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Carbon-based forest conservation requires the establishment of ‘reference emission levels’ against which to measure a country or region's progress in reducing their carbon emissions. In East Africa, landscape-scale estimates of carbon fluxes are uncertain and factors such as deforestation poorly resolved due to a lack of data. In this study, trends in vegetation cover and carbon for East Africa were quantified using moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) land cover grids from 2002 to 2008 (500-m spatial resolution), in combination with a regional carbon look-up table. The inclusion of data on rainfall and the distribution of protected areas helped to gauge impacts on vegetation burning (assessed using 1-km spatial resolution MODIS active fire data) and biome trends. Between 2002 and 2008, the spatial extents of forests, woodlands and scrublands decreased considerably and East Africa experienced a net carbon loss of 494 megatonnes (Mt). Most countries in the area were sources of carbon emissions, except for Tanzania and Malawi, where the areal increase of savannah and woodlands counterbalanced carbon emissions from deforestation. Both Malawi and Tanzania contain large areas of planted forest. Vegetation burning was correlated with rainfall (forest only) and differed depending on land management. Freely available global earth observation products have provided ways to achieve rapid assessment and monitoring of carbon change hotspots at the landscape scale.
Adenovirus DNA was isolated directly from virus-containing stools and digested with restriction endonucleases. The resulting fragments were separated by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) and visualized by silver staining. This enabled us to assign most of the viruses detected to subgenus, serotype and, sometimes, unique strains. Although less sensitive than electron microscopy, the method allowed more information about the infecting virus to be obtained and no cultivation was necessary. Comparison with culture also allowed dual infections to be recognized.
A 2-year survey of faecal adenoviruses in Newcastle upon Tyne showed that type 41 (strain 41a) was the predominant type and strain 41p was not recorded. Heterogeneity in strain 41a was also noted as found elsewhere. Adenovirus type 40 was common prior to 1985 but was absent during the last 2 years.
We have developed a microimmunofluorescence test (IF) which uses cells infected with a recombinant baculovirus which expresses the capsid proteins of astrovirus types 1 or 6. The IF test was sensitive and specific and the results for human astrovirus type 1 (HAst-1) were comparable to those obtained by immune electronmicroscopy and radioimmunoassay. Application of the test to a panel of 273 sera collected from patients and staff at two childrens hospitals in London showed that over 50% of the population were infected by Hast-1 between the age of 5 and 12 months rising to 90% by 5 years, whereas human astrovirus type 6 (HAst6) was relatively uncommon (10–30%) in all age groups.
We have developed a nucleic acid dot-blot hybridization test for the detection of astroviruses in stool samples. The test was not as sensitive as electron microscopy for the detection of low numbers of well preserved astrovirus particles, but was able to identify astroviruses in stools containing particles of indistinct morphology. In total, this procedure identified astroviruses in more samples than did electron microscopy, and the data indicate that the incidence of astroviruses may be substantially underestimated.
Astrovirus serotype 4 has increased in relative prevalence in the Oxford, UK area in 1993. The structural gene of human astrovirus serotype 4 has been sequenced and the results indicate that this protein differs substantially from serotypes 1 and 2. In particular, conservation at the C terminus is greatly reduced. However, amino acid substitutions in this region show a strong conservation in character suggesting that structural or functional constraints operate in this region.
Objective: To describe a population-based, multifaceted shared-care intervention for late-life depression in residential care as a new model of geriatric practice, to outline its development and implementation, and to describe the lessons learned during the implementation process. Setting: A large continuing-care retirement community in Sydney, Australia, providing three levels of care (independent living units, assisted-living complexes, and nursing homes). Participants:) The intervention was implemented for the entire non-nursing home population (residents in independent and assisted living: N = 1,466) of the facility and their health care providers. Of the 1,036 residents who were eligible and agreed to be interviewed, 281 (27.1%) were classified as depressed according to the Geriatric Depression Scale. Intervention Description: The intervention included: (a) multidisciplinary collaboration between primary care physicians, facility health care providers, and the local psychogeriatric service; (b) trainning for primary care physicians and other facility health care providers about detecting and managing depression; and (c) depression-related health education/promotion programs for residents. Conclusions: The intervention was widely accepted by residents and their health care providers, and was sustained and enhanced by the facility after the completion of the study. It is possible to implement and sustain a multifaceted shared-care intervention for late-life depression in a residential care facility where local psychogeriatric services are scarce, staff-to-resident ratios are low, and the needs of depressed to residents are substantial.