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Since the collapse of the housing market in 2008, demand for housing has consistently outpaced supply in many US communities. The failure to construct sufficient housing – especially affordable housing – in desirable communities and neighborhoods comes with significant social, economic, and environmental costs. This book examines how local participatory land use institutions amplify the power of entrenched interests and privileged homeowners. The book draws on sweeping data to examine the dominance of land use politics by “neighborhood defenders” – individuals who oppose new housing projects far more strongly than their broader communities and who are likely to be privileged on a variety of dimensions. Neighborhood defenders participate disproportionately and take advantage of land use regulations to restrict the construction of multifamily housing. The result is diminished housing stock and higher housing costs, with participatory institutions perversely reproducing inequality.
In 2014/2015, International Medical Corps (IMC) operated two Ebola Treatment Units (ETUs) in Liberia and three in Sierra Leone when the Ebola virus disease epidemic killed over 11,000 people across Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea. As Ebola cases declined in Liberia, IMC Psychosocial teams transitioned to working in communities highly affected by the epidemic. This article describes IMC's experience with developing and implementing a community-based mental health and psychosocial group intervention in a rural, severely affected Liberian town – Mawah – where 46 out of approximately 800 community members were infected, 39 of whom died. In this paper, we present how the group intervention, named ‘Social Reconnection Groups’, was developed and implemented. We then discuss intervention strengths, challenges, key lessons learnt and recommendations for how Social Reconnection Groups can be adapted for use in similar settings.
Micronutrient supplementation is recommended in Ebola Virus Disease (EVD). However, there is limited data on its therapeutic impacts. This study evaluated the association between vitamin A supplementation and mortality outcomes in EVD patients.
This retrospective cohort study accrued patients with EVD admitted to five International Medical Corps run Ebola Treatment Units (ETU) in two countries from 2014-2015. Protocolized treatments with antimicrobials and micronutrients were used at all ETUs. However, due to resource limitations and care variations, only a subset of patients received vitamin A. Standardized data on demographics, clinical characteristics, malaria status, and Ebola virus RT-PCR cycle threshold (CT) values were collected. The outcome of interest was mortality compared between cases treated with 200,000 International Units of vitamin A on care days one and two and those not. Propensity scores (PS) based on the first 48-hours of care were derived using the covariates of age, duration of ETU function, malaria status, CT values, symptoms of confusion, hemorrhage, diarrhea, dysphagia, and dyspnea. Treated and non-treated cases were matched 1:1 based on nearest neighbors with replacement. Covariate balance met predefined thresholds. Mortality proportions between cases treated and untreated with vitamin A were compared using generalized estimating equations to calculate relative risks (RR) with associated 95% confidence intervals (CI).
There were 424 cases analyzed, with 330 (77.8%) being vitamin A-treated cases. The mean age was 30.5 years and 57.0% were female. The most common symptoms were diarrhea (86%), anorexia (81%), and vomiting (77%). Mortality proportions among cases untreated and treated with vitamin A were 71.9% and 55.0%, respectively. In a propensity-matched analysis, mortality was significantly lower among cases receiving vitamin A (RR = 0.77 95%; CI:0.59-0.99; p = 0.041).
Early vitamin A supplementation was associated with reduced mortality in EVD patients and should be provided routinely during future epidemics.
Targeted screening for carbapenem-resistant organisms (CROs), including carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) and carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPOs), remains limited; recent data suggest that existing policies miss many carriers.
Our objective was to measure the prevalence of CRO and CPO perirectal colonization at hospital unit admission and to use machine learning methods to predict probability of CRO and/or CPO carriage.
We performed an observational cohort study of all patients admitted to the medical intensive care unit (MICU) or solid organ transplant (SOT) unit at The Johns Hopkins Hospital between July 1, 2016 and July 1, 2017. Admission perirectal swabs were screened for CROs and CPOs. More than 125 variables capturing preadmission clinical and demographic characteristics were collected from the electronic medical record (EMR) system. We developed models to predict colonization probabilities using decision tree learning.
Evaluating 2,878 admission swabs from 2,165 patients, we found that 7.5% and 1.3% of swabs were CRO and CPO positive, respectively. Organism and carbapenemase diversity among CPO isolates was high. Despite including many characteristics commonly associated with CRO/CPO carriage or infection, overall, decision tree models poorly predicted CRO and CPO colonization (C statistics, 0.57 and 0.58, respectively). In subgroup analyses, however, models did accurately identify patients with recent CRO-positive cultures who use proton-pump inhibitors as having a high likelihood of CRO colonization.
In this inpatient population, CRO carriage was infrequent but was higher than previously published estimates. Despite including many variables associated with CRO/CPO carriage, models poorly predicted colonization status, likely due to significant host and organism heterogeneity.
The story of the exposure of the Donation of Constantine is a familiar one. In the middle of the fifteenth century, it will be recalled, two different men, writing independently of each other in England and in Italy, demonstrated conclusively that the document was a forgery. Others had long suspected it and, on one occasion at least, carefully examined and rejected it. But it was left to Reginald Pecock and Lorenzo Valla to complete the criticism. When they were finished it was difficult, if not impossible, to continue to believe in either the document or the event. In this way, European historiography took a major step forward and the Renaissance relieved itself of one of the many legends that cluttered its understanding of the past.
