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The study of electronic structure of materials is at a momentous stage, with new computational methods and advances in basic theory. Many properties of materials can be determined from the fundamental equations, and electronic structure theory is now an integral part of research in physics, chemistry, materials science and other fields. This book provides a unified exposition of the theory and methods, with emphasis on understanding each essential component. New in the second edition are recent advances in density functional theory, an introduction to Berry phases and topological insulators explained in terms of elementary band theory, and many new examples of applications. Graduate students and research scientists will find careful explanations with references to original papers, pertinent reviews, and accessible books. Each chapter includes a short list of the most relevant works and exercises that reveal salient points and challenge the reader.
The following commentary on Jang and Choi’s chapter Issues and New Directions in Personality Disorder (PD) Genetics (This Volume) echoes their call to harness advances in PD assessment rather than rely on politically derived "top down" nosologies. We first discuss how recent work in the joint hierarchical structure of PD traits and psychopathology, as well as, personality dynamics (i.e., how personality manifests in different situations) likely offer fruitful avenues for exploring the more nuanced role of genetics in the development and maintenance of PD. Second, we highlight the need to better understand the role of environment in PD genetics and discuss emerging models (e.g., common pathway model). Third, we stress the need for more research and larger samples in order to arrive at stronger conclusions. Fourth, we consider how advances in gene-environment research can help to determine targets for PD prevention and treatment.
Radar sounding is a powerful geophysical approach for characterizing the subsurface conditions of terrestrial and planetary ice masses at local to global scales. As a result, a wide array of orbital, airborne, ground-based, and in situ instruments, platforms and data analysis approaches for radioglaciology have been developed, applied or proposed. Terrestrially, airborne radar sounding has been used in glaciology to observe ice thickness, basal topography and englacial layers for five decades. More recently, radar sounding data have also been exploited to estimate the extent and configuration of subglacial water, the geometry of subglacial bedforms and the subglacial and englacial thermal states of ice sheets. Planetary radar sounders have observed, or are planned to observe, the subsurfaces and near-surfaces of Mars, Earth's Moon, comets and the icy moons of Jupiter. In this review paper, and the thematic issue of the Annals of Glaciology on ‘Five decades of radioglaciology’ to which it belongs, we present recent advances in the fields of radar systems, missions, signal processing, data analysis, modeling and scientific interpretation. Our review presents progress in these fields since the last radio-glaciological Annals of Glaciology issue of 2014, the context of their history and future prospects.
We present a detailed overview of the cosmological surveys that we aim to carry out with Phase 1 of the Square Kilometre Array (SKA1) and the science that they will enable. We highlight three main surveys: a medium-deep continuum weak lensing and low-redshift spectroscopic HI galaxy survey over 5 000 deg2; a wide and deep continuum galaxy and HI intensity mapping (IM) survey over 20 000 deg2 from
$z = 0.35$
to 3; and a deep, high-redshift HI IM survey over 100 deg2 from
$z = 3$
to 6. Taken together, these surveys will achieve an array of important scientific goals: measuring the equation of state of dark energy out to
$z \sim 3$
with percent-level precision measurements of the cosmic expansion rate; constraining possible deviations from General Relativity on cosmological scales by measuring the growth rate of structure through multiple independent methods; mapping the structure of the Universe on the largest accessible scales, thus constraining fundamental properties such as isotropy, homogeneity, and non-Gaussianity; and measuring the HI density and bias out to
$z = 6$
. These surveys will also provide highly complementary clustering and weak lensing measurements that have independent systematic uncertainties to those of optical and near-infrared (NIR) surveys like Euclid, LSST, and WFIRST leading to a multitude of synergies that can improve constraints significantly beyond what optical or radio surveys can achieve on their own. This document, the 2018 Red Book, provides reference technical specifications, cosmological parameter forecasts, and an overview of relevant systematic effects for the three key surveys and will be regularly updated by the Cosmology Science Working Group in the run up to start of operations and the Key Science Programme of SKA1.
