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Compulsory admission procedures of patients with mental disorders vary between countries in Europe. The Ethics Committee of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) launched a survey on involuntary admission procedures of patients with mental disorders in 40 countries to gather information from all National Psychiatric Associations that are members of the EPA to develop recommendations for improving involuntary admission processes and promote voluntary care.
The survey focused on legislation of involuntary admissions and key actors involved in the admission procedure as well as most common reasons for involuntary admissions.
We analyzed the survey categorical data in themes, which highlight that both medical and legal actors are involved in involuntary admission procedures.
We conclude that legal reasons for compulsory admission should be reworded in order to remove stigmatization of the patient, that raising awareness about involuntary admission procedures and patient rights with both patients and family advocacy groups is paramount, that communication about procedures should be widely available in lay-language for the general population, and that training sessions and guidance should be available for legal and medical practitioners. Finally, people working in the field need to be constantly aware about the ethical challenges surrounding compulsory admissions.
Individuals with psychosis are known to have a lower self-esteem compared to the general population, in part because of social stigma, paternalistic care, long periods of institutionalization and negative family interactions. This study aimed at assessing the efficacy of a self-esteem enhancement program for individuals with severe mental illness and at analyzing the results in their European context.
A randomized cross-over study including 54 outpatients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia from Geneva, Switzerland, was conducted. Twenty-four were recruited from an outpatient facility receiving traditional psychiatric care whereas 30 came from an outpatient facility with case-management care. Psychosocial, diagnostic and symptom measures were taken for all the subjects before treatment, after treatment, and at 3-months' follow-up.
Results indicated significant positive self-esteem module effects on self-esteem, self-assertion, active coping strategies and symptom for the participants receiving case-management care. Results were not significant for those receiving traditional care. However, 71% of all participants expressed satisfaction with the module.
Individuals with schizophrenia appear to be benefit from the effects of the self-esteem module, particularly when they are involved in a rehabilitation program and followed by a case manager who liaises with the other partners of the multidisciplinary team. This encourages reconsidering the interventions' format and setting in order to ensure lasting effects on the environment and in turn on coping, self-esteem and overall empowerment.
The short version of the Oxford-Liverpool Inventory of Feelings and Experiences (sO-LIFE) is a widely used measure assessing schizotypy. There is limited information, however, on how sO-LIFE scores compare across different countries. The main goal of the present study is to test the measurement invariance of the sO-LIFE scores in a large sample of non-clinical adolescents and young adults from four European countries (UK, Switzerland, Italy, and Spain). The scores were obtained from validated versions of the sO-LIFE in their respective languages. The sample comprised 4190 participants (M = 20.87 years; SD = 3.71 years). The study of the internal structure, using confirmatory factor analysis, revealed that both three (i.e., positive schizotypy, cognitive disorganisation, and introvertive anhedonia) and four-factor (i.e., positive schizotypy, cognitive disorganisation, introvertive anhedonia, and impulsive nonconformity) models fitted the data moderately well. Multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed that the three-factor model had partial strong measurement invariance across countries. Eight items were non-invariant across samples. Significant statistical differences in the mean scores of the s-OLIFE were found by country. Reliability scores, estimated with Ordinal alpha ranged from 0.75 to 0.87. Using the Item Response Theory framework, the sO-LIFE provides more accuracy information at the medium and high end of the latent trait. The current results show further evidence in support of the psychometric proprieties of the sO-LIFE, provide new information about the cross-cultural equivalence of schizotypy and support the use of this measure to screen for psychotic-like features and liability to psychosis in general population samples from different European countries.
Investigation of the occurrence of psychotic symptoms in non-psychiatric population may help to identify population at risk of psychosis. The aim of our study was to find out lifetime and current prevalence of psychotic symptoms in the general population of the Czech Republic. Study sample consisted of a stratified population. All participants were administered the Psychosis Screening Questionnaire and the data on psychiatric treatment and diagnosis according to the M.I.N.I. were recorded. In total, 3244 subjects responded (48.1% males and 51.9% females). The most frequently reported symptom was paranoia (7.7%), followed by hypomania (6.2%), strange experiences (5.2%), thought insertion (3.8%), and hallucinations (1.7%). Lifetime prevalence of minimum 1 psychotic symptom was 17.9%. The highest proportion of responders reported only one symptom (13.5%). Significantly more males than females experienced paranoia (p=0.002). In the subset of individuals with a history of at least one psychotic symptom, 70.6% never visited a psychiatrist, 78.9% did not meet diagnostic criteria of psychotic disorder according to the M.I.N.I., and 67.0% failed to have any psychiatric diagnosis at all. The results suggest a high frequency of psychotic experience among the ethnically homogeneous Czech population. Only the longitudinal follow-up could confirm whether the symptomatic subjects are at risk of development of psychotic disorder. More likely, our findings support a hypothesis of the presence of psychiatric symptoms in the general population as a continuum of psychotic spectrum, from normality and sanity through unique psychotic experiences to fully expressed illness.
