To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
For endozoochorous species, the quality component of seed dispersal effectiveness depends in part on the treatment seeds receive in the animal's gut. Covering a variety of taxa, diet, digestion system and body size of Prosopis flexuosa seed dispersers, we analysed differences among species in (1) mean retention time of ingested seeds, (2) recovery of viable seeds, (3) seed germination in comparison with seeds collected from trees and (4) germination of seeds after two different periods of retention in the gut. Feeding experiments were conducted with captive individuals of Dolichotis patagonum, Lycalopex gymnocercus, Rhea americana, Chelonoidis chilensis and Lama guanicoe. On the first day, we provided them with fruits containing controlled amounts of seed, and on the subsequent days, we collected faeces in order to recover seeds. We performed germination and viability tests on seeds coming from faeces and collected from trees. The results showed differences among species in the mean retention time of seeds. Chelonoidis chilensis had the longest mean retention time, but its effect on seed recovery and germination was similar to that of the other species, except for L. guanicoe, which showed the lowest seed recovery. When scarification and promotion of seed germination were considered, herbivorous mammals and tortoises (L. guanicoe, D. patagonum and C. chilensis) were the ones increasing germinability, whereas R. americana and L. gymnocercus did not significantly increase final seed germination percentage, which was similar to that for seeds collected from trees. P. flexuosa seeds receive a variety of treatments from endozoochorous dispersers, which might result in an overall fitness benefit for a plant living in unpredictable environments.
Maternal milk consumption can cause changes in the mammary epithelium of the offspring that result in the expression of molecules involved in the induction of differentiation, reducing the risk of developing mammary cancer later in life. We previously showed that animals that maintained a higher intake of maternal milk had a lower incidence of mammary cancer. In the present study, we evaluated one of the possible mechanisms by which the consumption of maternal milk could modify the susceptibility to mammary carcinogenesis. We used Sprague Dawley rats reared in litters of 3 (L3), 8 (L8), or 12 (L12) pups per mother in order to generate a differential consumption of milk. Whole mounts of mammary glands were performed to analyze the changes in morphology. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), we analyzed the expression of mammary Pinc, Tbx3, Stat6, and Gata3 genes. We use the real-time methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction method to assess the methylation status of Stat6 and Gata3 CpG sites. Our findings show an increase in the size of the epithelial tree and a smaller number of ducts called terminal end buds in L3 vs. L12. We observed an increased expression of mRNA of Stat6, Gata3, Tbx3, and a lower expression of Pinc in L3 with respect to L12. Stat6 and Gata3 are more methylated in the CpG islands of the promoter analyzed in L12 vs. L3. In conclusion, the increased consumption of maternal milk during the postnatal stage generates epigenetic and morphological changes associated with the differentiation of the mammary gland.
A novel underwater vehicle configuration with an operating principle as the Sepiida animal is presented and developed in this paper. The mathematical equations describing the movements of the vehicle are obtained using the Newton–Euler approach. An analysis of the dynamic model is done for control purposes. A prototype and its embedded system are developed for validating analytically and experimentally the proposed mathematical representation. A real-time characterization of one mass is done to relate the pitch angle with the radio of displacement of the mass. In addition, first validation of the closed-loop system is done using a linear controller.
Accurate estimates of methane (CH4) production by cattle in different contexts are essential to developing mitigation strategies in different regions. We aimed to: (i) compile a database of CH4 emissions from Brazilian cattle studies, (ii) evaluate prediction precision and accuracy of extant proposed equations for cattle and (iii) develop specialized equations for predicting CH4 emissions from cattle in tropical conditions. Data of nutrient intake, diet composition and CH4 emissions were compiled from in vivo studies using open-circuit respiratory chambers, SF6 technique or the GreenFeed® system. A final dataset containing intake, diet composition, digestibility and CH4 emissions (677 individual animal observations, 40 treatment means) obtained from 38 studies conducted in Brazil was used. The dataset was divided into three groups: all animals (GEN), lactating dairy cows (LAC) and growing cattle and non-lactating dairy cows (GCNL). A total of 54 prediction equations available in the literature were evaluated. A total of 96 multiple linear models were developed for predicting CH4 production (MJ/day). The predictor variables were DM intake (DMI), gross energy (GE) intake, BW, DMI as proportion of BW, NDF concentration, ether extract (EE) concentration, dietary proportion of concentrate and GE digestibility. Model selection criteria were significance (P < 0.05) and variance inflation factor lower than three for all predictors. Each model performance was evaluated by leave-one-out cross-validation. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (2006) Tier 2 method performed better for GEN and GCNL than LAC and overpredicted CH4 production for all datasets. Increasing complexity of the newly developed models resulted in greater performance. The GCNL had a greater number of equations with expanded possibilities to correct for diet characteristics such as EE and NDF concentrations and dietary proportion of concentrate. For the LAC dataset, equations based on intake and animal characteristics were developed. The equations developed in the present study can be useful for accurate and precise estimation of CH4 emissions from cattle in tropical conditions. These equations could improve accuracy of greenhouse gas inventories for tropical countries. The results provide a better understanding of the dietary and animal characteristics that influence the production of enteric CH4 in tropical production systems.
