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Numerical simulations of quasi-static magnetoconvection with a vertical magnetic field are carried out up to a Chandrasekhar number of
over a broad range of Rayleigh numbers
. Three magnetoconvection regimes are identified: two of the regimes are magnetically constrained in the sense that a leading-order balance exists between the Lorentz and buoyancy forces, whereas the third regime is characterized by unbalanced dynamics that is similar to non-magnetic convection. Each regime is distinguished by flow morphology, momentum and heat equation balances, and heat transport behaviour. One of the magnetically constrained regimes appears to represent an ‘ultimate’ magnetoconvection regime in the dual limit of asymptotically large buoyancy forcing and magnetic field strength; this regime is characterized by an interconnected network of anisotropic, spatially localized fluid columns aligned with the direction of the imposed magnetic field that remain quasi-laminar despite having large flow speeds. As for non-magnetic convection, heat transport is controlled primarily by the thermal boundary layer. Empirically, the scaling of the heat transport and flow speeds with
appear to be independent of the thermal Prandtl number within the magnetically constrained, high-
Unsteady spatially localized states such as puffs, slugs or spots play an important role in transition to turbulence. In plane Couette flow, steady versions of these states are found on two intertwined solution branches describing homoclinic snaking (Schneider et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 104, 2010, 104501). These branches can be used to generate a number of spatially localized initial conditions whose transition can be investigated. From the low Reynolds numbers where homoclinic snaking is first observed (
) to transitional ones (
), these spatially localized states traverse various regimes where their relaminarization time and dynamics are affected by the dynamical structure of phase space. These regimes are reported and characterized in this paper for a
-periodic domain in the streamwise direction as a function of the two remaining variables: the Reynolds number and the width of the localized pattern. Close to the snaking, localized states are attracted by spatially localized periodic orbits before relaminarizing. At larger values of the Reynolds number, the flow enters a chaotic transient of variable duration before relaminarizing. Very long chaotic transients (
) can be observed without difficulty for relatively low values of the Reynolds number (
Global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities are investigated in a computationally tractable two-dimensional model of the solar tachocline. The model’s differential rotation yields stability in the absence of a magnetic field, but if a magnetic field is present, a joint instability is observed. We analyse the nonlinear development of the instability via fully nonlinear direct numerical simulation, the generalized quasi-linear approximation (GQL) and direct statistical simulation (DSS) based upon low-order expansion in equal-time cumulants. As the magnetic diffusivity is decreased, the nonlinear development of the instability becomes more complicated until eventually a set of parameters is identified that produces a previously unidentified long-term cycle in which energy is transformed from kinetic energy to magnetic energy and back. We find that the periodic transitions, which mimic some aspects of solar variability – for example, the quasiperiodic seasonal exchange of energy between toroidal field and waves or eddies – are unable to be reproduced when eddy-scattering processes are excluded from the model.
Rayleigh–Bénard convection is one of the most well-studied models in fluid mechanics. Atmospheric convection, one of the most important components of the climate system, is by comparison complicated and poorly understood. A key attribute of atmospheric convection is the buoyancy source provided by the condensation of water vapour, but the presence of radiation, compressibility, liquid water and ice further complicate the system and our understanding of it. In this paper we present an idealized model of moist convection by taking the Boussinesq limit of the ideal-gas equations and adding a condensate that obeys a simplified Clausius–Clapeyron relation. The system allows moist convection to be explored at a fundamental level and reduces to the classical Rayleigh–Bénard model if the latent heat of condensation is taken to be zero. The model has an exact, Rayleigh-number-independent ‘drizzle’ solution in which the diffusion of water vapour from a saturated lower surface is balanced by condensation, with the temperature field (and so the saturation value of the moisture) determined self-consistently by the heat released in the condensation. This state is the moist analogue of the conductive solution in the classical problem. We numerically determine the linear stability properties of this solution as a function of Rayleigh number and a non-dimensional latent-heat parameter. We also present some two-dimensional, time-dependent, nonlinear solutions at various values of Rayleigh number and the non-dimensional condensational parameters. At sufficiently low Rayleigh number the system converges to the drizzle solution, and we find no evidence that two-dimensional self-sustained convection can occur when that solution is stable. The flow transitions from steady to turbulent as the Rayleigh number or the effects of condensation are increased, with plumes triggered by gravity waves emanating from other plumes. The interior dries as the level of turbulence increases, because the plumes entrain more dry air and because the saturated boundary layer at the top becomes thinner. The flow develops a broad relative humidity minimum in the domain interior, only weakly dependent on Rayleigh number when that is high.
Laser-based compact MeV X-ray sources are useful for a variety of applications such as radiography and active interrogation of nuclear materials. MeV X rays are typically generated by impinging the intense laser onto ~mm-thick high-Z foil. Here, we have characterized such a MeV X-ray source from 120 TW (80 J, 650 fs) laser interaction with a 1 mm-thick tantalum foil. Our measurements show X-ray temperature of 2.5 MeV, flux of 3 × 1012 photons/sr/shot, beam divergence of ~0.1 sr, conversion efficiency of ~1%, that is, ~1 J of MeV X rays out of 80 J incident laser, and source size of 80 m. Our measurement also shows that MeV X-ray yield and temperature is largely insensitive to nanosecond laser contrasts up to 10−5. Also, preliminary measurements of similar MeV X-ray source using a double-foil scheme, where the laser-driven hot electrons from a thin foil undergoing relativistic transparency impinging onto a second high-Z converter foil separated by 50–400 m, show MeV X-ray yield more than an order of magnitude lower compared with the single-foil results.