Computer programs are used in rehabilitation of cognitive deficit in schizophrenia. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can directly affect cortical excitability and metabolism of prefrontal lobe and subsequently affect cognition. The objective of our study was to investigate augmentation of cognitive rehabilitation in schizophrenia with rTMS. Study subjects were stabilized patients with DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia, treated with second-generation antipsychotics, except for clozapine (total N=34). Study with rTMS was double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, with 2 parallel arms. All subjects participated in eight-week computer-assisted cognitive training, during first 2 weeks Group 1 (N=8) received rTMS and Group 2 (N=8) inactive sham stimulation. Patients who refused stimulation participated in rehabilitation program only. Data were assessed fo the totatl study sample and for each group separately. The results showed that computer-assisted cognitive training significantly improved severity of cognitive deficit in schizophrenia in many domains, especially executive functions: attention shift – flexibility, attention control, and working memory. The output was faster, more precise, and more reliable. We did not detect to effect of rTMS on the change of cognition, there was no significant difference between active and sham stimulation. This finding can be explained by a significantly lower initial score in Raven test found in actively stimulated group or by a smaller sample size in a double-blind study. The study confirmed efficacy of computer-assisted rehabilitation in remediation of cognitive deficit in schizophrenia.
Supported by the projects IGA MZ CR NF7571-3 and MSMT CR CNS 1M0517
Dysfunction of the serotonin system has been implicated in schizophrenia. 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A serotonin receptors are involved in the action of antipsychotic drugs. A common functional polymorphism (rs6295) in the promoter region of the human 5-HT1A receptor gene has been reported. This polymorphism may be useful in identifying psychopathology and phenotypic characteristics associated with altered function of the human 5-HT1A receptor.
The aim of this study was to determine whether genetic variants for these receptor influence the functional morphological characteristics of brain in schizophrenia.
63 patients with schizophrenia were genotyped for the functional variant in the promoter region of 5-HT1A receptor (rs6295) and for polymorphisms for 5-HT2A (rs6313) and serotonin transporter-SERT (rs4795541). The subjects were investigated by 18fluoro-deoxyglucose (18FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in the resting state, magnetic resonance imaging (MR) and functional magnetic resonance (fMR) with 2-back test activation paradigm. Voxel-based-morphometry (VBM) was used to detect the differences in the density of grey and white matter. The neuroimaging data were treated by the use Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM5) with genetic variants as the factor.
The polymorphism in 5-HT1A receptor was associated with the functional morphometric characteristics in cortical regions in projection areas of serotonergic system.
Our findings identify an important genetic factor predicting functional and structural characteristics in schizophrenia. Future research would test the role of HT1A polymorphism in the interaction with 5HT2A and SERT on morphological characteristics within the context of antipsychotic effects.
This research was supported by grant NR9324 (IGA MZCR) and by the project 1M0517 (MSMT).
The aim is to study motives and factors associated with treatment drop-out in an ambulatory psychiatric service, which integrates medical, social, familial and rehabilitation treatments. Only 9% of the psychotic patients dropped out, whose motives were non-compliance with medication and unawareness of illness, and the associated factors were comorbidity of substance abuse, social isolation and male gender.
(1) to assess social and functional impairment in schizophrenia outpatients from the Czech and Slovak Republics, and
(2) to examine a relationship between functional impairment and antipsychotic treatment and demographic variables.
Enrolled were schizophrenia outpatients in a stable phase of illness, treated with current antipsychotic medication for a minimum of one month. Recorded were demographic and medication data, administered were Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP), Subjective Well-being Under Neuroleptics (SWN), and CGI scale.