This work presents updates in the diagnostics systems, magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) calculations and simulations of microwave heating scenarios of the small modular Stellarator of Costa Rica 1 (SCR-1). Similarly, the design of a flexible bolometer and magnetic diagnostics (a set of Mirnov coils, Rogowski coils and two diamagnetic loops) are introduced. Furthermore, new MHD equilibrium calculations for the plasma of the SCR-1 device were performed using the VMEC code including the poloidal cross-section of the magnetic flux surfaces at different toroidal positions, profiles of the rotational transform, magnetic well, magnetic shear and total magnetic field norm. Charged particle orbits in vacuum magnetic field were computed by the magnetic field solver BS-SOLCTRA (Vargas et al. In 27th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2018), 2018. IAEA). A visualization framework was implemented using Paraview (Solano-Piedra et al. In 23rd IAEA Technical Meeting on the Research Using Small Fusion Devices (23rd TM RUSFD), 2017) and compared with magnetic mapping results (Coto-Vílchez et al. In 16th Latin American Workshop on Plasma Physics (LAWPP), 2017, pp. 43–46). Additionally, simulations of microwave heating scenarios were performed by the IPF-FDMC full-wave code. These simulations calculate the conversion of the ordinary waves to extraordinary waves and allow us to identify the location where the conversion takes place. Finally, the microwave heating scenarios for the
toroidal position are presented. The microwave heating scenarios showed that the O–X–B mode conversion is around 12–14 %. It was possible to identify the spatial zone where the conversion takes place (upper hybrid frequency).
Spontaneous abortion is considered a public health problem having several causes, including infections. Among the infectious agents, bacteria of the vaginal microbiota and Ureaplasma parvum have been associated with abortion, but their participation needs to be further elucidated. This study aims to evaluate the influence of Mollicutes on the development of spontaneous abortion. Women who underwent spontaneous abortion and those with normal birth (control) were studied. Samples of cervical mucus (CM) and placental tissue were collected to identify Mollicutes using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction methodology. Eighty-nine women who had a miscarriage and 20 women with normal pregnancies were studied. The presence of Mollicutes in placental tissue increased the chance of developing miscarriage sevenfold. The prevalence of U. parvum in women who experienced spontaneous abortion was 66.3% in placental tissue. A positive association was observed between the detection of U. parvum in samples of placental tissue and abortion. There was a significant increase in microbial load in placental tissue for M. hominis, U. urealyticum and U. parvum compared to the control group. Detection of U. parvum in CM in pregnant women can ascend to the region of the placental tissue and trigger a spontaneous abortion.
A new design methodology for long life and large size (Ll-Ls) products called Design for Installation (DfI) is proposed. Ll-Ls products are usually made up of large parts that need to be assembled on field. The proposed methodology, based on adapted Design Structure Matrix (DSM) and Design for Manufacturing and Assembly (DfMA) methods, enables to optimize the design of a Ll-Ls product in order to reduce time and cost of the installation process. The new methodology works with a conceptual design of the product and the weight and size restrictions given by logistic factors as inputs.
In the present study two broad hypotheses about the origins of self-mutilation in psychiatric patients were evaluated. The first hypothesis states that self-mutilation originates from child abuse and experiences of neglect and is connected to dissociation in later life. The second hypothesis views self-mutilation as the consequence of impulse control problems. To test these two hypotheses, data concerning traumatic childhood experiences and dissociative symptoms (hypothesis 1), as well as data concerning aggressiveness, obsessive-compulsiveness and sensation seeking (hypothesis 2) were collected in a sample of 54 psychiatric inpatients. Twenty-four out of 54 patients (44%) reported having engaged in self-mutilation. Mean age of onset of this behaviour was 23 years. Self-report measures of self-mutilators were more in line with the first than with the second hypothesis. That is, patients who engaged in self-mutilation reported more traumatic childhood experiences and dissociative symptoms than did control patients. The two groups did not differ in terms of aggressiveness, obsessive-compulsiveness, and sensation seeking. In line with earlier studies, the current results indicate that self-mutilating behaviour is linked to a history of abuse and neglect.