Evidence linking fasting plasma total homocysteine (tHcy), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) 677C>T genotype with hypertension is inconsistent. Differences in B vitamin status, other lifestyle factors, or their consideration in analyses, might explain this. We investigated these associations in the absence of mandatory fortification with folic acid and B vitamin supplement use. A cross-sectional was conducted in 788 adults, aged 18-75 years, randomly selected from 3 Catalonian town population registers. Fasting plasma folate, cobalamin, total homocysteine (tHcy), red blood cell folate, erythrocyte glutathione reductase activation coefficient (EGRAC, functional riboflavin status indicator; increasing EGRAC indicates worsening riboflavin status), MTHFR 677 C>T and solute carrier family 1 (SLC19A1) 80 G>A genotypes were determined. Medical history and lifestyle habits were recorded.
Principal tHcy determinants differed between women (age, plasma folate, plasma cobalamin, cigarettes/day) and men (MTHFR 677TT genotype, plasma folate, plasma cobalamin and CT genotype). The MTHFR 677C>T polymorphism-tHcy association (β standardised regression coefficients) was stronger in male smokers (0.52, P < 0.001) compared to nonsmokers (0.21, P = 0.001) and weaker in participants >50 (0.19, P = 0.007) compared to ≤50 years (0.31, P < 0.001). Hypertension was more probable in the 3rd tHcy tertile compared to the other tertiles [OR 1.9 (1.2, 3.0)], and in participants ≤50 years, for the MTHFR 677TT genotype compared to the CC genotype [OR 4.1 (1.0, 16.9)]. EGRAC was associated with increased probability of hypertension in participants >50 years [OR 6.2 (1.0, 38.7)]. In conclusion, moderately elevated tHcy and the MTHFR 677CT genotype were associated with hypertension. The MTHFR 677C>T genotype-hypertension association was confined to adults ≤50 years.
Competence committees play a key role in a competency-based system of assessment. These committees are tasked with reviewing and synthesizing clinical performance data to make judgments regarding residents’ competence. Canadian emergency medicine (EM) postgraduate training programs recently implemented competence committees; however, a paucity of literature guides their work.
The objective of this study was to develop consensus-based recommendations to optimize the function and decisions of competence committees in Canadian EM training programs.
Semi-structured interviews of EM competence committee chairs were conducted and analyzed. The interview guide was informed by a literature review of competence committee structure, processes, and best practices. Inductive thematic analysis of interview transcripts was conducted to identify emerging themes. Preliminary recommendations, based on themes, were drafted and presented at the 2019 CAEP Academic Symposium on Education. Through a live presentation and survey poll, symposium attendees representing the national EM community participated in a facilitated discussion of the recommendations. The authors incorporated this feedback and identified consensus among symposium attendees on a final set of nine high-yield recommendations.
The Canadian EM community used a structured process to develop nine best practice recommendations for competence committees addressing: committee membership, meeting processes, decision outcomes, use of high-quality performance data, and ongoing quality improvement. These recommendations can inform the structure and processes of competence committees in Canadian EM training programs.
The increase of contact between natural and rural areas is prominent in Brazil, due to agricultural activities and concern with the environmental conservation. In this context, domestic animals, wild fauna and humans are exposed to mutual exchange of parasites, microorganisms and diseases. We studied tick parasitism of wild carnivores and domestic dogs, and the environmental of questing ticks, in extensive cattle ranch areas intermingled with natural vegetation, and in a natural reserve, both in a region of Cerrado biome, Midwestern Brazil. From 2008 to 2015, we inspected 119 wild carnivores from nine species, and collected six tick species (Amblyomma sculptum, Amblyomma ovale, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma tigrinum, Dermacentor nitens and Rhipicephalus microplus). The most numerous and infested hosts were Cerdocyon thous, Lycalopex vetulus, Chrysocyon brachyurus, Puma concolor and Conepatus amazonicus. From 139 domestic dogs, we collected A. sculptum, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and R. microplus. From vegetation, samplings resulted in A. sculptum, A. dubitatum, A. ovale, Amblyomma rotundatum and R. microplus, with dominance of A. sculptum. Domestics and wild animals presented high overlapping of infestations by A. sculptum, a generalist and anthropophilic tick species. This tick is the most important vector of the Brazilian spotted fever, a lethal human disease. This fact elicits attention and requires efforts to monitor the presence of pathogens vectored by ticks circulating in this type of agroecosystem, including in other regions of the Brazil, because the most of the natural vegetation remaining have been increasingly immersed in pastures and agricultural matrix.
