To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
To describe and compare caffeinated energy drink adverse event (AE) report/exposure call data from the US Food and Drug Administration Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition’s Adverse Event Reporting System (CAERS) and the American Association of Poison Control Centers’ National Poison Data System (NPDS).
Data were evaluated from US-based CAERS reports and NPDS exposure calls, including report/exposure call year, age, sex, location, single v. multiple product consumption, outcome, symptom, intentionality (NPDS only), report type, product name (CAERS only).
The analysis defined participants (cases) by the number of caffeinated energy drink products indicated in each AE report or exposure call. Single product cases included 357 from CAERS and 12 822 from NPDS; multiple product cases included 153 from CAERS and 931 from NPDS.
CAERS v. NPDS single product cases were older and more frequently indicated serious symptoms. Multiple v. single product consumers were older in both. In CAERS, unlike NPDS, most multiple product consumers were female. CAERS single v. multiple product reports cited higher proportions of life-threatening events, but less often indicated hospitalization and serious events. NPDS multiple v. single product cases involved fewer ≤5-year-olds and were more often intentional.
Despite limitations, both data sources contribute to post-market surveillance and improve understanding of public health concerns.
The HIPPARCOS satellite provides astronomical data for about one thousand Long Period Variable stars (LPVs) from which kinematics properties and luminosity calibrations in several bandpasses are deduced using an appropriate method. Several results are deduced: a classification of the LPVs and its relation with the classification from the light curves, a calibration of luminosities inducing properties (age, mass, etc.) along the AGB and a comparison of oxygen to carbon-rich stars.
The president calls attention to the large and increasing membership of Commission 12 and the policy of concentrating in it all matters relating to the sun. The result makes it comparable in breadth of field and in membership to the former Union for Co-operation in Solar Research. The main point in favour of this policy is the increased interest in the meetings of the Commission and the larger number of individuals reached compared with the meetings of small committees. One recalls the general sessions of the Solar Union in which each one present felt himself a part of the Union and in real touch with the work of different sections and after the discussions went away with fuller knowledge of what it was all about. This was a valuable result not attained to the same degree from the general sessions of the present Union, but in a measure it does follow from the meetings of the Solar Physics Committee. On the other hand the question may be raised whether or not the merging of independent commissions into subdivisions of a large commission lessens their interest to an extent not balanced by the advantages. If the present policy holds, it seems to the president that a re-organisation of Commission 12 is advisable by which more responsibility is laid upon the directors of centres. The basis of membership in the Commission may well be considered and recommendations formulated for transmission to the Executive Committee.
With Gaia currently in nominal mission mode and sending data to earth, the challenge for the astronomical community is to prepare for the use of what will be at the time of release one of the largest and most complex astronomical catalogues ever produced. Use of parallax data is not straightforward due to the presence of many statistical biases and selection effects. We present an overview of a techniques for correct use of the Gaia parallax information, which relies on statistical modelling of the data in order to infer derived quantities such as distance and absolute magnitude in an unbiased way. The methods rely on a Bayesian methodology and have been applied to case studies on normal stars, variable stars, open clusters and the LMC.
On June 29, 2012, mid-Atlantic storms resulted in a large-scale power outage affecting up to three million people across multiple (US) states. Hemodialysis centers are dependent on electricity to provide dialysis care to end-stage renal disease patients. The objective of this study was to determine how the power outage impacted operations in a sample of hemodialysis centers in the impacted regions.
The sample consisted of all hemodialysis centers located in the District of Columbia and a total of five counties with the largest power losses in West Virginia, Virginia, and Maryland. A semi-structured interview guide was developed, and the charge nurse or supervisor in each facility was interviewed. The survey questions addressed whether their centers lost power, if so, for how long, where their patients received dialysis, whether their centers had backup generators, and if so, whether they had any problems operating them, and whether their center received patients from other centers if they had power.
Calls were placed to 90 dialysis centers in the sampled areas and a 90% response rate was achieved. Overall, hemodialysis operations at approximately 30% (n = 24) of the centers queried were impacted by the power outage. Of the 36 centers that lost power, 31% (n = 11) referred their patients to other dialysis centers, 22% (n = 8) accommodated their patients during a later shift or on a different day; the rest of the centers either experienced brief power outages that did not affect operations or experienced a power outage on days that the center is usually closed. Some centers in the study cohort reported receiving patients from other centers for dialysis 33% (n = 27). Thirty-two percent (n = 26) of the centers queried had backup generators on site. Eleven percent (n = 4) of the centers experiencing power outages reported that backup generators were brought in by their parent companies.
Comprehensive emergency planning for dialysis centers should include provisions for having backup generators on site, having plans in place for the timely delivery of a generator during a power outage, or having predesignated backup dialysis centers for patients to receive dialysis during emergencies. Most dialysis centers surveyed in this study were able to sustain continuity of care by implementing such pre-existing emergency plans.
AbirM, JanS, JubeltL, MerchantR, LurieN. The Impact of a Large-Scale Power Outage on Hemodialysis Center Operations. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2013;28(6):1-4.
