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New technological methods, such as rapidly developing molecular approaches, often provide new tools for scientific advances. However, these new tools are often not utilized equally across different research areas, possibly leading to disparities in progress between these areas. Here, we use empirical evidence from the scientific literature to test for potential discrepancies in the use of genetic tools to study parasitic vs non-parasitic organisms across three distinguishable molecular periods, the allozyme, nucleotide and genomics periods. Publications on parasites constitute only a fraction (<5%) of the total research output across all molecular periods and are dominated by medically relevant parasites (especially protists), particularly during the early phase of each period. Our analysis suggests an increasing complexity of topics and research questions being addressed with the development of more sophisticated molecular tools, with the research focus between the periods shifting from predominantly species discovery to broader theory-focused questions. We conclude that both new and older molecular methods offer powerful tools for research on parasites, including their diverse roles in ecosystems and their relevance as human pathogens. While older methods, such as barcoding approaches, will continue to feature in the molecular toolbox of parasitologists for years to come, we encourage parasitologists to be more responsive to new approaches that provide the tools to address broader questions.
Quality Improvement and Patient Safety (QIPS) plays an important role in addressing shortcomings in optimal healthcare delivery. However, there is little published guidance available for emergency department (ED) teams with respect to developing their own QIPS programs. We sought to create recommendations for established and aspiring ED leaders to use as a pathway to better patient care through programmatic QIPS activities, starting internally and working towards interdepartmental collaboration.
An expert panel comprised of ten ED clinicians with QIPS and leadership expertise was established. A scoping review was conducted to identify published literature on establishing QIPS programs and frameworks in healthcare. Stakeholder consultations were conducted among Canadian healthcare leaders, and recommendations were drafted by the expert panel based on all the accumulated information. These were reviewed and refined at the 2018 CAEP Academic Symposium in Calgary using in-person and technologically-supported feedback.
Recommendations include: creating a sense of urgency for improvement; engaging relevant stakeholders and leaders; creating a formal local QIPS Committee; securing funding and resources; obtaining local data to guide the work; supporting QIPS training for team members; encouraging interprofessional, cross-departmental, and patient collaborations; using an established QIPS framework to guide the work; developing reward mechanisms and incentive structures; and considering to start small by focusing on a project rather than a program.
A list of 10 recommendations is presented as guiding principles for the establishment and sustainable deployment of QIPS activities in EDs throughout Canada and abroad. ED leaders are encouraged to implement our recommendations in an effort to improve patient care.
Natural living conductive biofilms transport electrons between electrodes and cells, as well as among cells fixed within the film, catalyzing an array of reactions from acetate oxidation to CO2 reduction. Synthetic biology offers tools to modify or improve electron transport through biofilms, creating a new class of engineered living conductive materials. Engineered living conductive materials could be used in a range of applications for which traditional conducting polymers are not appropriate, including improved catalytic coatings for microbial fuel-cell electrodes, self-powered sensors for austere environments, and next-generation living components of bioelectronic devices that interact with the human microbiome.
Evidence on the intergenerational continuity of intimate partner violence (IPV) suggests small to moderate associations between childhood exposure and young adult IPV involvement, suggesting an indirect effects model. Yet, few prospective studies have formally tested meditational mechanisms. The current study tested a prospective (over 9 years) moderated-mediational model in which adolescent psychopathology symptoms (i.e., internalizing, externalizing, and combined) mediated the association between exposure to IPV in middle childhood and young adult IPV perpetration. In a more novel contribution, we controlled for proximal young adult partner and relationship characteristics. The sample consisted of n = 205 participants, who were, on average, assessed for exposure to parent IPV at age 12.30 years, adolescent psychopathology symptoms at age 15.77 years, and young adult IPV at 21.30 years of age. Data suggest a small, significant direct path from IPV exposure to young adult perpetration, mediated only through adolescent externalizing. Gender moderation analyses reveal differences in sensitivity to exposure across developmental periods; for males, effects of exposure were intensified during the transition to adolescence, whereas for females, effects were amplified during the transition to adulthood. In both cases, the mediational role of psychopathology symptoms was no longer significant once partner antisocial behavior was modeled. Findings have important implications for both theory and timing of risk conveyance.
Many marine-terminating glaciers draining the Greenland ice sheet have retreated over the past decade, yet the extent and magnitude of retreat relative to past variability is unknown. We measure changes in front positions of 210 marine-terminating glaciers using Landsat imagery spanning nearly four decades and compare decadal-scale rates of change with earlier observations. We find that 90% of the observed glaciers retreated between 2000 and 2010, approaching 100% in the northwest, with rapid retreat observed in all sectors of the ice sheet. The current retreat is accelerating and likely began between 1992 and 2000, coincident with the onset of warming, following glacier stability and minor advance during a mid-century cooling period. While it is clear an extensive retreat occurred in the early 20th century, a period of increasing air temperatures, a comparison of our results with historical observations provides evidence that the current retreat is more widespread. The onset of rapid retreat with warming relative to the slow and lagged advance with cooling suggests an asymmetry in the response of marine fronts to external forcing.
