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We review research on age differences in decision making across adulthood, focusing on behavioral decision-making tasks that measure processes fundamental to decision-making competence. We highlight mechanisms underlying decision-making competence and how to leverage research on mechanisms to design interventions to support decisions. The chapter begins with research showing that complex, multi-attribute decisions challenge aging decision makers but that this is attenuated when older adults are motivated to apply their cognitive resources. Next, we summarize research that shows that experience and knowledge can compensate for age-related fluid cognitive declines to promote better financial decision-making competence. We then highlight research showing that life-span changes in motivation, along with improvements in emotional well-being, are important for understanding age differences in decision making. We provide recommendations for designing interventions to improve health and financial decisions. We conclude by discussing gaps in the literature and directions for future research.
Many patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) experience dissociative symptoms. The question of whether these dissociative symptoms negatively influence the effectiveness of psychotherapy for PTSD is unresolved.
To determine the influence of dissociative symptoms on psychotherapy outcome in PTSD.
We conducted a systematic search in Cochrane, Embase, PILOTS, PsycINFO, PubMed and Web of Science for relevant clinical trials. A random-effects meta-analysis examined the impact of dissociation on psychotherapy outcome in PTSD (pre-registered at Prospero CRD42018086575).
Twenty-one trials (of which nine were randomised controlled trials) with 1714 patients were included. Pre-treatment dissociation was not related to treatment effectiveness in patients with PTSD (Pearson's correlation coefficient 0.04, 95% CI −0.04 to 0.13). Between-study heterogeneity was high but was not explained by moderators such as trauma focus of the psychotherapy or risk of bias score. There was no indication for publication bias.
We found no evidence that dissociation moderates the effectiveness of psychotherapy for PTSD. The quality of some of the included studies was relatively low, emphasising the need for high-quality clinical trials in patients with PTSD. The results suggest that pre-treatment dissociation does not determine psychotherapy outcome in PTSD.
Constitutive heterochromatin typically exhibits low gene density and is commonly found adjacent or close to the nuclear periphery, in contrast to transcriptionally active genes concentrated in the innermost nuclear region. In Triatoma infestans cells, conspicuous constitutive heterochromatin forms deeply stained structures named chromocenters. However, to the best of our knowledge, no information exists regarding whether these chromocenters acquire a precise topology in the cell nuclei or whether their 18S rDNA, which is important for ribosome function, faces the nuclear center preferentially. In this work, the spatial distribution of fluorescent Feulgen-stained chromocenters and the distribution of their 18S rDNA was analyzed in Malpighian tubule cells of T. infestans using confocal microscopy. The chromocenters were shown to be spatially positioned relatively close to the nuclear periphery, though not adjacent to it. The variable distance between the chromocenters and the nuclear periphery suggests mobility of these bodies within the cell nuclei. The distribution of 18S rDNA at the edge of the chromocenters was not found to face the nuclear interior exclusively. Because the genome regions containing 18S rDNA in the chromocenters also face the nuclear periphery, the proximity of the chromocenters to this nuclear region is not assumed to be associated with overall gene silencing.
The purpose of this study was to advance the current understanding of the daily dynamics that are involved in raising a child with Cerebral Palsy (CP). Specifically, we examined the role of mindful parenting and of day-to-day variation in parents’ psychological needs and child behavior in explaining day-to-day variation in parents’ autonomy-supportive, psychologically controlling, and responsive parenting behavior. Parents (N = 58) of children with CP (Mage = 12.68 years) participated in a 7-day diary study. Multilevel analyses indicated that parents’ autonomy-supportive, psychologically controlling, and responsive behaviors fluctuate considerably between days. Further, daily fluctuations in both child behavior and parents’ own psychological needs were found to be associated with this daily variability in parenting. In addition, interindividual differences in mindful parenting were associated positively with parents’ responsiveness and negatively with psychologically controlling parenting across the week. These findings point towards the changeability of parenting behavior among parents of a child with CP and suggest that interventions targeting parenting behavior in the context of CP will be most effective when taking into account both the parents’ and the child's functioning.