In this paper we examine the role of weak magnetic fields in breaking Kelvin’s circulation theorem and in vortex breakup in two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics for the physically important case of a fluid with low magnetic Prandtl number (low
). We consider three canonical inviscid solutions for the purely hydrodynamical problem, namely a Gaussian vortex, a circular vortex patch and an elliptical vortex patch. We examine how magnetic fields lead to an initial loss of circulation
and attempt to derive scaling laws for the loss of circulation as a function of field strength and diffusion as measured by two non-dimensional parameters. We show that for all cases the loss of circulation depends on the integrated effects of the Lorentz force, with the patch cases leading to significantly greater circulation loss. For the case of the elliptical vortex, the loss of circulation depends on the total area swept out by the rotating vortex, and so this leads to more efficient circulation loss than for a circular vortex.
Joint statement by Australia and Aotearoa/New Zealand intersex community organisations and independent advocates, including the Androgen Insensitivity Support Syndrome Support Group Australia (AISSGA), Intersex Trust Aotearoa New Zealand (ITANZ), Organisation Intersex International Australia (OIIAU), Eve Black, Kylie Bond (AISSGA), Tony Briff a (OIIAU/AISSGA), Morgan Carpenter (OIIAU/Intersex Day Project 4), Candice Cody (OIIAU), Alex David (OIIAU), Betsy Driver (Bodies Like Ours), Carolyn Hannaford (AISSGA), Eileen Harlow, Bonnie Hart (AISSGA), Phoebe Hart (AISSGA), Delia Leckey (ITANZ), Steph Lum (OIIAU), Mani Bruce Mitchell (ITANZ), Elise Nyhuis (AISSGA), Bronwyn O ‘Callaghan, Sandra Perrin (AISSGA), Cody Smith (Tranz Australia), Trace Williams (AISSGA), Imogen Yang (Bladder Exstrophy Epispadias Cloacal Exstrophy Hypospadias Australian Community – BEECHAC 5), Georgie Yovanovic.
A. Intersex people are born with physical or biological sex characteristics (such as sexual anatomy, reproductive organs, hormonal patterns and/or chromosomal patterns) that are more diverse than stereotypical definitions for male or female bodies. For some people these traits are apparent prenatally or at birth, while for others they emerge later in life, often at puberty (see UN definition 6). We recognise our diverse histories and use the word intersex inclusively, and acknowledging our right to self-determination.
B. We observe that, despite the best efforts of intersex human rights defenders, discrimination, stigmatisation and human rights violations, including harmful practices in medical settings, continue to occur in Australia and Aotearoa/New Zealand.
C. We observe the 2013 Senate Community Affairs References Committee report, Involuntary or coerced sterilisation of intersex people in Australia, and the 2016 Family Court of Australia case, Re Carla (Medical procedure). We observe the Concluding observations on the fifth periodic report of New Zealand by the UN Committee on the Rights of the Child in 2016. 9
D. We recognise the international obligations of our countries, having signed the Convention against Torture, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, and the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities.
We affirm that intersex people are real, and we exist in all regions and all countries around the world. Thus, intersex people must be supported to be the drivers of social, political and legislative changes that concern them. We reaffirm the principles of the First and Second International Intersex Fora and extend the demands aiming to end discrimination against intersex people and to ensure the right of bodily integrity, physical autonomy and self-determination.
• To put an end to mutilating and “ normalizing “ practices such as genital surgeries, psychological and other medical treatments through legislative and other means. Intersex people must be empowered to make their own decisions affecting own bodily integrity, physical autonomy and self-determination.
• To put an end to preimplantation genetic diagnosis, pre-natal screening and treatment, and selective abortion of intersex foetuses.
• To put an end to infanticide and killings of intersex people.
• To put an end to non-consensual sterilisation of intersex people.
• To depathologise variations in sex characteristics in medical guidelines, protocols and classifications, such as the World Health Organization's International Classification of Diseases.
• To register intersex children as females or males, with the awareness that, like all people, they may grow up to identify with a different sex or gender.
• To ensure that sex or gender classifications are amendable through a simple administrative procedure at the request of the individuals concerned. All adults and capable minors should be able to choose between female (F), male (M), non-binary or multiple options. In the future, as with race or religion, sex or gender should not be a category on birth certificates or identification documents for anybody.
• To raise awareness around intersex issues and the rights of intersex people in society at large.
• To create and facilitate supportive, safe and celebratory environments for intersex people, their families and surroundings.
• To ensure that intersex people have the right to full information and access to their own medical records and history.
• To ensure that all professionals and healthcare providers that have a specific role to play in intersex people's wellbeing are adequately trained to provide quality services.
