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The Virginia School's economics of natural equals makes consent critical for policy. Democracy is understood as government by discussion, not majority rule. The claim of efficiency unsupported by consent, as common in orthodox economics, appeals to social hierarchy. Politics becomes an act of exchange among equals where the economist is only entitled to offer advice to citizens, not to dictators. The foundation of natural equality and consent explains the common themes of James Buchanan and John Rawls as well as Ronald Coase and the Fabian socialists. What orthodox economics treats as efficient racial discrimination violates the fair chance entitlement to which people consent in a market economy. The importance of replication stressed by Gordon Tullock, developing themes from Karl Popper, is another expression of natural equality since the foresight of replication induces care into research. The publication of previously unpublished correspondence and documentation allows the reader to judge recent controversy.
To evaluate the association of ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption with gains in weight and waist circumference, and incident overweight/obesity, in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) cohort.
We applied FFQ at baseline and categorized energy intake by degree of processing using the NOVA classification. Height, weight and waist circumference were measured at baseline and after a mean 3·8-year follow-up. We assessed associations, through Poisson regression with robust variance, of UPF consumption with large weight gain (1·68 kg/year) and large waist gain (2·42 cm/year), both being defined as ≥90th percentile in the cohort, and with incident overweight/obesity.
Civil servants of Brazilian public academic institutions in six cities (n 11 827), aged 35–74 years at baseline (2008–2010).
UPF provided a mean 24·6 (sd 9·6) % of ingested energy. After adjustment for smoking, physical activity, adiposity and other factors, fourth (>30·8 %) v. first (<17·8 %) quartile of UPF consumption was associated (relative risk (95 % CI)) with 27 and 33 % greater risk of large weight and waist gains (1·27 (1·07, 1·50) and 1·33 (1·12, 1·58)), respectively. Similarly, those in the fourth consumption quartile presented 20 % greater risk (1·20 (1·03, 1·40)) of incident overweight/obesity and 2 % greater risk (1·02; (0·85, 1·21)) of incident obesity. Approximately 15 % of cases of large weight and waist gains and of incident overweight/obesity could be attributed to consumption of >17·8 % of energy as UPF.
Greater UPF consumption predicts large gains in overall and central adiposity and may contribute to the inexorable rise in obesity seen worldwide.
The ice-cored Galena Creek Rock Glacier, Wyoming, USA, has been the subject of a number of studies that sought to determine the origin of its ice. We present new observations of the rock glacier's internal structure from ground-penetrating radar to constrain ice and debris distribution and accumulation. We imaged dipping reflectors in the center of the glacier that are weak and discontinuous, in contrast to strong reflectors toward the edge of the cirque beneath large debris-avalanche chutes. These reflectors form a network of concave-up, up-glacier dipping layers. We interpret these as englacial debris bands formed by large debris falls buried by subsequent ice and snow accumulation. They are discontinuous where ice outpaces debris accumulation, but with sufficient debris accumulation an interleaved pattern of ice and debris layers can form. We propose a model in which the ice in these interleaved layers is snowfall preserved by debris-facilitated accumulation. Large debris falls that occur in early spring bury sections of the snowpack, which are then preserved through summer and incorporated into the rock glacier body over time. This study highlights the importance of sequential accumulation of ice and debris for understanding the dynamics of rock glaciers and debris-covered glaciers.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.
Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease, a vector-borne disease. The parasite molecules involved in vector interaction have been little investigated. Metallopeptidases and gp63 molecules have been implicated in parasite adhesion of several trypanosomatids to the insect midgut. Although gp63 homologues are highly expanded in the T. cruzi genome, and are implicated in parasite–mammalian host interaction, its role in the insect vector has never been explored. Here, we showed that divalent metal chelators or anti-Tcgp63-I antibodies impaired T. cruzi adhesion to Rhodnius prolixus midgut. Parasites isolated after insect colonization presented a drastic enhancement in the expression of Tcgp63-I. These data highlight, for the first time, that Tcgp63-I and Zn-dependent enzymes contribute to the interaction of T. cruzi with the insect vector.
Transoral laser microsurgery is an increasingly common treatment modality for glottic carcinoma. This study aimed to determine the effect of age, gender, stage and time on voice-related quality of life using the Voice Handicap Index-10.
Primary early glottic carcinoma patients treated with transoral laser microsurgery were included in the study. Self-reported Voice Handicap Index testing was completed pre-operatively, three months post-operatively, and yearly at follow-up appointments.
Voice Handicap Index improvement was found to be dependent on age and tumour stage, while no significant differences were found in Voice Handicap Index for gender. Voice Handicap Index score was significantly improved at 12 months and 24 months. Time versus Voice Handicap Index modelling revealed a preference for non-linear over linear regression.
Age and stage are important factors, as younger patients with more advanced tumours show greater voice improvement post-operatively. Patient's Voice Handicap Index is predicted to have 95 per cent of maximal improvement by 5.5 months post-operatively.
We have explored the merits of using a Hgl2 spectrometer as a detector in x-ray diffraction systems instead of a proportional gas counter, or a scintillation counter. The full width at half maximum energy resolution of the HgI2 spectrometer used was about 1.1 keV for the CuKα line (8.1 keV), and about 1.5 keV for the MoKα line (17.4 keV), The energy resolution was utilised to eliminate x-ray fluorescence background from powder diffraction spectra. We demonstrate the suppression of Fe x-ray fluorescence in diffraction patterns of ErFe03 obtained with a Cu x-ray tube, and of Y x-ray fluorescence in diffraction patterns of Y2O3 obtained with a Mo x-ray tube. The peak height to background ratios were improved by about an order of magnitude in both cases.
We define and study in this work a simple model designed for managing long-term market risk of financial institutions with long-term commitments. It allows the assessment of solvency capital requirements and the allocation of risk budgets. This model allows one to avoid over-assessment of solvency capital requirements specifically after market disruptions. It relies on a dampener component in charge of refining risk assessment after market failures. Rather than aiming at a realistic and thus complex description of equity prices movements, this model concentrates on minimal features enabling accurate computation of capital requirements. It is defined both in a discrete and continuous fashion. In the latter case, we prove the existence, uniqueness and stability of the solution of the stochastic functional differential equation that specifies the model. One difficulty is that the proposed underlying stochastic process has neither stationary nor independent increments. We are however able to perform statistical analyses in view of its validation. Numerical experiments show that our model outperforms more elaborate ones of common use as far as medium-term (between 6 months and 5 years) risk assessment is concerned.