Introduction: It is unclear whether anticoagulant or antiplatelet medications increase the risk for intracranial bleeding in older adults after a fall. Our aim was to report the incidence of intracranial bleeding among older adults presenting to the emergency department (ED) with a fall, among patients taking anticoagulants, antiplatelet medications, both medications and neither medication. Methods: This was a systematic review and meta-analysis, PROSPERO reference CRD42019122626. Medline, EMBASE (via OVID 1946 - July 2019), Cochrane, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects databases and the grey literature were searched for studies reporting on older adults who were evaluated after a fall. We included prospective studies conducted in the ED where more than 80% of the cohort were 65 years or older and had fallen. We contacted study authors for aggregate data on intracranial bleeding in patients prescribed anticoagulant medication, antiplatelet medication and neither medication. Incidences of intracranial bleeding were pooled using random effect models, and I2 index was used to assess heterogeneity. Results: From 7,240 publication titles, 10 studies met inclusion criteria. The authors of 8 of these 10 studies provided data (on 9,489 patients). All studies scored low or moderate risk of bias. The pooled incidence of intracranial bleeding among patients taking an anticoagulant medication was 5.1% (n = 5,016, 95% Confidence Interval (CI): 4.1 to 6.3%) I2 = 42%, a single antiplatelet 6.4% (n = 2,148, 95% CI: 5.4 to 7.6%) I2 = 75%, both anticoagulant and antiplatelet medications 5.9% (n = 212, 95% CI: 1.3 to 13.5%) I2 = 72%, and neither of these medications 4.8% (n = 1,927, 95% CI: 3.5 to 6.2%) I2 = 50%. A sensitivity analysis restricted to patients who had a head CT in the ED reported incidences of 6.1% (n = 3,561, 95% CI: 3 to 8.3%), 8.4% (n = 1,781, 95% CI: 5.5 to 11.8%), 6.7% (n = 206, 95% CI 1.5 to 15.2%) and 6.6% (n = 1,310, 95% CI: 5.0 to 8.4%) respectively. Conclusion: The incidence of fall-related intracranial bleeding in older ED patients was similar among patients who take anticoagulant medication, antiplatelet medication, both and neither medication, although there was heterogeneity between study findings.
Introduction: Cases of anaphylaxis in children are often not appropriately managed by caregivers. We aimed to develop and to test the effectiveness of an education tool to help pediatric patients and their families better understand anaphylaxis and its management and to improve current knowledge and treatment guidelines adherence. Methods: The GEAR (Guidelines and Educational programs based on an Anaphylaxis Registry) is an initiative that recruits children with food-induced anaphylaxis who have visited the ED at the Montreal Children's Hospital and at The Children's Clinic located in Montreal, Quebec. The patients and parents, together, were asked to complete six questions related to the triggers, recognition and management of anaphylaxis at the time of presentation to the allergy clinic. Participants were automatically shown a 5-minute animated video addressing the main knowledge gaps related to the causes and management of anaphylaxis. At the end of the video, participants were redirected to same 6 questions to respond again. To test long-term knowledge retention, the questionnaire will be presented again in one year's time. A paired t-test was used to compare the difference between the baseline score and the follow-up score based on percentage of correct answers of the questionnaire. Results: From June to November 2019, 95 pediatric patients with diagnosed food-induced anaphylaxis were recruited. The median patient age was 4.5 years (Interquartile Range (IQR): 1.6–7.4) and half were male (51.6%). The mean questionnaire baseline score was 0.77 (77.0%, standard deviation (sd): 0.16) and the mean questionnaire follow-up score was 0.83 (83.0%, sd: 0.17). There was a significant difference between the follow-up score and baseline score (difference: 0.06, 95% CI: 0.04, 0.09). There were no associations of baseline questionnaire scores and change in scores with age and sex. Conclusion: Our video teaching method was successful in educating patients and their families to better understand anaphylaxis. The next step is to acquire long-term follow up scored to determine retention of knowledge.
