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Previous work (Blanchard et al, 1995) has suggested that the feeding of a high energy/low protein diet to finishing pigs produces pork of a superior eating quality compared to animals fed conventional energy and protein diets. It has been demonstrated in recent studies (Blanchard et al, 1995) that pork eating quality, particularly tenderness, can be influenced by a change of diet imposed at two weeks prior to slaughter. It has also been suggested (Warkup and Kempster, 1991) that both growth rate and fatness are positively correlated to pork eating quality and that proteolytic enzymes are involved in determining eating quality (Blanchard 1994). The objective of this study was therefore to test these various hypothesis.
Two diets were evaluated: CEP diet (DE 14.0 MJ/kg, Protein 200 g/kg, Lysine 10.0 g/kg) and HELP diet (DE 15.0 MJ/kg, Protein 160 g/kg, Lysine 7.0 g/kg). Treatment 1 animals (n=26) received CEP fed ad libitum 45 kg to 90 kg Iwt. Treatment 2 animals (n=23) received HELP fed ad libitum 45 kg to 90 kg lwt. Treatment 3 animals (n=23) received CEP diet until 14 days prior to slaughter following which they received HELP diet fed ad libitum. A range of carcass and meat quality characteristics were recorded. Grilled loin steaks from each animal were evaluated for eating quality characteristics by trained sensory panel and rated on a scale of 1-8 (increasing with intensity). Activity levels of calpain and calpastatin were measured in samples of LD muscle remove from each carcass 45 minutes after slaughter.
Attention on food safety issues in the European Union has increased the focus on Salmonella control in the pig industry. The UK, Ireland, the Netherlands and Germany are currently introducing Salmonella monitoring programmes, whereas Sweden and Denmark already have extensive Salmonella control programmes in place. Feed manufacturers and farmers have been faced with a dilemma. While pelleted feeds give superior growth rates and feed conversion over meals, ground feeds are known to promote a better gut environment, especially when it comes to reducing the levels of Salmonella in the gut. New Danish research points to a solution. By incorporating a proportion of coarsely ground material in a pellet along with Formi®, it is possible to both reduce Salmonella and optimise gut health and performance.
The chemical decoration of biosilica shells (frustules) from microalgae with several classes of organic molecules is a convenient, scalable biotechnological route to silica nanostructures with applications ranging from photonics to biomedicine. Here we report for the first time the in vivo staining of Thalassiosira weissflogii diatoms with a two photon red emitting triphenylamine-based fluorescent dye bearing a triethoxysilyl functional group (tPhA-Silane). In vivo staining of the cells has been investigated with confocal microscopy and hybrid silica structures comprising the dye embedded into the biosilica have been isolated by proper protocols able to remove the organic protoplasm.
Pigs are able to synthesise their own ascorbic acid (AA), however a number of studies have shown benefits of supplementation. It is thought that additional ascorbic acid may be required in pig diets during periods of stress, infection or due to the increased demands for growth. The neonatal pig has an immature immune system and is also under physiological stress due to the rapid development of the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this trial was to investigate effects of AA supplementation of sows in late pregnancy and lactation and oral drenching of piglets from birth to weaning on piglet performance and health during the suckling period.
With the proposed ban on antibiotic growth promoters it is becoming increasingly important to provide diets to young pigs which enhance the long term health. Alternative strategies to promote health include organic acids, herbal products and natural antioxidants. These products have various proposed modes of action including improved liver function, removal of reactive oxygen species and the enhancement of the immune function. The objective of this experiment was to measure the effect of a commercial herbal mixture and Lycopene on the performance and immune function of weaned pigs.
The natural ventilation flow driven by an internal buoyant plume in a box involving an upper opening (vent) located at the ceiling (for the outflow) and a large lower opening at the floor (for the inflow) is examined theoretically in a general non-Boussinesq case. Analytical solutions of this emptying–filling box problem allow the characteristics of the flow at the vent to be determined. From these characteristics, a non-dimensional parameter
(called the discharge plume parameter) is expressed. This parameter characterizes the initial balance of volume, buoyancy and momentum fluxes in the plume-like flow that forms above the vent. We then note that the value of
allows the buoyant fluid layer depth in the box to be estimated, which is a new and interesting result for natural ventilation problems. Following previous experimental results, the decrease of the vent discharge coefficient
increases is discussed and a theoretical model based on plume necking is proposed. The emptying–filling box model is then extended for a variable
). Even though the discharge coefficient may be markedly reduced at high values of
, our results show that this only affects transients and the steady state of an emptying–filling box for relatively thin buoyant fluid layers.
We present preliminary results of a galaxy redshift survey we are accomplishing as an ESO Key Project over about 40 square degrees in a region near the South Galactic Pole, to a limiting magnitude bJ = 19.4. Up to now ∼ 50% of the survey has been completed, providing about 2000 galaxy redshifts.