Previous studies suggest that adults with Tourette syndrome (TS) can respond unconventionally on tasks involving social cognition. We therefore hypothesized that these patients would exhibit different neural responses to healthy controls in response to emotionally salient expressions of human eyes.
Twenty-five adults with TS and 25 matched healthy controls were scanned using fMRI during the standard version of the Reading the Mind in the Eyes Task which requires mental state judgements, and a novel comparison version requiring judgements about age.
During prompted mental state recognition, greater activity was apparent in TS within left orbitofrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, right amygdala and right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), while reduced activity was apparent in regions including left inferior parietal cortex. Age judgement elicited greater activity in TS within precuneus, medial prefrontal and temporal regions involved in mentalizing. The interaction between group and task revealed differential activity in areas including right inferior frontal gyrus. Task-related activity in the TPJ covaried with global ratings of the urge to tic.
While recognizing mental states, adults with TS exhibit greater activity than controls in brain areas involved in the processing of negative emotion, in addition to reduced activity in regions associated with the attribution of agency. In addition, increased recruitment of areas involved in mental state reasoning is apparent in these patients when mentalizing is not a task requirement. Our findings highlight differential neural reactivity in response to emotive social cues in TS, which may interact with tic expression.
Commission 41 is one of the largest specialist components of the IAU. At the General Assembly in 1982 at Patras the number of ordinary members was increased from 79 to 86 as a testimony to the growing interest among astronomers in the history of their subject. At the same time the number of consulting members rose from 32 to 40, which shows that an increasing number of highly competent historians of science is engaged in research in the history of astronomy without being professional astronomers. However, many valuable contributions to the subject come from historians who are not members. In consequence, the principal purpose of Commission 41 is to serve as a link between all historians of astronomy whether they be members or not, by initiating research into particular areas, by disseminating new results, or simply by creating possibilities of personal contacts between scholars from different parts of the world. This is mainly achieved by meetings of various kinds.
We argue that social psychology has unique potential for advancing understanding of resilience. An exciting development that illustrates this is the emergence of social-psychological interventions – brief, stealthy, and psychologically precise interventions – that can yield broad and lasting benefits by targeting key resilience mechanisms. Such interventions provide a causal test of resilience mechanisms and bring about positive change in people's lives.
The displacement per atom (dpa) has been a specific issue to evaluate the damage in the first wall of the Tokamak. Two different first wall materials were evaluated. In this study, MCNP5 code was used to obtain the neutron flux, the energy deposition and the main reaction rates, on the inboard and outboard first wall. The damage calculations were performed by the SPECTER code using the neutronic parameters obtained by MCNP5. The Tokamak reactor modeled has similar dimensions to the ITER. Tungsten and beryllium alloys were simulated on the outboard first wall. The results indicate which material has a higher resistance to be damage and dpa values for the analyzed material.
The insertion of reprocessed fuel spiked with thorium in a typical PWR fuel element considering (TRU-Th) cycle was simulated using different fissile materials that varied from 5.5% to 7.0%. The reprocessed fuels were obtained using the ORIGEN 2.1 code from a burned PWR standard fuel (33,000 MWd/tHM burned), with 3.1% of initial enrichment, which was remained in the cooling pool for five years and then reprocessed using UREX+ technique. The kinf, hardening spectrum and the fuel evolution during the burnup were evaluated. This study was performed using the SCALE 6.0
This contribution presents a critical review about some materials used in dosimetry and the interest that has emerged on topaz recently. In addition, results about the feasibility for synthesizing topaz by the HYSY-CVD route using Na2SiF6 and Al2O3 are shown. Synthesis tests in nitrogen atmosphere were conducted varying temperature (700 and 750°C) and time (60 and 90 min) while maintaining constant the amounts of Al2O3 and Na2SiF6. The microstructural characterization by XRD, SEM and EDS revealed the succesful formation of topaz and aluminium fluoride.