Introduction: Atrial Fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia seen in patients presenting to the emergency department (ED). AF increases the risk of ischemic stroke which can be mitigated by anticoagulant prescription. National guidelines advise that emergency physicians initiate anticoagulation when AF is first diagnosed. We aimed to evaluate the 90-day incidence of stroke and major bleeding among emergency patients discharged home with a new diagnosis of AF. Methods: This was a health records review of patients diagnosed with AF in two EDs. We included patients ≥ age 18, with a new diagnosis of AF who were discharged from the ED, between 1st May 2014 and 1st May 2017. Using a structure review we collected data on CHADS65 and CHADS2 scores, contraindications to direct oral anticoagulant (DOAC) prescription and initiation of anticoagulation in the ED. Patient charts were reviewed for the diagnosis of stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), ischemic gut, ischemic limb or other systemic embolism within 90 days of the index ED presentation. We extracted data on major bleeding events within 90 days, defined by the International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis criteria. All data were extracted in duplicate for validation. Results: We identified 399 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria, median age 68 (IQR 57-79), 213 (53%) male. 11 patients were already prescribed an anticoagulant for another indication and 19 had a contraindication to prescription of a DOAC. 48/299 (16%) CHADS65 positive patients were initiated on an anticoagulant, 3 of whom had a contra-indication to initiation of anticoagulation in the ED (1 dual antiplatelet therapy, 2 liver cirrhosis). 1/100 CHADS65 negative patients was initiated on anticoagulation. The median CHADS2 score was 1 (IQR 0-2). Among the 49 patients initiated on anticoagulation, 3 patients had a stroke/TIA within 90 days, 6.1% (95% CI; 2.1-16.5%). There were no bleeding events 0.0% (95% CI; 0.0-7.3%). Among the 350 patients who were not initiated on anticoagulation in the ED, 4 patients had a stroke/TIA 1.1% (95% CI; 1.1-2.9%) within 90 days and 2 patients had a major bleeding event. Conclusion: Prescription of anticoagulation for new diagnoses of AF was under-utilized in these EDs. The 90-day stroke/TIA rate was high, even among those given an anticoagulant prescription in the ED. No patient had an anticoagulant-associated bleeding event.
Introduction: Each year, 3/1000 Canadians sustain a mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Many of those mTBI are accompanied by various co-injuries such as dislocations, sprains, fractures or internal injuries. A number of those patients, with or without co-injuries will suffer from persistent post-concussive symptoms (PPCS) more than 90 days post injury. However, little is known about the impact of co-injuries on mTBI outcome. This study aims to describe the impact of co-injuries on PPCS and on patient return to normal activities. Methods: This multicenter prospective cohort study took place in seven large Canadian Emergency Departments (ED). Inclusion criteria: patients aged ≥ 14 who had a documented mTBI that occurred within 24 hours of ED visit, with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13-15. Patients who were admitted following their ED visit or unable to consent were excluded. Clinical and sociodemographic information was collected during the initial ED visit. A research nurse then conducted three follow-up phone interviews at 7, 30 and 90 days post-injury, in which they assessed symptom evolution using the validated Rivermead Post-concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ). Adjusted risk ratios (RR) were calculated to estimate the influence of co-injuries. Results: A total of 1674 patients were included, of which 1023 (61.1%) had at least one co-injury. At 90 days, patients with co-injuries seemed to be at higher risk of having 3 symptoms ≥2 points according to the RPQ (RR: 1.28 95% CI 1.02-1.61) and of experiencing the following symptoms: dizziness (RR: 1.50 95% CI 1.03-2.20), fatigue (RR: 1.35 95% CI 1.05-1.74), headaches (RR: 1.53 95% CI 1.10-2.13), taking longer to think (RR: 1.50 95% CI 1.07-2.11) and feeling frustrated (RR: 1.45 95% CI 1.01-2.07). We also observed that patients with co-injuries were at higher risk of non-return to their normal activities (RR: 2.31 95% CI 1.37-3.90). Conclusion: Patients with co-injuries could be at higher risk of suffering from specific symptoms at 90 days post-injury and to be unable to return to normal activities 90 days post-injury. A better understanding of the impact of co-injuries on mTBI could improve patient management. However, further research is needed to determine if the differences shown in this study are due to the impact of co-injuries on mTBI recovery or to the co-injuries themselves.