Numerous studies shown that structural hippocampal alterations are present in subjects at high risk of developing psychosis or schizophrenia. These findings indicate that in a subset of patients undergoing first-psychosis episode (FPE), hippocampal volume alterations are accompanied by associated cognitive and neuropsychological deficits. The combination of psychological deficits and neuroanatomical alterations, in turn, appears to increase treatment complexity and worsen clinical outcomes.
We aim to determine whether cognitive and neuropsychological functioning deficits precede or follow hippocampal alterations during early onset psychosis.
This cross-sectional study describes 3 case-studies of adolescent subjects, ages 16–17, admitted at the child and adolescent inpatient psychiatric unit in lieu of first psychotic episode. We conducted detailed structured clinical psychiatric interviews, anatomical-structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), sleep-deprived electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings, laboratory testing, and a comprehensive battery of psychological testing to better understand their clinical pictures.
Psychological testing in each patient demonstrated the presence of low to borderline intellectual functioning coupled with neuropsychological deficits in different psychiatric domains. Interestingly, these changes coincided with structural MRI alterations in the hippocampal area.
Our case report adds to the armamentarium of literature signifying that radiologically detectable alterations of the hippocampus may occur either concomitantly or closely following the development of early cognitive deficits in patients with FPE.
Given the challenges in accurately identifying unexposed controls in case–control studies of diarrhoea, we examined diarrhoea incidence, subclinical enteric infections and growth stunting within a reference population in the Global Enteric Multicenter Study, Kenya site. Within ‘control’ children (0–59 months old without diarrhoea in the 7 days before enrolment, n = 2384), we examined surveys at enrolment and 60-day follow-up, stool at enrolment and a 14-day post-enrolment memory aid for diarrhoea incidence. At enrolment, 19% of controls had ⩾1 enteric pathogen associated with moderate-to-severe diarrhoea (‘MSD pathogens’) in stool; following enrolment, many reported diarrhoea (27% in 7 days, 39% in 14 days). Controls with and without reported diarrhoea had similar carriage of MSD pathogens at enrolment; however, controls reporting diarrhoea were more likely to report visiting a health facility for diarrhoea (27% vs. 7%) or fever (23% vs. 16%) at follow-up than controls without diarrhoea. Odds of stunting differed by both MSD and ‘any’ (including non-MSD pathogens) enteric pathogen carriage, but not diarrhoea, suggesting control classification may warrant modification when assessing long-term outcomes. High diarrhoea incidence following enrolment and prevalent carriage of enteric pathogens have implications for sequelae associated with subclinical enteric infections and for design and interpretation of case–control studies examining diarrhoea.
Scholars and policymakers have highlighted institutions that enable community participation as a potential buffer against existing political inequalities. Yet these venues may bias policy discussions in favor of an unrepresentative group of individuals. To explore who participates, we compile a novel data set by coding thousands of instances of citizens speaking at planning and zoning board meetings concerning housing development. We match individuals to a voter file to investigate local political participation in housing and development policy. We find that individuals who are older, male, longtime residents, voters in local elections, and homeowners are significantly more likely to participate in these meetings. These individuals overwhelmingly (and to a much greater degree than the general public) oppose new housing construction. These participatory inequalities have important policy implications and may be contributing to rising housing costs.
The links between low socioeconomic status and poor health are well established, yet despite adversity, some individuals with low socioeconomic status appear to avoid these negative consequences through adaptive coping. Previous research found a set of strategies, called shift-and-persist (shifting the self to stressors while persisting by finding meaning), to be particularly adaptive for individuals with low socioeconomic status, who typically face more uncontrollable stressors. This study tested (a) whether perceived social status, similar to objective socioeconomic status, would moderate the link between shift-and-persist and health, and (b) whether a specific uncontrollable stressor, unfair treatment, would similarly moderate the health correlates of shift-and-persist. A sample of 308 youth (Meanage = 13.0, range 8–17), physician diagnosed with asthma, completed measures of shift-and-persist, unfair treatment, asthma control, and quality of life in the lab, and 2 weeks of daily diaries about their asthma symptoms. Parents reported on perceived family social status. Results indicated that shift-and-persist was associated with better asthma profiles, only among youth from families with lower (vs. higher) parent-reported perceived social status. Shift-and-persist was also associated with better asthma profiles, only among youth who experienced more (vs. less) unfair treatment. These findings suggest that the adaptive values of coping strategies for youth with asthma depend on the family's perceived social status and on the stressor experienced.