The ESO Slice Project (ESP) is a galaxy redshift survey we have recently completed as an ESO Key-Project over about 30 square degrees, in a region near the South Galactic Pole (Vettolani et al., submitted to A&A). The survey is nearly complete to the limiting magnitude bJ = 19.4 and consists of more than three thousands galaxies with reliable redshift determination.
Eco-efficiency is a useful guide to dairy farm sustainability analysis aimed at increasing output (physical or value added) and minimizing environmental impacts (EIs). Widely used partial eco-efficiency ratios (EIs per some functional unit, e.g. kg milk) can be problematic because (i) substitution possibilities between EIs are ignored, (ii) multiple ratios can complicate decision making and (iii) EIs are not usually associated with just the functional unit in the ratio’s denominator. The objective of this study was to demonstrate a ‘global’ eco-efficiency modelling framework dealing with issues (i) to (iii) by combining Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) data and the multiple-input, multiple-output production efficiency method Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA). With DEA each dairy farm’s outputs and LCA-derived EIs are aggregated into a single, relative, bounded, dimensionless eco-efficiency score, thus overcoming issues (i) to (iii). A novelty of this study is that a model providing a number of additional desirable properties was employed, known as the Range Adjusted Measure (RAM) of inefficiency. These properties altogether make RAM advantageous over other DEA models and are as follows. First, RAM is able to simultaneously minimize EIs and maximize outputs. Second, it indicates which EIs and/or outputs contribute the most to a farm’s eco-inefficiency. Third it can be used to rank farms in terms of eco-efficiency scores. Thus, non-parametric rank tests can be employed to test for significant differences in terms of eco-efficiency score ranks between different farm groups. An additional DEA methodology was employed to ‘correct’ the farms’ eco-efficiency scores for inefficiencies attributed to managerial factors. By removing managerial inefficiencies it was possible to detect differences in eco-efficiency between farms solely attributed to uncontrollable factors such as region. Such analysis is lacking in previous dairy studies combining LCA with DEA. RAM and the ‘corrective’ methodology were demonstrated with LCA data from French specialized dairy farms grouped by region (West France, Continental France) and feeding strategy (regardless of region). Mean eco-efficiency score ranks were significantly higher for farms with <10% and 10% to 30% maize than farms with >30% maize in the total forage area before correcting for managerial inefficiencies. Mean eco-efficiency score ranks were higher for West than Continental farms, but significantly higher only after correcting for managerial inefficiencies. These results helped identify the eco-efficiency potential of each region and feeding strategy and could therefore aid advisors and policy makers at farm or region/sector level. The proposed framework helped better measure and understand (dairy) farm eco-efficiency, both within and between different farm groups.
The status of an exploited population is ideally determined by monitoring changes in
abundance and distributional range and pattern over time. Area of occupancy is a measure
of the current distribution. Unfortunately, for many populations, scientific abundance and
distribution information is not readily available. To evaluate the reliability of
commercial fishing data for deriving occupancy indicators that could serve as proxies for
stock abundance, we investigated four questions: 1) Occupancy changes with stock biomass,
but is this change strong enough to make occupancy a sensitive indicator of population
biomass? 2) Fishing boats follow fish, but when does such activity alter the positive
macroecological relationship between occupancy and abundance? 3) When does the activity of
pursuing fish adversely affect occupancy estimates derived from catch and effort data? 4)
How does uncertainty in fishing effort data affect occupancy estimates? Spatial
simulations mimicking the dynamics of four deep-water fish species showed that
biomass-occupancy relationships can be weak. Fishers following fish can modify the spatial
distribution of target species, even reversing the sign of the biomass-occupancy
relationship in certain cases, and can affect the reliability of occupancy indicators,
which can also be impaired by error in effort data. Using commercial catch and effort data
and abundance indices for deep-sea fish populations to the west of the British Isles it
was found that only for roundnose grenadier might occupancy provide insights into biomass
changes. In conclusion, care should be taken when using occupancy for evaluating range
changes in cases where fishing might have modified spatial distributions, uncertain
commercial data are used or when the abundance-occupancy relationship is too flat.
Ongoing intensification and specialisation of livestock production lead to increasing volumes of manure to be managed, which are a source of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Net emissions of CH4 and N2O result from a multitude of microbial activities in the manure environment. Their relative importance depends not only on manure composition and local management practices with respect to treatment, storage and field application, but also on ambient climatic conditions. The diversity of livestock production systems, and their associated manure management, is discussed on the basis of four regional cases (Sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, China and Europe) with increasing levels of intensification and priorities with respect to nutrient management and environmental regulation. GHG mitigation options for production systems based on solid and liquid manure management are then presented, and potentials for positive and negative interactions between pollutants, and between management practices, are discussed. The diversity of manure properties and environmental conditions necessitate a modelling approach for improving estimates of GHG emissions, and for predicting effects of management changes for GHG mitigation, and requirements for such a model are discussed. Finally, we briefly discuss drivers for, and barriers against, introduction of GHG mitigation measures for livestock production. There is no conflict between efforts to improve food and feed production, and efforts to reduce GHG emissions from manure management. Growth in livestock populations are projected to occur mainly in intensive production systems where, for this and other reasons, the largest potentials for GHG mitigation may be found.