Antipsychotic treatment is known to be associated with secondary sexual dysfunction (SD). Recognition and treatment of this adverse effect has received growing attention. Until now, all antipsychotic agents were thought to potentially cause SD mediated by increased prolactin. Our aim was to observe whether aripiprazole modifies SD in patients with schizophrenia after 3 months of treatment.
Material and Methods:
Multicenter, observational, open-label, prospective, three-month study with single group of aripiprazole treated patients. Sexual activity was assessed using CGI-S and CGI-I for SD; SALSEX scale, validated for Spanish, 3 times after initiating study drug. Patient's clinical status was evaluated by CGI-S and CGI-I for psychotic disorders, and by BPRS Scale.
Result: 42 patients (70% men), 38 completed the study. Incidence of SD at 3 months was null for all patients studied. As period of treatment advanced, the Salsex score decreased, showing a mean overall reduction of –5 points (SD 3.6). Largest reduction was observed in subgroup of patients with SD in baseline visit, who exhibited a mean reduction of –6 points (SD 3.1).
Men with SD in baseline evaluation showed more marked improvement than women at 40 days of treatment (p=0.0447). However, recovery was similar for both groups at 90 days of treatment.
In schizophrenia, SD secondary studies to antipsychotics are important in establishing effectiveness of these agents in chronic treatment. After 3 months of aripiprazole treatment, no SD was observed in patients. Patients who presented SD at study initiation improved over course of 3 months treatment with aripiprazole.
During the last decade there has been a resurgence of interest in the relationship between early adversity and the development of psychiatric symptoms later in life. There is accumulating evidence for a link between childhood trauma and the development of most psychiatric disorders, including mood and anxiety disorders, eating disorders, personality disorders and substance abuse.
Recently, a substantial number of studies have suggested that childhood trauma is also an important risk factor for psychosis. Indeed, a significant proportion of people with psychotic disorders report traumatic experiences during childhood and an increasing number of population-based studies have provided data that suggest that childhood trauma (and to a lesser extent adult abuse or experience of a traumatic event) is of aetiological importance in psychosis.
Aims and Methods
This work has as main goal, starting from a review of the literature on this subject, to reflect on the possible mechanisms that may mediate the relationship between maltreatment in childhood and greater predisposition for the development of psychotic symptoms in adolescence and adulthood.
Results and Conclusions
There is increasing evidence that neurobiological mechanisms such as dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and sensitization of the dopaminergic system may mediate the interaction between the experience of traumatic events at early stages of brain development and increased risk for psychotic symptoms later in life. Preliminary evidence also suggests that polymorphisms within the cathecol-O-methyltransferase and brain-derived neurotrophic factor genes may interact with psychosocial stress in the development of psychosis.
Oestrogens may be a protective factor in psychosis. Women with schizophrenia have a later age of menarche, fewer pregnancies and earlier age of menopause. However, little information is available focusing on delusional disorder (DD).
To evaluate gynaecological variables and psychopathology in women with DD.
To investigate the relationship between age of menarche and onset, and psychopathology in DD.
Forty-five outpatients with DD (DSM-IV-TR) were recruited at the Hospital Clinic of Barcelona, from 2008 to 2012. Twenty-five females underwent a demographic and gynaecological questionnaire. HRSD-17 for depression, PANSS for psychopathology, PSP for functionality and C-SSRS for suicide were assessed. The sample was divided into two groups according to the age of menarche: 12 years or less and more than 12.
Mean age of menarche (SD) was 12.6(1.4) years, mean age of menopause 49.1(3.15), mean age at onset of DD was 49.9(12.58). 33.3% of the sample did not receive gynaecological service in the last 3 years. The group with the earliest age of menarche was older [67.33(11.67) vs.56(9.6); p=0.026], presented an earlier age of menopause [46.80(2.84) vs.50.71(2.29) p=0.018] and latest onset of DD (53.50(14.32) vs.47.44(11.5); p=NS], than those with later age of menarche. No differences were found regarding psychopathology, suicidal behaviour or functionality.
Although a small sample size, this is the first study to specifically examine gynaecological variables in DD. A low compliance rate in gynaecological service use was found. An earlier age of menarche was associated to an earlier age of onset of DD.
Light-to-moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a reduced risk of overall dementia; however, moderate-to-heavy alcohol consumption is a risk factor for the development of dementia prior to age 65. Here we describe a case report of a 51-year-old man whose clinical presentation is consistent with dementia related to alcohol consumption.
To describe the clinical case of a patient with a probable diagnosis of dementia related to alcohol consumption.
This report aims to understand the role of alcohol consumption as a risk factor for dementia.
