrical and physical characterization, the relative dielectric constants of the Hf-Si-O films and the metal electrode work functions are determined, and simple models for the compositional dependence of the dielectric constant are formulated. Capacitors with the same dielectric composition and thickness exhibited 100 mV Vfb change when the thickness of the ALD TaN electrode layer was changed from 40-80Å. This change is attributed to a change in the work function of the aggregate TaN / Ta metal electrode. Workfunctions were found to be located near middle of the Si band gap, with workfunctions of 4.6 eV to 4.7 eV.
In this paper, we first propose an improved CVD-WSix metal gate suitable for use with nMOSFETs. Work function of CVD-WSi3.9 gate estimated from C-V measurements was 4.3eV. The nMOSFET using CVD-WSi3.9 gate electrode showed that Vth variation of L/W=1 μm/10μm nMOSFETs can be suppressed to be lower than 8mV in 22chip. In CVD-WSi3.9 gate MOSFETs with gate length of 50nm, a drive current of 636μA/μm was achieved for off-state leakage current of 35nA/μm at 1.0V of power supply voltage. By using CVD-WSi3.9 gate electrode, highly reliable metal gate nMOSFETs can be realized.