The total number of study subjects was 926. Most PSP values were within the interval of moderate impairment. Functional performance correlated positively with subjective satisfaction with medication and negatively with symptom severity. Higher education predicted better functioning on PSP. The best performance was associated with a stable relationship and a useful work role. The patients who showed the best level of functioning were more likely to be treated with antipsychotic monotherapy. No difference among drugs in monotherapy was found in subjective satisfaction.
The PSP values of stable schizophrenia outpatients indicated moderate degree of impairment. Improvement of functional capacity remains one of the unmet needs of schizophrenia patients.
To validate the diagnosis of hyperkinetic disorders (HD) in the Danish Psychiatric Central Research Registry (DPCRR) for children and adolescents aged 4 to 15 given in the years 1995 to 2005.
From a total of 4568 participants, a representative random subsample of n = 387 patients were used to validate the diagnosis. Patient files were systematically scored for the presence of ICD-10 criteria for HD and oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD; F91). Further to this, an inter-rater reliability study was also conducted, whereby two experienced child and adolescent psychiatrists who were blind to patients discharge diagnoses, rated a random subsample of n = 101 participants.
Information was available for 372 out of 387 patients. Out of n = 372 available files, n = 324 (86.8%) were evaluated to fulfil diagnostic criteria for HD. Due to missing information it was not possible to reach a conclusion for 5.1% of the cases, 3.8% of the diagnoses were registration errors, and in 4.3% of the files the diagnosis had to be rejected. Inter-rater agreement was high (κ = 0.83, z = 10.9, P < .001). The validity of hyperkinetic disorders, unspecified (F90.9) was lower and comorbid CD/ODD were under-diagnosed in the sample. All participants fulfilling HD criteria also fulfilled DSM-5-criteria for ADHD.
The risk of misclassification of patients with HD in the DPCRR is relatively low, with the exception of the diagnosis of hyperkinetic disorders, unspecified (F90.9).
25-OH vitamin D level is an immediate precursor metabolite of the active form of vitamin D that leads to expression of more than 200 genes.
The aim of our study was to examine 25-OH vitamin D deficiency (<50nmol/L) and its relationship to demographic factors in recently hospitalised patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD).
We assessed 25-OH vitamin D serum level in 41 SSD patients (54% of males, 46% with first episode, 63% during sunny season [May to October]), mean age 30 ± 10.4 years, within first days of hospitalization. The serum 25-OH vitamin D level was analysed with electrochemiluminiscence, using imunoanalysators Elecsys Roche.
The serum level was significantly higher in sunny season (41.3 ± 27.2 nmol/L) than in November to April (28.4 ± 11.2 nmol/L): t-test, P < .05. Sixty-nine percent of patients suffered from 25-OH vitamin D deficiency (< 50nmol/L) in May to October and 100% during November to April. The 25-OH vitamin D serum levels were not different between males and females, or between first-episode and multiple-episode patients. No significant correlation between age and 25-OH vitamin D level was found.
The high prevalence of 25-OH vitamin D deficiency (< 50nmol/L) suggests that some patients with SSD may benefit from vitamin D supplementation.
This study is a result of the research funded by the project Nr. LO1611 with a financial support from the MEYS under the NPU I program.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Episodic retrieval is characterized by the subjective experience of remembering. Semantic memory, on the other hand, is a more structured record of facts, meanings, concepts and knowledge about the external world that we have acquired. The medial temporal lobe (MTL), especially the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex, plays a central role in both types of memory process. Published studies suggested that individuals with schizophrenia have deficits in episodic and semantic memory, as well as structural abnormalities of the medial temporal lobe. However, it is not clear whether reported correlations reflect the impact of the disease state or that of underlying genetic influences contributing to the risk. To understand better etiology and effects of psychosis on the global brain structure and cognitive processing, relatives of individuals with schizophrenia can be studied. The aim of our study was to examine the association between abnormalities of the MTL, psychopathology, and memory impairment in schizophrenia. Study sample (n = 60) consisted of first episode schizophrenia patients, their non-psychotic siblings and matching control subjects. We used high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and probabilistic algorithms for image analysis. Episodic and semantic memory was measured with neuropsychological tests. Our results showed differences in memory performance between the groups. Neuropsychological data were correlated with MRI findings. The results may provide insight into etiology of schizophrenia and its effects on cognition and help to identify neuroanatomical and cognitive endophenotypes of psychotic disorders.