Introduction: Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is a serious public health issue and as much as one third of mTBI patients could be affected by persistent post-concussion symptoms (PPCS) three months after their injury. Even though a significant proportion of all mTBIs are sports-related (SR), little is known on the recovery process of SR mTBI patients and the potential differences between SR mTBI and patients who suffered non-sports-related mTBI. The objective of this study was to describe the evolution of PPCS among patients who sustained a SR mTBI compared to those who sustained non sport-related mTBI. Methods: This Canadian multicenter prospective cohort study included patients aged ≥ 14 who had a documented mTBI that occurred within 24 hours of Emergency Department (ED) visit, with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 13-15. Patients who were hospitalized following their ED visit or unable to consent were excluded. Clinical and sociodemographic information was collected during the initial ED visit. Three follow-up phone interviews were conducted by a research nurse at 7, 30 and 90 days post-injury to assess symptom evolution using the validated Rivermead Post-concussion Symptoms Questionnaire (RPQ). Adjusted risk ratios (RR) were calculated to demonstrate the impact of the mechanism of injury (sports vs non-sports) on the presence and severity of PPCS. Results: A total of 1676 mTBI patients were included, 358 (21.4%) of which sustained a SR mTBI. At 90 days post-injury, patients who suffered a SR mTBI seemed to be significantly less affected by fatigue (RR: 0.70 (95% CI: 0.50-0.97)) and irritability (RR: 0.60 (95% CI: 0.38-0.94)). However, no difference was observed between the two groups regarding each other symptom evaluated in the RPQ. Moreover, the proportion of patients with three symptoms or more, a score ≥21 on the RPQ and those who did return to their normal activities were also comparable. Conclusion: Although persistent post-concussion symptoms are slightly different depending on the mechanism of trauma, our results show that patients who sustained SR-mTBI could be at lower risk of experiencing some types of symptoms 90 days post-injury, in particular, fatigue and irritability.
Early growth pattern is increasingly recognized as a determinant of later obesity. This study aimed to identify the association between weight gain in early life and anthropometry, adiposity, leptin, and fasting insulin levels in adolescence. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 366 school children aged 11–13 years. Weight, height, and waist circumference (WC) were measured. Fat mass (FM) was assessed using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Blood was drawn after a 12-h fast for insulin and leptin assay. Birth weight and weight at 6 months and at 18 months were extracted from Child Health Development Records. An increase in weight SD score (SDS) by ≥0.67 was defined as accelerated weight gain. Linear mixed-effects modeling was used to predict anthropometry, adiposity, and metabolic outcomes using sex, pubertal status, accelerated weight gain as fixed factors; age, birth weight, and family income as fixed covariates, and school as a random factor. Children with accelerated weight gain between birth and 18 months had significantly higher body mass index (BMI) SDS, WC SDS, height SDS, %FM, fat mass index (FMI), fat free mass index (FFMI), and serum leptin levels in adolescence. Accelerated weight gain between 6 and 18 months was associated with higher BMI SDS, WC SDS, %FM, and FMI, but not with height SDS or FFMI. Accelerated weight gain at 0–6 months, in children with low birth weight, was associated with higher height SDS, BMI SDS, WC SDS, %FM, and FMI; in children with normal birth weight, it was associated with BMI SDS, WC SDS, height SDS, and FFMI, but not with %FM or FMI. Effects of accelerated weight gain in early life on anthropometry and adiposity in adolescence varied in different growth windows. Accelerated weight gain during 6–18 months was associated with higher FM rather than linear growth. Effects of accelerated weight gain between 0 and 6 months varied with birth weight.
