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In the Islamic Republic of Pakistan the law relating to people who are mentally ill, until 2001, was set out by the Lunacy Act of 1912, which was inherited from the British colonial occupiers. In 2001 the Mental Health Ordinance 2001 took its place but only for this federal law to be superseded in April 2010 with the 18th constitutional amendment. As part of that amendment, provinces have become responsible for (psychiatric) healthcare, including mental health legislation. Forensic psychiatry is practised in Pakistan but is very much in its infancy; it needs to develop and learn from more experienced countries in Europe and North America. Cultural factors and misconceptions arising from religion can at times contribute to, or create, barriers to the implementation of forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan. This paper reviews the current state of forensic psychiatric services in Pakistan and is intended to open the debate on the challenges ahead.
Scintillation properties are often studied by photo-luminescence (PL) and
scintillation measurements. In this work, we combine X-ray-induced luminescence
(XRIL) spectroscopy [Review of Scientific Instruments 83, 103112 (2012)] with PL
and standard scintillation measurements to give insight into the scintillation
properties of un-doped ZnO single crystals. XRIL revealed that ZnO luminescence
proportionally increases with X-ray power and exhibits excellent linearity -
indicating the possibility of developing radiation detectors with good energy
resolution. By coupling ZnO crystals to fast photomultiplier tubes and
monitoring the anode signal, rise times as fast as 0.9 ns were measured.
The hydrodynamic equations of positive and negative ions, degenerate electrons, and the Poisson equation are used along with the reductive perturbation method to derive the three-dimensional Zakharov–Kuznetsov (ZK) equation. The G′/G-expansion method is used to obtain a new class of solutions for the ZK equation. At certain condition, these solutions can describe the solitary waves that propagate in our plasma. The effects of negative ion concentrations, the positive/negative ion cyclotron frequency, as well as positive-to-negative ion mass ratio on solitary pulses are examined. Finally, the present study might be helpful to understand the propagation of nonlinear ion-acoustic solitary waves in a dense plasma, such as in astrophysical objects.
As part of their functions, the Hot Laboratories Center, EAEA, are responsible for conditioning of different spent sealed sources which received from different end users. Regarding to the inventory of spent sealed sources in Egypt, thirty eight 60Co spent sealed sources with low radioactivity levels are needed to be conditioned according to IAEA guidelines. The method of conditioning of 60Co spent sealed sources can be achieved using 200 l drum with special lead shield and concrete as matrix material. The surface dose rate calculation reveals that when lead shield of 6.5 cm thickness (density 11.35 gm/ml), concrete shield at least 18 cm thickness (density 2.35 gm/cm3) and 200 l drum thickness is 0.14 cm, (density 7.86 gm/cm3), the surface dose rate is 0.86 mSv/ h. The data are complied with the regulation of IAEA safety standard (surface dose rate doses not exceed than 2.0 mSv/ h).
Temporal lobe and limbic structures may be abnormal in bipolar disorder. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans frequently show deep white matter lesions. MRI was performed on 50 young (19–39 years) euthymic patients with bipolar disorder and 26 controls. Mean temporal lobe volumes were reduced in patients (right, 9.42 cm3; left, 6.33 cm3) but this could not be ascribed to a specific structure. Deep white matter lesions were present in 5 patients but no controls raising questions of their aetiological significance.
The study aimed to identify the correlates of aggressive behaviour in an adult acute psychiatric ward. Over a period of 9 months, all incidents of verbal and physical aggressive behaviour exhibited by in-patients were routinely assessed using the Overt Aggression Scale.
Of the 535 patients admitted during the study period, 80 (15%) were involved in a total of 124 aggressive incidents. Of these 80, 44 (55%) had a history of previous violence and 54 (68%) had a history of substance misuse. The majority of events occurred early in the hospital stay and in most cases aggression was against staff. There were significant differences between aggressive and non-aggressive patients in terms of gender and ethnicity, with the lowest rate occurring in European females.
These results reinforce clinical impressions, and empirical evidence, and allow risk assessment to be performed with greater confidence. The relevance of ethnicity (or more likely culture) highlights the difficulties of a ‘one size fits all’ approach to risk assessment.
Viral infections can be focal and therefore difficult to find by electron microscopy. In addition to sampling limitations, sometimes the only specimen available for examination is tissue that has already been prepared for light microscopy (LM). We have diagnosed a papovavirus infection in skin by embedding hematoxylin and eosin (H&E)-stained sections for ultrathin sectioning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
Immunosuppressed patients can have unusual infections or infections in unusual locations. These agents may be difficult to identify due to their not being suspected and incorrect tests being ordered.
Reports of medical care at mass gatherings reflect variability in mission and delivery models. Equipment recommendations are similarly varied. Thoughtful pre-planning and experience-based analysis are the best mechanisms for defining general and specific equipment recommendations.
This report presents a suggested supply and equipment list developed over a six-year period of medical coverage at an air show, with an emphasis on the usage and cost of expendable supplies.
The authors were involved in the planning for and execution of emergency medical care for a large, local, military air show on an annual basis, including provision of expendable medical supplies. A list of such supplies was developed over the initial two to three years, formalized and refined over the subsequent two years, and analyzed in the final, highest patient volume year of coverage. Detailed usage and cost was tracked over the final year for expendable supplies.
The results of this analysis indicate that comprehensive emergency medical care from first aid to mass casualty care can be offered at reasonable equipment and supply costs, if existing equipment resources can be supplemented by expendable supplies from a pre-determined list. Given the need for large quantities of supplies for a mass casualty contingency and the low likelihood of occurrence, a loan arrangement with a supplier, with return of unused supplies, is particularly convenient and economical. The approach used in this study should be appreciable in other similar settings. In concurrent scheduled events, the iterative process described can lead to greater specificity of needs for expendable supplies.
Near-field scanning optical microscopy has been used to measure the internal spatial modes and local properties controlling optical wave propagation in glass/silica buried waveguides. The period of the observed standing modes provides a direct measure of the effective index, which combined with the measured transverse modal shape and decay constants, determines the values of all spatial components of the wave vector.
Typically, small fluctuations in the material properties of structures can prevent proper operation as well as accurate diagnostic device modeling. The NSOM local probe measurements provide a means of detailed characterization, and defects in processing and their affects on performance are readily identified. We have also developed a technique that can obtain information about the locations of remote dielectric interfaces based upon the rate of change in the phase of the standing wave as a function of wavelength. Finally, experimental results addressing the issue of perturbation of the NSOM probe on the measurement of the local field shows a weak but measurable perturbation, and the dependence on aperture and material parameters will be discussed.
A widespread perception exists that attendance at child psychiatry clinics is especially poor. The reported rate of non-attendance at a child psychiatry outpatient clinic is 61%. However, other child health clinics also suffer a high rate of non-attendance. In this paper we examine the hypothesis that rates of non-attendance are higher in child psychiatry than In other child health out-patient clinics.
Libya occupies an approximate area of 1.8 million sq. km in the northern part of Africa, with a population of 4.5 million. of the population, 97% are Muslims, 46.5% are under 15 years and only 2.3% are over 65 years of age. Sixty-four per cent of the population live in urban areas and the literacy rate is 60%. Tripoli, situated in the west, is the capital city of Libya and Benghazi, the second biggest city, is situated in the east of the country and the distance between the two cities is about 1000 km. The population of Benghazi and eastern Libya is about 2 million.