Supported by the grant projects MH CR AZV 15-28998A, MEYS NPU4NUDZ: LO1611; Czech Science Foundation, grant No. 16-13093S; Institutional Support 00023001IKEM.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Background Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is among the most common psychiatric disorders of childhood that often persists into adulthood and old age. Yet ADHD is currently underdiagnosed and undertreated in many European countries, leading to chronicity of symptoms and impairment, due to lack of, or ineffective treatment, and higher costs of illness.
Methods The European Network Adult ADHD and the Section for Neurodevelopmental Disorders Across the Lifespan (NDAL) of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA), aim to increase awareness and knowledge of adult ADHD in and outside Europe. This Updated European Consensus Statement aims to support clinicians with research evidence and clinical experience from 63 experts of European and other countries in which ADHD in adults is recognized and treated.
Results Besides reviewing the latest research on prevalence, persistence, genetics and neurobiology of ADHD, three major questions are addressed: (1) What is the clinical picture of ADHD in adults? (2) How should ADHD be properly diagnosed in adults? (3) How should adult ADHDbe effectively treated?
Conclusions ADHD often presents as a lifelong impairing condition. The stigma surrounding ADHD, mainly due to lack of knowledge, increases the suffering of patients. Education on the lifespan perspective, diagnostic assessment, and treatment of ADHD must increase for students of general and mental health, and for psychiatry professionals. Instruments for screening and diagnosis of ADHD in adults are available, as are effective evidence-based treatments for ADHD and its negative outcomes. More research is needed on gender differences, and in older adults with ADHD.
High performing dairy cows experience distinct metabolic stress during periods of negative energy balance. Subclinical disorders of the cow’s energy metabolism facilitate failure of adaptational responses resulting in health problems and reduced performance. The autonomic nervous system (ANS) with its sympathetic and parasympathetic branches plays a predominant role in adaption to inadequate energy and/or fuel availability and mediation of the stress response. Therefore, we hypothesize that indices of heart rate variability (HRV) that reflect ANS activity and sympatho-vagal balance could be early markers of metabolic stress, and possibly useful to predict cows with compromised regulatory capacity. In this study we analysed the autonomic regulation and stress level of 10 pregnant dried-off German Holstein cows before, during and after a 10-h fasting period by using a wide range of HRV parameters. In addition heat production (HP), energy balance, feed intake, rumen fermentative activity, physical activity, non-esterified fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyric acid, cortisol and total ghrelin plasma concentrations, and body temperature (BT) were measured. In all cows fasting induced immediate regulatory adjustments including increased lipolysis (84%) and total ghrelin levels (179%), reduction of HP (−16%), standing time (−38%) and heart rate (−15%). However, by analysing frequency domain parameters of HRV (high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) components, ratio LF/HF) cows could be retrospectively assigned to groups reacting to food removal with increased or decreased activity of the parasympathetic branch of the ANS. Regression analysis reveals that under control conditions (feeding ad libitum) group differences were best predicted by the nonlinear domain HRV component Maxline (LMAX, R2=0.76, threshold; TS=258). Compared with cows having LMAX values above TS (>LMAX: 348±17), those with LMAX values below TS (<LMAX: 109±26) had higher basal blood cortisol levels, lower concentrations of insulin, and respond to fasting with a shift of their sympatho-vagal balance towards a much stronger dominance of the sympathetic branch of the ANS and development of stress-induced hyperthermia. The data indicate a higher stress level, reduced well-being and restricted regulatory capacity in <LMAX cows. This assumption is in accord with the lower dry matter intake and energy corrected milk yield (16.0±0.7 and 42±2 kg/day) in lactating <LMAX compared with >LMAX cows (18.5±0.4 and 47.3 kg/day). From the present study, it seems conceivable that LMAX can be used as a predictive marker to discover alterations in central autonomic regulation that might precede metabolic disturbances.
To identify predictors of influenza vaccine acceptance among VHA healthcare workers (HCWs), with emphasis on modifiable factors related to promotion campaigns.
National single-payer healthcare system with 140 hospitals and 321,000 HCWs.
National voluntary sample of HCWs in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA) system.
We invited a random sample of 5% of all VHA HCWs to participate. An 18-item intranet-based survey inquired about occupation, vaccination status, employer policy, and local campaign efforts.