There is a substantial proportion of patients who drop out of treatment before they receive minimally adequate care. They tend to have worse health outcomes than those who complete treatment. Our main goal is to describe the frequency and determinants of dropout from treatment for mental disorders in low-, middle-, and high-income countries.
Respondents from 13 low- or middle-income countries (N = 60 224) and 15 in high-income countries (N = 77 303) were screened for mental and substance use disorders. Cross-tabulations were used to examine the distribution of treatment and dropout rates for those who screened positive. The timing of dropout was examined using Kaplan–Meier curves. Predictors of dropout were examined with survival analysis using a logistic link function.
Dropout rates are high, both in high-income (30%) and low/middle-income (45%) countries. Dropout mostly occurs during the first two visits. It is higher in general medical rather than in specialist settings (nearly 60% v. 20% in lower income settings). It is also higher for mild and moderate than for severe presentations. The lack of financial protection for mental health services is associated with overall increased dropout from care.
Extending financial protection and coverage for mental disorders may reduce dropout. Efficiency can be improved by managing the milder clinical presentations at the entry point to the mental health system, providing adequate training, support and specialist supervision for non-specialists, and streamlining referral to psychiatrists for more severe cases.
First episode psychosis (FEP) patients who use cannabis experience more frequent psychotic and euphoric intoxication experiences compared to controls. It is not clear whether this is consequent to patients being more vulnerable to the effects of cannabis use or to their heavier pattern of use. We aimed to determine whether extent of use predicted psychotic-like and euphoric intoxication experiences in patients and controls and whether this differs between groups.
We analysed data on patients who had ever used cannabis (n = 655) and controls who had ever used cannabis (n = 654) across 15 sites from six countries in the EU-GEI study (2010–2015). We used multiple regression to model predictors of cannabis-induced experiences and to determine if there was an interaction between caseness and extent of use.
Caseness, frequency of cannabis use and money spent on cannabis predicted psychotic-like and euphoric experiences (p ⩽ 0.001). For psychotic-like experiences (PEs) there was a significant interaction for caseness × frequency of use (p < 0.001) and caseness × money spent on cannabis (p = 0.001) such that FEP patients had increased experiences at increased levels of use compared to controls. There was no significant interaction for euphoric experiences (p > 0.5).
FEP patients are particularly sensitive to increased psychotic-like, but not euphoric experiences, at higher levels of cannabis use compared to controls. This suggests a specific psychotomimetic response in FEP patients related to heavy cannabis use. Clinicians should enquire regarding cannabis related PEs and advise that lower levels of cannabis use are associated with less frequent PEs.
Previous literature supports antipsychotics’ (AP) efficacy in acute first-episode psychosis (FEP) in terms of symptomatology and functioning but also a cognitive detrimental effect. However, regarding functional recovery in stabilised patients, these effects are not clear. Therefore, the main aim of this study is to investigate dopaminergic/anticholinergic burden of (AP) on psychosocial functioning in FEP. We also examined whether cognitive impairment may mediate these effects on functioning.
A total of 157 FEP participants were assessed at study entry, and at 2 months and 2 years after remission of the acute episode. The primary outcomes were social functioning as measured by the functioning assessment short test (FAST). Cognitive domains were assessed as potential mediators. Dopaminergic and anticholinergic AP burden on 2-year psychosocial functioning [measured with chlorpromazine (CPZ) and drug burden index] were independent variables. Secondary outcomes were clinical and socio-demographic variables.
Mediation analysis found a statistical but not meaningful contribution of dopaminergic receptor blockade burden to worse functioning mediated by cognition (for every 600 CPZ equivalent points, 2-year FAST score increased 1.38 points). Regarding verbal memory and attention, there was an indirect effect of CPZ burden on FAST (b = 0.0045, 95% CI 0.0011–0.0091) and (b = 0.0026, 95% CI 0.0001–0.0006) respectively. However, only verbal memory post hoc analyses showed a significant indirect effect (b = 0.009, 95% CI 0.033–0.0151) adding premorbid IQ as covariate. We did not find significant results for anticholinergic burden.
CPZ dose effect over functioning is mediated by verbal memory but this association appears barely relevant.