The idea for this book began as a workshop supported by the DAAD Cambridge Research Hub with funds from the German Federal Foreign Office (FFO), the University of Regensburg and Cambridge Family Law.
The workshop was held at the University of Cambridge/Gonville and Caius College on 21 – 22 July 2016, jointly organised by the editors of this book. The workshop was attended not only by academics from Australia, Germany, the UK, Ireland, New Zealand, Spain and Italy, but also by representatives of the Law Commission of England and Wales, the German Federal Ministry of Justice and Consumer Protection (Berlin), the German Institute for Human Rights (Berlin) and the Ministry for Social Dialogue, Consumer Affairs and Civil Liberties (Malta). While the focus was on legal developments and regulation, there also were contributions from theology, medicine and psychology. There was an intense and productive interdisciplinary and interjurisdictional debate over the two days, and much of this is now reflected in this book. After the workshop, and indeed as a result of it, the research project leading to this book was started, and many additional chapters were commissioned in order to present an even broader discussion of the issues.
However, all major research projects face difficulties of varying kinds, and this one certainly was no exception. Several people who had promised to participate dropped out or failed to deliver. Houses were flooded, illnesses overcome, jobs changed, and children born during the period it took to put this book together. But in the end things came together, and we are pleased with the outcome and the broad range of contributions. We truly hope that this book will contribute to the national and international debates and lead to a focus on the autonomy of the people concerned.
We also are very grateful to many institutions and persons supporting the research project and publication of the book: the Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich for supporting the significant editorial work that needed to be undertaken, and which was handled expertly by Intersentia Publishing; Dafni Lima for her help with the initial editorial work; the Gonville and Caius Conference Office, and particularly Laura Webb, for ensuring that the workshop could take place in such a pleasant and well-organised environment; Ingrid Hobbis of the Cambridge Research Hub for her administrative support; Prof.
On the 30th – 31st of March 2017 in Vienna, Austria the first OII Europe community event took place. During the community event 28 Intersex people from 16 Council of Europe member states, some activists and some not, came together to share their experiences, and their varied objectives and strategies for the full implementation of human rights, bodily integrity, self-determination and societal acceptance of intersex people within Europe.
We affirm that intersex people are real, and we exist in all regions and all countries around the world.
We reaffirm the Malta Declaration and its demands, formulated at the 3rd International Intersex Forum (2013), as well as the objectives formulated by the 1st European Intersex Meeting in the Riga Statement (2014).
We also stress the fact, that until this day more than 50 times UN bodies, regional and national human rights bodies have called on governments, policy makers and stakeholders to put an end to human rights violations faced by intersex people – including taking the necessary legislative, administrative and other measures to guarantee respect for the physical integrity and autonomy of intersex persons and to ensure that no one is subjected during infancy or childhood to non-urgent medical or surgical procedures intended to decide the sex of the child.
Ensuring the right of intersex people of bodily integrity, physical autonomy and self-determination must be a priority in all action taken. Intersex people must be supported to be the drivers of social, political and legislative changes that concern them.
We therefore call on governments to:
• Recognise intersex people as a community that has specific and vital needs and that their human rights need protection.
To this aim governments should take decisive action to:
• Install legislative protections that ban medical interventions on children with variations of sex characteristics, on social, psychosocial, cultural or cosmetic grounds. A ban on Intersex genital mutilation is necessary as IGM is equatable with female genital mutilation that takes place within hospital settings. Th is may include installing legislative measures that penalise medical professionals that commit or assist in IGM.
The Legal Status of Intersex Persons provides a basis for discussion regarding all legal aspects concerning persons born with sex characteristics that do not belong strictly to male or female categories, or that belong to both at the same time. It contains contributions from medical, psychological and theological perspectives, as well as national legal perspectives from Germany, Australia, India, the Netherlands, Columbia, Sweden, France and the USA. It explores international human rights aspects of intersex legal recognition and also features chapters on private international law and legal history.The book is a timely one. Until very recently, the legal gender of a person – both at birth and later in life – in virtually all jurisdictions had to be recorded as either male or female; the laws simply did not allow any other option, and, in many cases, changing the recorded gender was difficult or impossible. However, there are many cases where this gender binary is unable to capture the reality of a person’s physical presentation and/or perception of self. Consequently, this gender binary is increasingly being challenged and several jurisdictions have begun to reform their gender status laws.For example, in 2013 Germany became the first Western jurisdiction in modern times to introduce legislation allowing a person’s gender to be recorded as ‘indeterminate’ at birth and thus give them a legal gender status other than male or female for all intents and purposes. However, this legislation has proved problematic in many ways and rightly was subject to pertinent criticism. In 2017 the German Constitutional Court then held that these rules were in violation of the German constitution as they only allowed a non-recognition, as opposed to a positive recognition of a gender other than male or female, and mandated law reform. Similarly, the Austria Constitutional Court held in June 2018 that current civil status laws had to be interpreted to allow registration of alternative gender identities. Therefore two European jurisdictions will now have legal gender recognition beyond the binary.This book looks at law reform taking place around the world, with diverse perspectives from relevant fields, to provide the reader with a comprehensive analysis of the legal status of intersex persons and related issues.