The response rate was 17.4%. Of 2,502 initial respondents, 2,406 (96.2%) provided usable data. This sample includes respondents from all 140 VA hospitals. Self-reported influenza vaccination rates were highest among physicians (95.6%) and licensed independent providers (88.3%). Nonclinical staff (80.7%) reported vaccine uptake similar to other certified but nonlicensed providers (81.2%). The strongest predictor of vaccine acceptance among VHA HCWs was individual awareness of organizational policy. Vaccine acceptance was also higher among HCWs who reported more options for access to vaccination and among those in facilities with more education activities.
Influenza vaccine acceptance varied significantly by employee awareness of employer policy and on-site access to vaccine. Employer-sponsored activities to increase access continue to show positive returns across occupations. Local influenza campaign efforts to educate HCWs may have reached saturation in this target group. These results suggest that focused communications to increase HCW awareness and understanding of employer policy can drive further increase in influenza vaccination acceptance.
Euclid is a Europe-led cosmology space mission dedicated to a visible and near infrared survey of the entire extra-galactic sky. Its purpose is to deepen our knowledge of the dark content of our Universe. After an overview of the Euclid mission and science, this contribution describes how the community is getting organized to face the data analysis challenges, both in software development and in operational data processing matters. It ends with a more specific account of some of the main contributions of the Swiss Science Data Center (SDC-CH).
Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) can be delivered efficaciously through various modalities, including telephone (T-CBT) and face-to-face (FtF-CBT). The purpose of this study was to explore predictors of outcome in T-CBT and FtF-CBT for depression.
A total of 325 depressed participants were randomized to receive eighteen 45-min sessions of T-CBT or FtF-CBT. Depression severity was measured using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) and the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Classification and regression tree (CART) analyses were conducted with baseline participant demographics and psychological characteristics predicting depression outcomes, HAMD and PHQ-9, at end of treatment (week 18).
The demographic and psychological characteristics accurately identified 85.3% and 85.0% of treatment responders and 85.7% and 85.0% of treatment non-responders on the HAMD and PHQ-9, respectively. The Coping self-efficacy (CSE) scale predicted outcome on both the HAMD and PHQ-9; those with moderate to high CSE were likely to respond with no other variable influencing that prediction. Among those with low CSE, depression severity influenced response. Social support, physical functioning, and employment emerged as predictors only for the HAMD, and sex predicted response on the PHQ-9. Treatment delivery method (i.e. telephone or face-to-face) did not impact the prediction of outcome.
Findings suggest that the predictors of improved depression are similar across treatment modalities. Most importantly, a moderate to high level of CSE significantly increases the chance of responding in both T-CBT and FtF-CBT. Among patients with low CSE, those with lower depressive symptom severity are more likely to do well in treatment.
On 23 May 2011, CDC identified a multistate cluster of Salmonella Heidelberg infections and two multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates from ground turkey retail samples with indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns. We defined cases as isolation of outbreak strains in persons with illness onset between 27 February 2011 and 10 November 2011. Investigators collected hypothesis-generating questionnaires and shopper-card information. Food samples from homes and retail outlets were collected and cultured. We identified 136 cases of S. Heidelberg infection in 34 states. Shopper-card information, leftover ground turkey from a patient's home containing the outbreak strain and identical antimicrobial resistance profiles of clinical and retail samples pointed to plant A as the source. On 3 August, plant A recalled 36 million pounds of ground turkey. This outbreak increased consumer interest in MDR Salmonella infections acquired through United States-produced poultry and played a vital role in strengthening food safety policies related to Salmonella and raw ground poultry.
At the Institute of Microstructure Technology (IMT) of the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), a new type of refractive X-ray optics has been developed. Owing to its comparably easy fabrication method and the large aperture, the so-called Rolled X-ray Prism Lenses (RXPL) have the potential to be used with X-ray tubes in an industrial environment as a low-cost alternative to existing optics. The lens itself is built out of a micro-structured foil which is cut into shape and rolled around a winding core to form a refracting element for X-rays. The resulting refractive structure can be used as illumination optics. Diffractometry experiments with an NIST 1976a sample were performed and showed up to an 18-fold enhanced integrated intensity compared to that acquired with a steel tube collimator.
A general framework for age-structured predator-prey systems is introduced. Individuals
are distinguished into two classes, juveniles and adults, and several possible
interactions are considered. The initial system of partial differential equations is
reduced to a system of (neutral) delay differential equations with one or two delays.
Thanks to this approach, physically correct models for predator-prey with delay are
provided. Previous models are considered and analysed in view of the above results. A
Rosenzweig-MacArthur model with delay is presented as an example.