Correlation of Rodinian and Gondwanan crustal domains relies on a thorough knowledge of those vestiges preserved today. The Bunger Hills hold a critical place in East Antarctica, recording the Mesoproterozoic assembly of Australo-Antarctica in Rodinia and the Neoproterozoic–Cambrian amalgamation of Indo- and Australo-Antarctica in Gondwana. It is situated in a region of disputed overlap between the different components of Rodinia and Gondwana, where there is little consensus on the location of sutures in this region and thus often speculative geological interpretations. The Bunger Hills therefore provide an opportunity to better understand the tectonic setting and palaeogeography during the assembly of these supercontinents. Recent work has confirmed that the Bunger Hills are one of few rare outcrops in Wilkes Land, East Antarctica that can be directly correlated with the broader Musgrave–Albany–Fraser–Wilkes Orogen (MAFWO). Whilst other constituent terranes of the MAFWO have been intensely studied, our geological knowledge of the Bunger Hills was comparatively limited until recently. In light of recent geological and geophysical developments, this contribution serves as an updated and concise standalone reference for the present state of knowledge of the Neoarchean–Cambrian evolution of the Bunger Hills region.
Collision with power lines is a major cause of mortality for many bird species. Understanding the biotic and abiotic factors that increase collision risk is therefore important for implementing mitigation measures to minimize mortality, such as power line rerouting or wire marking. Here, we used collision events registered during 2003–2015 along 280 km of transmission power lines in southern Portugal to analyse spatio-temporal patterns and collision risk factors in two sympatric, threatened, and collision-prone species: the great bustard Otis tarda and the little bustard Tetrax tetrax. The occurrence of collisions was not uniform across space and time, and variations could be explained by the species' ecological requirements, distribution patterns and behaviour. Although both species fly considerable distances between areas of suitable habitat, collisions were far more likely in power line sections with > 20% (for the little bustard) or > 50% (for the great bustard) of open farmland habitat in the surroundings. Power line configuration was also important: taller pylons and those with a higher number of wire levels posed a higher risk for both species. Wire marking had a small but significant effect for the little bustard, reducing collisions risk. There was, however, no similar effect for the great bustard, possibly a result of limited data. Mitigation measures should be implemented to prevent bustard collisions, including adequate route planning, ideally avoiding areas with > 20% of open habitat. Line configuration and wire marking are particularly important where such localities cannot be avoided and power lines cross areas with a high proportion of bustard habitat, including outside protected areas.
The stress balance within an ice shelf is key to the resistance, or buttressing, it can provide and in part controls the rate of ice discharge from the upstream ice sheet. Unconfined ice shelves are widely assumed to provide no buttressing. However, theory and laboratory-scale analogue experiments have shown that unconfined, floating viscous flows generate buttressing via hoop stresses. Hoop stress results from the viscous resistance to spreading perpendicular to the flow direction in a diverging flow. We build on theoretical work to explore the controls on the magnitude of hoop-stress buttressing, deducing that buttressing increases with increasing effective viscosity and increasing divergence. We use an idealised model calibrated to unconfined sections of Antarctic ice shelves and find that many shelves have low effective viscosity, most likely due to extensive damage resulting from high extensional stresses. Therefore, they are unable to sustain the large hoop stresses required to resist flow. Some ice shelves that are surrounded by sea ice year-round have a greater effective viscosity and can provide buttressing, suggesting that sea ice reduces fracturing. However, we find that most unconfined ice shelves provide insignificant buttressing today, even when hoop stresses are considered in the stress balance.
Psychotropic drugs are frequently and sometimes inappropriately used for the treatment of neuropsychiatric symptoms of people with dementia, despite their limited efficacy and side effects. Interventions to address neuropsychiatric symptoms and psychotropic drug use are multifactorial and often multidisciplinary. Suboptimal implementation of these complex interventions often limits their effectiveness. This systematic review provides an overview of barriers and facilitators influencing the implementation of complex interventions targeting neuropsychiatric symptoms and psychotropic drug use in long-term care.