Western ragweed is problematic in Oklahoma pasture and rangeland. There are no labeled PRE herbicides for western ragweed control in pastures to allow ranchers the flexibility of extending the spray season or the ability to spray before emergence of sensitive crops in bordering fields. Field studies were conducted in four locations during a 2-yr period to determine the effects of applying aminopyralid PRE for control of western ragweed. Good to excellent control of western ragweed was obtained when aminopyralid rates of 89 g ae ha−1 or greater were applied PRE. Control was season long and equal to that obtained with a formulated mixture of 2,4-D and aminopyralid applied POST at a rate of 457 + 57 g ae ha−1. Sward height at time of PRE application had little to no effect on the efficacy of the treatment, but time after application before a significant rainfall event did influence the aminopyralid rate needed to achieve acceptable PRE control.
The European species Wahlenbergia hederacea (L.) Rchb. (Campanulaceae) is molecularly distant from the remainder of the wahlenbergioids, and its inclusion with them renders the tribe Wahlenbergieae Endl. (1838) non-monophyletic. Additional support for this conclusion may be derived from its gross morphological characteristics, which are essentially campanuloid. However, although not strictly identical to that of Wahlenbergia Schrad. ex Roth, the capsule dehiscence mechanism of W. hederacea is still fundamentally wahlenbergioid and differs from the majority of campanuloids. Several genera such as Feeria and Jasione, which are intermediate between typical wahlenbergioids and typical campanuloids, have similar capsule characteristics, and it is postulated that Wahlenbergia hederacea, together with these ‘transitional’ genera, are all relatively ancient components of a campanulaceous palaeoflora of the early Tertiary of Eurasia. The wahlenbergioid type of dehiscence is considered to be a plesiomorphic character whereas the diverse campanuloid types of dehiscence mechanisms are derived under conditions of intense selection. It is suggested that Wahlenbergia hederacea is probably most closely related to, and ancestral to, the rapunculoid lineages of Campanula s.l. that subsequently evolved over much of Eurasia and North America. Consequently, Wahlenbergia hederacea should be classified in the Campanuloideae and the new generic name Hesperocodon Eddie & Cupido gen. nov. is proposed.
We report on mid-infrared (600 – 4000 cm-1), refection-type optical-Hall effect measurements on epitaxial graphene grown on C-face silicon carbide and present Landau-level transition features detected at 1.5 K as a function of magnetic field up to 8 Tesla. The Landau-level transitions are detected in reflection configuration at oblique incidence for wavenumbers below, across and above the silicon carbide reststrahlen range. Small Landau-level transition features are enhanced across the silicon carbide reststrahlen range due to surface-guided wave coupling with the electronic Landau-level transitions in the graphene layer. We analyze the spectral and magnetic-field dependencies of the coupled resonances, and compare our findings with previously reported Landau-level transitions measured in transmission configuration [4,5,6]. Additional features resemble transitions previously assigned to bilayer inclusion , as well as graphite . We discuss a model description to account for the electromagnetic polarizability of the graphene layers, and which is sufficient for quantitative model calculation of the optical-Hall effect data.
This article presents the use of flexible metal foam substrates for the growth of III-nitride nanowire light emitters to tackle the inherent limitations of thin-film light emitting diodes as well as fabrication and application issues of traditional substrates. A dense packing of gallium nitride nanowires were grown on a nickel foam substrate. The nanowires grew predominantly along the a-plane direction, normal to the local surface of the nickel foam. Strong luminescence was observed from undoped GaN and InGaN quantum well light emitting diode nanowires.
It is believed that when patients present to the emergency department (ED) with recent-onset atrial fibrillation or flutter (RAFF), controlling the ventricular rate before cardioversion improves the success rate. We evaluated the influence of rate control medication and other variables on the success of cardioversion.
This secondary analysis of a medical records review comprised 1,068 patients with RAFF who presented to eight Canadian EDs over 12 months. Univariate analysis was performed to find associations between predictors of conversion to sinus rhythm including use of rate control, rhythm control, and other variables. Predictive variables were incorporated into the multivariate model to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) associated with successful cardioversion.
A total of 634 patients underwent attempted cardioversion: 428 electrical, 354 chemical, and 148 both. Adjusted ORs for factors associated with successful electrical cardioversion were use of rate control medication, 0.39 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.21-0.74); rhythm control medication, 0.28 (95% CI 0.15-0.53); and CHADS2 score > 0, 0.43 (95% CI 0.15-0.83). ORs for factors associated with successful chemical cardioversion were use of rate control medication, 1.29 (95% CI 0.82-2.03); female sex, 2.37 (95% CI 1.50-3.72); and use of procainamide, 2.32 (95% CI 1.43-3.74).
We demonstrated reduced successful electrical cardioversion of RAFF when patients were pretreated with either rate or rhythm control medication. Although rate control medication was not associated with increased success of chemical cardioversion, use of procainamide was. Slowing the ventricular rate prior to cardioversion should be avoided.