Recent Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) have identified four low-penetrance ovarian cancer susceptibility loci. We hypothesized that further moderate- or low-penetrance variants exist among the subset of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) not well tagged by the genotyping arrays used in the previous studies, which would account for some of the remaining risk. We therefore conducted a time- and cost-effective stage 1 GWAS on 342 invasive serous cases and 643 controls genotyped on pooled DNA using the high-density Illumina 1M-Duo array. We followed up 20 of the most significantly associated SNPs, which are not well tagged by the lower density arrays used by the published GWAS, and genotyping them on individual DNA. Most of the top 20 SNPs were clearly validated by individually genotyping the samples used in the pools. However, none of the 20 SNPs replicated when tested for association in a much larger stage 2 set of 4,651 cases and 6,966 controls from the Ovarian Cancer Association Consortium. Given that most of the top 20 SNPs from pooling were validated in the same samples by individual genotyping, the lack of replication is likely to be due to the relatively small sample size in our stage 1 GWAS rather than due to problems with the pooling approach. We conclude that there are unlikely to be any moderate or large effects on ovarian cancer risk untagged by less dense arrays. However, our study lacked power to make clear statements on the existence of hitherto untagged small-effect variants.
Meningiomas are slow-growing, benign tumours originating from the arachnoid villi of the meninges. They account for 13 to 26 per cent of all intracranial neoplasms. Less than 1 per cent of all meningiomas are primary extracranial tumours of the ear and temporal bone. Intracranial meningiomas extending to the middle-ear cleft are uncommon, with fewer than 100 cases reported to date. Presenting symptoms of the latter condition may include hearing loss, tinnitus, dizziness, vertigo and facial palsy. Otitis media with effusion secondary to eustachian tube dysfunction has also been reported.
To describe three patients in whom chronic otitis media was the presenting sign of skull base meningioma.
Presentation of clinical and imaging findings as well as management considerations.
Meningioma involving the middle ear is an extremely rare condition, and is diagnosed by computed tomography in conjunction with magnetic resonance imaging. When biopsy is performed, the histological features, characteristic immunophenotype and ultrastructural analysis are valuable aids to definitive diagnosis. In patients with no neurological symptoms, ‘wait and scan’ is often the best management option.
Routine laboratory testing may not detect non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) reliably. Active clinical, epidemiological, environmental health, and laboratory collaboration probably influence successful detection and study of non-O157 STEC infection. We summarized two outbreak investigations in which such coordinated efforts identified non-O157 STEC disease and led to effective control measures. Outbreak 1 involved illness associated with consuming unpasteurized apple cider from a local orchard. Public health personnel were notified by a local hospital; stool specimens from ill persons contained O111 STEC. Outbreak 2 involved bloody diarrhoea at a correctional facility. Public health personnel were notified by the facility infection control officer; O45 STEC was the implicated agent. These reports highlight the ability of non-O157 STEC to cause outbreaks and demonstrate that a coordinated effort by clinicians, infection-control practitioners, clinical diagnostic laboratorians, and public health personnel can lead to effective identification, investigation, and prevention of non-O157 STEC disease.
From the Gaia mission, kinematic and star count data, together with the physical
parameters of the stars - ages and metallicities-, will allow to characterise our Galaxy
populations and, from that, the overall Galactic gravitational potential. One of the
promising procedures to reach such goal will be to optimise the present Population
Synthesis models by fitting, through robust statistical techniques, the large and small
scale structure and kinematics parameters that best will reproduce Gaia data. As a first
step we present here the comparison between the data from the Tycho-2 catalogue and the
Besançon Galaxy Model simulations, as well as our present and future work on the model
The Business Meeting of Commission 45 was held on 16 August 2006. It was attended by the president and vice-president of the Commission as well as by twenty other members of the Commission. Attendance was limited, as usual, by the unavoidable occurrence of parallel sessions.
Before Hipparcos, the determination of absolute luminosity was usually done through calibrations based on a few stellar parallaxes measured at the highest precision. The Hipparcos mission meant a giant step on the knowledge of luminosities and fine structure of the HR diagram. The Gaia mission will go an enormous step further. Besides luminosities, Gaia will allow us to derive other stellar parameters like temperature and extinction, gravity, chemical composition, age and mass by the combination of astrometric and spectrometric data. Through simulations during the mission preparation, it has been shown that the astrometric parallax information is essential to deal with the degeneracy between gravity and chemical composition ([Fe/H] and [α/Fe]), that cannot be treated using only spectrophotometry. We show the expected HR diagram for the Gaia domain and the accuracies of stellar parameters.
The ESA space astrometry mission Gaia will measure the positions, parallaxes and proper motions of the 1 billion brightest stars on the sky. Expected accuracies are in the 7–25 μas range down to 15 mag and sub-mas accuracies at the faint limit (20 mag). The astrometric data are complemented by low-resolution spectrophotometric data in the 330–1000 nm wavelength range and, for the brighter stars, radial velocity measurements. The scientific case covers an extremely wide range of topics in galactic and stellar astrophysics, solar system and exoplanet science, as well as the establishment of a very accurate, dense and faint optical reference frame. With a planned launch around 2012 and an (extended) operational lifetime of 6 years, final results are expected around 2021. We give a brief overview of the science goals of Gaia, the overall project organisation, expected performance, and some key technical features and challenges.
In October 1998, cohorts of circular migrant men and their non-migrant sexual partners, and non-migrant men and their non-migrant sexual partners from rural South Africa were recruited and followed-up every 4 months until October 2001. At each visit, information on socio-demographic, sexual behaviour, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV was collected. In total, 553 individuals aged between 18 and 69 years were recruited. A man and his sexual partner(s) form a sexual partnership. Migration status, age, marital status, age at sexual debut, recent sexual partners and HIV status were found to be important determinants of STI. The risk of STI varies (σ2=1·45, P<0·001) significantly across sexual partnerships even after controlling for important determinants. The variance implies substantial correlation (0·59) between members of the same sexual partnership. Ignoring this correlation leads to incorrect inference. Migration contributes significantly to the spread of STIs. Community interventions of HIV/STI should target co-transmitter sexual partnerships rather than high-risk individuals.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.