To identify relevant studies, the following electronic databases were searched between 28 May and 4 June: PubMed, Web of Science, PsycINFO, Cochrane, and CINAHL. Two reviewers systematically reviewed the literature, and the quality of the included studies was assessed using the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme qualitative checklist. The frequency of barriers and facilitators was addressed, followed by deductive thematic analysis describing their positive of negative influence. The Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research guided data synthesis.
Fifteen studies were included, using mostly a combination of intervention types and care programs, as well as different implementation strategies. Key factors to successful implementation included strong leadership and support of champions. Also, communication and coordination between disciplines, management support, sufficient resources, and culture (e.g. openness to change) influenced implementation positively. Barriers related mostly to unstable organizations, such as renovations to facility, changes toward self-directed teams, high staff turnover, and perceived work and time pressures.
Implementation is complex and needs to be tailored to the specific needs and characteristics of the organization in question. Champions should be carefully chosen, and the application of learned actions and knowledge into practice is expected to further improve implementation.
B vitamins involved in one-carbon metabolism have been implicated in the development of inflammation- and angiogenesis-related chronic diseases, such as colorectal cancer (CRC). Yet, the role of one-carbon metabolism in inflammation and angiogenesis among CRC patients remains unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate associations of components of one-carbon metabolism with inflammation and angiogenesis biomarkers among newly diagnosed CRC patients (n 238) in the prospective ColoCare Study, Heidelberg. We cross-sectionally analysed associations between twelve B vitamins and one-carbon metabolites and ten inflammation and angiogenesis biomarkers from pre-surgery serum samples using multivariable linear regression models. We further explored associations among novel biomarkers in these pathways with Spearman partial correlation analyses. We hypothesised that pyridoxal-5’-phosphate (PLP) is inversely associated with inflammatory biomarkers. We observed that PLP was inversely associated with C-reactive protein (CRP) (r –0·33, Plinear < 0·0001), serum amyloid A (SAA) (r –0·23, Plinear = 0·003), IL-6 (r –0·39, Plinear < 0·0001), IL-8 (r –0·20, Plinear = 0·02) and TNFα (r –0·12, Plinear = 0·045). Similar findings were observed for 5-methyl-tetrahydrofolate and CRP (r –0·14), SAA (r –0·14) and TNFα (r –0·15) among CRC patients. Folate catabolite acetyl-para-aminobenzoylglutamic acid (pABG) was positively correlated with IL-6 (r 0·27, Plinear < 0·0001), and pABG was positively correlated with IL-8 (r 0·21, Plinear < 0·0001), indicating higher folate utilisation during inflammation. Our data support the hypothesis of inverse associations between PLP and inflammatory biomarkers among CRC patients. A better understanding of the role and inter-relation of PLP and other one-carbon metabolites with inflammatory processes among colorectal carcinogenesis and prognosis could identify targets for future dietary guidance for CRC patients.
American essayist, novelist, and screenwriter Joan Didion once observed: “We tell ourselves stories in order to live.”1 If we broaden her idea to include storytelling to others, then Ovid’s claim in the last word of the Metamorphoses (15.879) fully applies: vivam – “I shall live.”2 In the preceding line Ovid had prepared this point: ore legar populi (“people will read me”). In this way an ancient author appended a seal – in Greek, sphragis – to his work. Today a great filmmaker could say: “People will watch my films” – or, in not quite Ovidian (because unmetrical) Latin: oculis spectabor populi.