The ‘jumping to conclusions’ (JTC) bias is associated with both psychosis and general cognition but their relationship is unclear. In this study, we set out to clarify the relationship between the JTC bias, IQ, psychosis and polygenic liability to schizophrenia and IQ.
A total of 817 first episode psychosis patients and 1294 population-based controls completed assessments of general intelligence (IQ), and JTC, and provided blood or saliva samples from which we extracted DNA and computed polygenic risk scores for IQ and schizophrenia.
The estimated proportion of the total effect of case/control differences on JTC mediated by IQ was 79%. Schizophrenia polygenic risk score was non-significantly associated with a higher number of beads drawn (B = 0.47, 95% CI −0.21 to 1.16, p = 0.17); whereas IQ PRS (B = 0.51, 95% CI 0.25–0.76, p < 0.001) significantly predicted the number of beads drawn, and was thus associated with reduced JTC bias. The JTC was more strongly associated with the higher level of psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) in controls, including after controlling for IQ (B = −1.7, 95% CI −2.8 to −0.5, p = 0.006), but did not relate to delusions in patients.
Our findings suggest that the JTC reasoning bias in psychosis might not be a specific cognitive deficit but rather a manifestation or consequence, of general cognitive impairment. Whereas, in the general population, the JTC bias is related to PLEs, independent of IQ. The work has the potential to inform interventions targeting cognitive biases in early psychosis.
This paper presents a novel solution for precision draping of prepreg composite fabrics onto double curved molds. Our contributions relate to system design, including hardware and software components, and to system integration. On the hardware side, design and implementation of a drape tool with up to 120 suction cups positioned individually by linear actuators are described. On the software side, design and implementation of the software architecture are presented, along with necessary algorithms within sensor technologies and mathematical modeling. The essential system’s components were verified individually, and the entire integrated system was successfully validated in the Proof-of-Concept experiments, performed on an experimental physical model of the system.
This introductory chapter frames the overall book, arguing that the ICC’s principle of complementarity has become a transnational site and adaptive strategy for realizing domestic accountability, as well as an array of other governance goals. It argues that complementarity came to be framed as a ‘catalyst for compliance’ through a particular, duty-based reading of the Rome Statute. This reflects the broader dominance of legalism in transitional justice, which insists on the centrality of criminal law in the aftermath of mass atrocity. The first part of the book addresses the evolution, interpretation and implementation of complementarity by state and non-state actors, as well as Court actors (specifically, ICC judges and the Office of the Prosecutor) in The Hague. The second part is empirical: It illustrates the effects of this interpretation and the interaction of the ICC with the normative and institutional accountability frameworks in Uganda, Kenya and the Democratic Republic of Congo. Three aspects are explored in particular: the passage of Rome Statute implementation legislation; the establishment of specialised domestic courts as part of the institutional architecture for prosecuting grave crimes; and the initiation of actual, criminal proceedings that have ensued in the wake of ICC action.
This chapter explores the relationship between ICC interventions and efforts to reform the normative legal frameworks in Uganda, Kenya and the Democratic Republic of Congo with respect to atrocity crimes. It argues that it was less the ICC’s intervention or the desire to undertake domestic prosecutions that catalysed the passage of national implementation legislation in Uganda or Kenya; rather, implementation of the Statute was undertaken at certain political moments in order to ‘perform’ complementarity, typically for international audiences. But while the power of external constituencies was largely responsible for driving the implementation process, it often glossed over deeper concerns about the desirability of pursuing criminal accountability. The chapter also illustrates how the near identical importation of the Rome Statute’s substantive and procedural provisions reflects an increasingly disciplinary approach to implementation. By contrast, in the DRC, political mistrust in international judicial intervention not only thwarted the passage of comprehensive implementing legislation for many years, but appeared to encourage a more syncretic approach to implementation later on. Further, political contestation within the DRC was itself a catalyst that allowed other implementation strategies to take root, including the direct application of the Rome Statute by Congolese military judges in domestic proceedings.