This report contains a case report and a literature review that was performed using Pubmed and Medscape.
Results and Conclusion
Although a gradual improvement in cognitive ability with prolonged abstinence can occur, some cognitive impairments appeared to persist despite prolonged periods of abstinence. Thus, the avoidance of excessive alcohol consumption is crucial for the prevention of this disease.
Suicide is one of the leading causes of premature death among people with psychotic disorders. However, little is known about treating suicide in delusional disorder.
To investigate effectiveness of PPLAI in delusional disorder (DD) patients.
To compare effectiveness of PPLAI vs,other atypical antipsychotics (OAA) in psychopathology and suicidality.
Prospective observational study including 45 DD outpatients (DSM-IV-RT) attended at the Department of Psychiatry (Hospital Clinic- BCN) from 2008 to 2012 and followed up for 6 months. Demographic and clinical variables were recorded. Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression-17 (HRSD-17), PANSS for psychopathology, Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP) and Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS) were assessed at baseline and after 6 months. The sample was divided into four groups according to which treatment they received: oral risperidone, Risperidone Long Acting Injection (RLAI), OAA and PPLAI. For comparisons, Kruskal-Wallis and Chi-square tests were used.
Eighty-two per cent were women. Mean age (SD) at onset: 46.9(11.8) years. 6 patients received oral risperidone, 23 OAA, 7 RLAI and 9 were treated with PPLAI. No statistically significant differences were found regarding demographic features, motives leading for consultation, depressive comorbidity and antidepressant prescription. After 6 months, patients treated with PPLAI presented lower frequency of ideation (0% vs.11.1%;p=0.027) and suicidal behaviour (0% vs.2.2%;p=NS). The group receiving PPILD presented a significant increase in functionality (PSP) (p=0.046) and an improvement in PANSS negative subscale scores (p=0.017).
Patients receiving PPLAI showed a decrease in suicidality, an improvement in psychotic symptoms and functionality.
The Nova Aurora Community Association psychosocial rehabilitation program was developed based in the most current values of Psychosocial Rehabilitation. Some nuclear assumptions were considered, such as a) suppressing the disease stigma, b) defocusing from the mental ill role, promoting empowerment and self-determination, c) developing personal competencies directly related to the individuals’ social integration specific context (readiness, cognitive, social, emotional stress management, employability).
To present the rational of this program and the outcomes of a pilot study designed to test if this psychiatric rehabilitation program effectively helps persons living with psychiatric disabilities become more successful and satisfied in living, learning, working, and social environments of their choice.
The program is being implemented for 13 months to 38 persons living with psychiatric disabilities and it is developed in 2 main levels: a) tranversal competencies (neurocognitive, stress and illness management, healthy lifestyle, self efficacy and anti-self-stigma); b) specific competencies directly related to the individuals’ social integration specific context (employability/housing, social cognition, etc). All users still frequent an empowerment center and develop sport and leisure activities. It is also available home support and family psicoeducation. The program effectiveness assessment integrated pre and post tests, evaluating all these different functional domains and life quality and program satisfaction.
Preliminary results point towards very positive outcomes, specifically regarding personal competencies development, satisfaction level with the program, reduction of relapse, and absence rates.
Although these results are promising, this research is an initial step in establishing the efficiency of this rehabilitation program.
The concept of catatonia has undergone a major evolution from the first descriptions by Kahlbaum catatonic syndrome. Although Kraepelin and Bleuler as mostly related to the dementia praecox and schizophrenia, respectively, it was later shown that its incidence is higher in affective disorders and especially mania. In 2003 Taylor and Fink reviews the diagnostic criteria and warn of its underdiagnosis
From the presentation of a case, we conducted a systematic review in various databases (PubMed, Medline…)
A case report. We present the case of a 46 year old woman diagnosed with bipolar disorder type I. First depressive episode at age 16. In the past 3 years has presented two hypomanic, a mixed episode and a depressive episode. The days before admission, presented disorganized behavior, confusion, bewilderment, motor retardation, respond poorly to stimuli, partially mute. Coincides with the abandonment of regular medication. Psychomotor agitation presented at admission. Lorazepam treatment was started 15 mg, Olanzapine 5 mg, venlafaxine 150 mg and 200 mg lamotrigine. After two weeks of income stabilization was achieved psychopathology.
The presentations of this syndrome are varied, being able to alternate states of inhibition and agitation. Catatonia inhibited or benign catatonia, is the most common presentation. Malignant catatonia is characterized by acute onset, high-impact organic. The etiology can be multiple: psychiatric illness, medical conditions, pharmacological and toxic. Treatment should be hospitable. Initially with benzodiazepines (lorazepam, diazepam). If no response or the organic state is committed we recommend the use of electroconvulsive therapy.