Brain tumor behavior is driven by aberrations in the genome and epigenome. Many of these changes, such as IDH mutations in diffuse low-grade glioma (DLGG), are common amongst the same class of tumour and can be incorporated into the diagnostic criteria. However, any given tumor may have other, less common genomic aberrations that are essential for its biological behavior and may inform on underlying aberrant cellular pathways, and potential therapeutic agents. Precision oncology is a genomics-based approach which profiles these alterations to better manage cancer patients and has established itself within the practice of oncology and is slowly making its way into neuro-oncology. The BC Cancer’s Personalized OncoGenomics (POG) program has profiled 16 adult tumours originating from the central nervous system using whole genome and transcriptome analysis (WGTA), for the first time, within a meaningful clinical timeframe/setting. As expected, primary genomic drivers were consistent with their respective diagnoses, though secondary drivers were found to be unique to each tumour. Although these analyses did not result in altered clinical management for these patients, primarily due to availability of drug or clinical trials, they highlight the heterogeneity of secondary drivers in cancers and provide clinicians with meaningful biological information. Lastly, the data generated by POG has highlighted the frequency and complexity of novel driver fusions which are predicted to behave similarly to canonical driver events in their respective tumours. The information available to clinicians through POG has provided paramount knowledge into the biology of each unique tumour.
Background: The goal was to understand factors leading to prolonged wait times for neurological assessment of children with new onset seizures. A second objective was to develop an innovative approach to patient flow through and achieve a reduction in waiting times utilizing limited resources.
Audit of the referrals, flow through, wait times
Identification of bottlenecks
Development of triaging strategy:
Suspected Febrile seizures and non-epileptic events;
Suspected benign and absence epilepsies;
Suspected other Focal epilepsies, generalized epilepsies, epilepsy under 2 years
Initiation of early telephone contact and support
Development of a ketogenic diet
Results: Using a triaging strategy and focusing on timely access to investigations, wait times for clinic evaluations were shortened despite larger numbers of referrals (mean wait time reductions from 179 to 91 days). Limiting factors such increase in referral numbers, attrition in support staff, interfered with sustainability of reduced wait times achieved in the initial phase of the program. Conclusions: This pilot study highlights the effectiveness of an innovative triaging strategy and improvements in patient flow through in achieving the goals of reduction in wait times for clinical evaluation and timely investigations to improve care for children with new onset seizures. Insights into limitations of such strategies and factors determining sustainability are discussed.
Introduction: Survival from cardiac arrest has been linked to the quality of resuscitation care. Unfortunately, healthcare providers frequently underperform in these critical scenarios, with a well-documented deterioration in skills weeks to months following advanced life support courses. Improving initial training and preventing decay in knowledge and skills are a priority in resuscitation education. The spacing effect has repeatedly been shown to have an impact on learning and retention. Despite its potential advantages, the spacing effect has seldom been applied to organized education training or complex motor skill learning where it has the potential to make a significant impact. The purpose of this study was to determine if a resuscitation course taught in a spaced format compared to the usual massed instruction results in improved retention of procedural skills. Methods: EMS providers (Paramedics and Emergency Medical Technicians (EMT)) were block randomized to receive a Pediatric Advanced Life Support (PALS) course in either a spaced format (four 210-minute weekly sessions) or a massed format (two sequential 7-hour days). Blinded observers used expert-developed 4-point global rating scales to assess video recordings of each learner performing various resuscitation skills before, after and 3-months following course completion. Primary outcomes were performance on infant bag-valve-mask ventilation (BVMV), intraosseous (IO) insertion, infant intubation, infant and adult chest compressions. Results: Forty-eight of 50 participants completed the study protocol (26 spaced and 22 massed). There was no significant difference between the two groups on testing before and immediately after the course. 3-months following course completion participants in the spaced cohort scored higher overall for BVMV (2.2 ± 0.13 versus 1.8 ± 0.14, p=0.012) without statistically significant difference in scores for IO insertion (3.0 ± 0.13 versus 2.7± 0.13, p= 0.052), intubation (2.7± 0.13 versus 2.5 ± 0.14, p=0.249), infant compressions (2.5± 0.28 versus 2.5± 0.31, p=0.831) and adult compressions (2.3± 0.24 versus 2.2± 0.26, p=0.728) Conclusion: Procedural skills taught in a spaced format result in at least as good learning as the traditional massed format; more complex skills taught in a spaced format may result in better long term retention when compared to traditional massed training as there was a clear difference in BVMV and trend toward a difference in IO insertion.
Pluralism has become a buzzword in International Relations. It has emerged in a number of linked literatures and has drawn the support of an unusual coalition of scholars: advocates of greater methodological diversity; those who feel that IR has degenerated into a clash of paradigmatic “-isms”; those who favor a closer relationship between academics and policy-makers; and those who wish to see greater reflexivity within the field. Perhaps unsurprisingly, no single vision of pluralism unites these scholars; they appear to be using the term in divergent ways. Accordingly, our aim is threefold. First, we wish to highlight this odd state of affairs, by placing it in disciplinary and intellectual context. Second, we distinguish between plurality—the de facto recognition that IR has become a more diverse field—and pluralism—a normative position which values that diversity, given the public vocation of social science. Finally, we lay out a more consistent understanding and defense of pluralism in those latter terms. We argue that, properly understood, pluralism entails a position of epistemological skepticism: the straightforward claim that no single knowledge system, discipline, theory, or method can claim singular access to truth.