Research is essential for the development of evidence-based emergency medical services (EMS) systems of care. When resources are scarce and gaps in evidence are large, a national agenda may inform the growth of EMS research in Canada. This mixed methods consensus study explores current barriers and existing strengths within Canadian EMS research, provides recommendations, and suggests EMS topics for future study.
Purposeful sampling was employed to invite EMS research stakeholders from various roles across the country. Study phases consisted of 1) baseline interviews of a subsample, 2) roundtable discussion, and 3) an online Delphi survey, in which participants scored each statement for importance. Consensus was defined a priori and met if 80% scored a statement as “important” or “very important.”
Fifty-three stakeholders participated, representing researchers (37.7%), EMS administrators (24.6%), clinicians/ providers (20.7%), and educators (17.0%). Participation rates were as follows: interviews, 13 of 13 (100%); roundtable, 47 of 53 (89%); survey round 1, 50 of 53 (94%); survey round 2, 47 of 53 (89%); and survey round 3, 40 of 53 (75%). A total of 141 statements were identified as important: 20 barriers, 54 strengths/opportunities, 31 recommendations, and 36 suggested topics for future research. Like statements were synthesized, resulting in barriers (n 5 10), strengths/opportunities (n 5 24), and recommendations (n 5 19), which were categorized as time, opportunities, and funding; education and mentorship; culture of research and collaboration; structure, process, and outcome of research; EMS and paramedic practice; and the future of the EMS Research Agenda.
Consensus-based key messages from this agenda should be considered when designing, funding, and publishing EMS research and will advance EMS research locally, regionally, and nationally.
Bandgap engineered ZnSxO1-x films were grown on Fluorinated Ethylene Propylene (FEP) substrates and analyzed using transmission spectroscopy. FEP is considered as a potential substrate for application in flexible electronics and semiconductor films.
Interventional cardiology procedures can involve potentially
high doses of radiation to the patients. Stochastic effects of ionising
radiation – radiation-induced cancers in the long term – may occur.
We analysed clinical characteristics and dosimetric data in a population
of patients undergoing interventional cardiology. In all, 1 591
patients who had undergone coronarography and/or angioplasty in
the course of a year at the Saint-Gatien Clinic in Tours (France)
were included. Information on patients’ individual clinical characteristics
and Dose-Area Product values were collected. Organ doses to the
lung, oesophagus, bone marrow and breast were mathematically evaluated.
The median age of patients was 70 years. Their median cumulative
dose-area product value was 48.4 Gy.cm2 for the whole
year and the median effective dose was 9.7 mSv. The median organ
doses were 41 mGy for the lung, 31 mGy for the oesophagus, 10 mGy
for the bone marrow and 4 mGy for the breast. Levels of doses close
to the heart appear to be rather high in the case of repeated interventional
cardiology procedures. Clinical characteristics should be taken
into account when planning epidemiological studies on potential radiation-induced
First results on formation of thin film GeOI structures by the Smart Cut™ technology are presented in this paper. Thin single crystal layers of Ge have been successfully transferred, via oxide bonding layer, onto standard Si substrates with diameters ranging from 100 to 200 mm. Compared to SOI manufacturing, the development of GeOI requires adaptation to the available germanium material, since the starting material can be either bulk Ge or an epitaxial layer. Some results will be presented for GeOI formation according to the different technological options. Germanium splitting kinetics will be discussed and compared to already published results. To show good quality of the GeOI structures, detailed characterization has been done by TEM cross sections for defect densities, interfaces abruptness and layers homogeneities evaluation. AFM was used for surface roughness measurements. These results help define procedures that are required to achieve large diameter high quality GeOI structures.
Strained Silicon On Insulator wafers are today envisioned as a natural and powerfulenhancement to standard SOI and/or bulk-like strained Si layers. For MOSFETs applications, thisnew technology potentially combines enhanced devices scalability allowed by thin films andenhanced electron and hole mobility in strained silicon. This paper is intended to demonstrate byexperimental results how a layer transfer technique such as the Smart Cut™ technology can be usedto obtain good quality tensile Strained Silicon On insulator wafers. Detailed experiments andcharacterizations will be used to characterize these engineered substrates and show that they arecompatible with the applications.