Artists are valued for their ability to capture, express and engender states of intense emotion. Regular experience and sharing of intense emotions may challenge a preexisting mood regulation vulnerability.
A series of studies have revealed particularly strong associations between mood disorders, especially bipolar disorder, and creativity. Specifically, recent findings demonstrate that bipolar disorder patients and highly creative individuals have certain personality/ temperamental commonalities, which in turn may predispose them to increased creativity.
The aim of this review is to reflect and discuss, based on a revision of the scientific literature, this apparent association between creativity and bipolar disorder.
Although gender differences in schizophrenia are well known, this topic in delusional disorder (DD) has been poorly studied. Previous studies have shown an earlier mean age at onset in men than in women, and in those with depressive co-morbidity.
To examine demographic and clinical differences by gender in DD.
To compare depressive co-morbidity and suicidality between men and women.
Ninety-seven patients with delusional disorder (DSM-IV-RT), attended at the Department of Psychiatry (Hospital Clinic-BCN) from 2000 to 2012, were included and followed up for one year. Demographic and clinical features at index admission, pharmacological treatment, compliance, presence of depressive co-morbidity and suicidal behaviour at follow-up were recorded. For comparisons, T, Chi-square tests and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) were used.
Seventy-six per cent were women and the most common delusional idea was delusion of persecution (74.2%). Gender differences regarding demographic features and depressive co-morbidity were not found. 22.7% of the sample presented suicidal ideation and 12.4% attempted suicide during follow-up. Women became ill later than men (50.07 vs.44.57 years), but when ANCOVA model is used with age at onset as dependent variable, sex as factor, and depressive co-morbidity and suicidal behaviour as covariates, this difference was not significant for sex effect. Women attempted suicide more often than men (13.5% vs. 8.7%) and showed less compliance during the evaluation period.
No gender differences in age at onset, types of DD, presence of depression and severity of global functioning were found. Women showed higher suicidal behaviour.
Anabolic steroids are synthetic derivatives of testosterone that are widely used both for sport and to achieve an athletic body image.
Its use has increased greatly in recent years.
The abuse is associated with side effects both physically (endocrine, cardiovascular, liver …) and psychological (anxiety disorders, depression, psychosis, aggression, suicide), in some cases severe and irreversible.
Many sports supplements are contaminated with these substances.
Based on the exposure of a clinical case, we conducted a systematic review in various databases.
Results and case report
25 year old male with no personal or family psychiatric history. It has no history of drug toxicity.
Coinciding with a period of major stress (working as a private escort and simultaneously preparing exams for police) he started intensive physical training and sports supplements diet (including anabolic steroids). The patient gradually begins to appear nervous, irritable and sleep disturbance. Acutely presents a picture of delusions of prejudice, self-referentiality and elevated distress so he needed an urgent psychiatric income. Was treated with risperidone 4 mg/day and lorazepam 5 mg/day. Psychotic symptoms disappeared within two days. During outpatient follow-up medication was gradually reduced. The evolution has been favorable getting a full recovery in few weeks.
The steroid-induced psychotic episodes are rare, mainly consisting of paranoid delusions or grandeur, usually in the context of a manic episode.
In most reported cases, the psychotic symptoms disappear quickly, within several weeks after discontinuation of the offending substance. Occasionally required a brief treatment with antipsychotics.
Parkinson's disease is the most common neurodegenerative movement disorder in the elderly population. The disease is clinically characterized by major motor symptoms that include bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor and postural instability. In addition to the motor symptoms, Parkinson‘s disease is characterized by emotional and cognitive deficits, which reduce quality of life independently from motor manifestations.
To discuss the clinical manifestations of depression in Parkinson's disease according to the most recent scientific literature.
Online search/review of the literature has been carried out, using Medline/Pubmed, concerning, “Parkinson's disease” and “depression”.
Depression is the most frequent psychiatric disorder in Parkinson's disease. In up to 30% of the cases, the depressive symptoms precede the development of motor symptoms. Independently of the age of appearance, duration and severity of the motor symptoms, depression is generally an integral part of the disease. Depression in Parkinson's disease is generally mild or moderate, with premature loss of self-esteem and volition. Although the high rates of suicidal ideation, suicide is rare. There is also a high prevalence of panic attacks and anxiety.
It is difficult to correctly identify depression in Parkinson's disease as some symptoms assigned to Parkinson's disease itself can in fact be the clinical manifestation of a depressive disorder. On the other hand, depressive symptoms may not be recognized as such, but considered manifestations of Parkinson's disease.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.