Chapters 10 and 11 form the final part of the book. They address the concepts of artistic immortality – Ovid asserts his own at the end of the Metamorphoses – and the survival, or eternal returns, of works of art. Chapter 10 examines Ovid’s portrayal of Pythagoras, whose philosophy included reincarnation: the continuation of life after death. Pythagoras, who is often seen as Ovid’s analogue, declares: “everything changes, nothing perishes.” The same idea underlies the Italian film Four Times, one of the most emotionally involving disquisitions on nature and on the nature of life and death. Today, the cinema and related media preserve images of actors and others well beyond their natural lifespans. Screen images, we may say, are freed from time and space. Ovid’s Pythagoras had spoken of the wandering image (or appearance). Ovid, and specifically his praise of Roman ladies, is therefore rightly adduced in Roberto Rossellini’s film The Age of the Medici, one of the most beautiful films ever made on the greatness of the Italian Renaissance and, by extension, of classical and later civilization at large.
Chapter 2 combines one aspect of Eisenstein’s theory, his concept of film sense, with Ovid (and beyond Ovid) and, in addition, applies the idea of cinemetamorphosis introduced in Chapter 1. Eisenstein considered classical antiquity as a kind of foundation for the cinema. On several occasions he related cinematic techniques to his expositions of classic (but not classical) literature: Dickens, Pushkin, Zola. Following Eisenstein’s model, this chapter demonstrates what might be called Ovid’s inherent film sense by transforming parts of two famous myths from the Metamorphoses (Arachne’s tapestry, the fate of Niobe’s children) into preliminary screenplays and by analyzing a famous moment in Alfred Hitchcock’s Rear Window in conjunction with the beginning of Ovid’s Amores 1.5. The mirrored image of Ovid’s Narcissus (also from the Metamorphoses), who is deceived by his own reflection in water, is an analogy to the nature of insubstantial images on screen. Additional observations address the visual qualities in classical literature beginning with Homer. The chapter closes with Christoph Ransmayr’s The Last World, in which some of the tales from the Metamorphoses are being shown as films at the time of Ovid’s exile in Tomis. The intentional anachronism of impossible cinematic images in this postmodern novel illustrates, from a different (textual) perspective, the visual nature of Ovid’s art and his affinity for a creative medium he could not have foreseen.
The description of Daedalus’ labyrinth, built as prison without possibility of escape for the Minotaur, is one of Ovid’s most famous passages. Modern, and especially postmodern, theory has often regarded the labyrinth as an analogy to complex literary compositions, with Ariadne’s thread as a kind of reader’s guide through such textual mazes. (Scholars regard Daedalus as a creative analogy to Ovid himself.) Chapter 4 accordingly centers on literal and figurative screen labyrinths. Since around 1960, elusive nonlinear plots became prominent in cinematic narratives, especially in French New Wave cinema. One film is of primary importance in this regard. Last Year at Marienbad, directed by Alain Resnais from a script by novelist Alain Robbe-Grillet, is set in and around an intricate maze-like building, in which time and place seem to exert a hallucinatory effect on the film’s characters and, in equal measure, on its viewers. Fascinating labyrinths appear in various film genres as well. Stanley Kubrick’s The Shining features one literal and one figurative maze; the latter, a large and complex building that exerts a demonic will, is the more deadly one. The titular house of Harry Kümel’s cult favorite Malpertuis is even more hellish – literally so because of its connection with classical Underworld mythology. Briefer discussions of two stylish mysteries, Mario Bava’s The Girl Who Knew Too Much and Jean-Jacques Annaud’s The Name of the Rose, lead to a final section with appreciations of other screen labyrinths and Minotaurs.
Chapter 6 continues the subject of screen metamorphosis from a different perspective. It takes the first metamorphosis in Ovid’s epic, that of the evil Lycaon into a wolf, as its cue to discuss different approaches by filmmakers to putting abnormal psychic phenomena on the screen. Transformations of a human into an animal or into a human monster and someone’s possession of another’s mind are staples of horror stories in word and image. This chapter also examines technical aspects of screen metamorphoses from man to beast. Ovid’s Lycaon sets the scene. The name Lycaon derives from the Greek word for wolf. The Wolf Man, a classic series of horror films, can be shown to derive directly from Ovid. Other films are revealing examples of background Ovidianism. The screen metamorphoses of Dr. Jekyll into Mr. Hyde are instructive for the processes by which such transformations were achieved before CGI. The chapter closes with analyses of two films by Ingmar Bergman (Hour of the Wolf, Persona), in which psychological horror replaces the surface thrills of standard shockers.