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Introduction: The Prehospital Evidence-Based Practice (PEP) program is an online, freely accessible, continuously updated Emergency Medical Services (EMS) evidence repository. This summary describes the research evidence for the identification and management of adult patients suffering from sepsis syndrome or septic shock. Methods: PubMed was searched in a systematic manner. One author reviewed titles and abstracts for relevance and two authors appraised each study selected for inclusion. Primary outcomes were extracted. Studies were scored by trained appraisers on a three-point Level of Evidence (LOE) scale (based on study design and quality) and a three-point Direction of Evidence (DOE) scale (supportive, neutral, or opposing findings based on the studies’ primary outcome for each intervention). LOE and DOE of each intervention were plotted on an evidence matrix (DOE x LOE). Results: Eighty-eight studies were included for 15 interventions listed in PEP. The interventions with the most evidence were related to identification tools (ID) (n = 26, 30%) and early goal directed therapy (EGDT) (n = 21, 24%). ID tools included Systematic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS), quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA) and other unique measures. The most common primary outcomes were related to diagnosis (n = 30, 34%), mortality (n = 40, 45%) and treatment goals (e.g. time to antibiotic) (n = 14, 16%). The evidence rank for the supported interventions were: supportive-high quality (n = 1, 7%) for crystalloid infusion, supportive-moderate quality (n = 7, 47%) for identification tools, prenotification, point of care lactate, titrated oxygen, temperature monitoring, and supportive-low quality (n = 1, 7%) for vasopressors. The benefit of prehospital antibiotics and EGDT remain inconclusive with a neutral DOE. There is moderate level evidence opposing use of high flow oxygen. Conclusion: EMS sepsis interventions are informed primarily by moderate quality supportive evidence. Several standard treatments are well supported by moderate to high quality evidence, as are identification tools. However, some standard in-hospital therapies are not supported by evidence in the prehospital setting, such as antibiotics, and EGDT. Based on primary outcomes, no identification tool appears superior. This evidence analysis can guide selection of appropriate prehospital therapies.
A theoretical approach of some factors influencing the intensity diffracted by a polycrystalline material at a definite Bragg angle has been confirmed by experimental data obtained with a high-angle Norelco diffractometer. The factors mainly considered are the focusing arrangement of the goniometer which delineates the geometric shape of the volume fraction of the sample being irradiated and the absorption of the latter.
Tests have been performed (a) with quartz mixed in samples covering a large range of absorption coefficients, (b) with two different K radiations using copper and molybdenum targets, (c) with three different angles of beam divergence of 1, ½, and ¼°, respectively, and (d) with the sample packed and leveled in a copper grid with openings of about 350 μ. As this test with copper grids was to demonstrate that each opening was acting like a volume of sample irradiated by a beam of extremely small divergence (0.1°), it also shows that more accuracy in the measurement of the exact Bragg angle can be reached in these conditions as compared to that obtained with conventional sample holders.
A general equation, suitable for qualitative and quantitative analysis when these factors have to be taken into consideration, is proposed.
Up to now, genetic selection in cattle has been directed in favour of muscle growth, which changes muscle characteristics, and hence meat quality. One key concern, that now needs examination, is to understand the relationships between muscle growth and muscle characteristics related to meat quality. To achieve such a goal, muscles of divergently selected animals were analysed by three complementary approaches: (i) determination of muscle biochemical characteristics, (ii) identification of differentially expressed genes using transcriptomic and proteomic tools, (iii) identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNP) within candidate genes.
Disentangling trophic interactions among species is important for elucidating mechanisms underlying ecosystem functioning and services. Carabid beetles are an important guild of predators that may regulate pest populations in arable landscapes, but their generalist feeding behavior hinders predictions about their actual contribution to pest control. In order to assess carabids’ potential for pest control, we simultaneously analyzed the carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios of a community of 45 co-occurring species in wheat and oilseed rape fields. With the expectation to identify distinct trophic groups based on the mean and the variance of carabid isotopic signatures, we observed a high degree of overlap in trophic positions between species. However, we also observed that species could be successfully categorized into two groups according to whether or not their carbon signatures varied independently from variations in the crop baseline. We interpret these results as differential primary resource uptake or by differential mobility aptitude in foraging. Accordingly, we propose that the isotopic signal can inform us on the presence/absence of links between generalist predators and cultivated plants through the trophic networks they belong to, and consequently on their potential role as pest natural enemies. We therefore suggest the complementarity of stable isotope analysis for obtaining a time-integrated assessment of carabid trophic behavior that may be combined with more direct molecular diet analysis allowing the simultaneous quantification of specific trophic links within agricultural landscapes.
Yield maps are a powerful tool with regard to managing upcoming crop productions but can contain a large amount of defective data that might result in misleading decisions. The objective of this work is to help improve and compare yield data filtering algorithms by generating simulated datasets as if they had been acquired directly in the field. Two stages were implemented during the simulation process (i) the creation of spatially correlated datasets and (ii) the addition of known yield sources of errors to these datasets. A previously published yield filtering algorithm was applied on these simulated datasets to demonstrate the applicability of the methodology. These simulated datasets allow results of yield data filtering methods to be compared and improved.
An ASCA observation of Seyfert galaxy NGC 3227 showed flares with a linear increase and exponential decrease similar to that of solar flares. We derive a scaling law relating the loop length of a magnetic flux tube to rise and decay times of the flare using cooling mechanisms suitable for the central engine of a Seyfert galaxy. The predicted loop lengths are consistent with physical constraints on the plasma dynamics, suggesting that the same mechanism which explains solar flares may explain variability in Seyfert galaxies.
The standard model of intertemporal choice assumes risk neutrality towards the length of life: under additivity of lifetime utility and expected utility assumptions, agents are not sensitive to a mean preserving spread in the length of life. Using a survey fielded in the RAND American Life Panel, this paper provides empirical evidence on possible deviation from risk neutrality with respect to longevity in the US population. The questions we ask allow to find the distribution as well as to quantify the degree of risk aversion with respect to the length of life in the population. We find evidence that roughly 75% of respondents were not neutral with respect to longevity risk. Hence, there is a little empirical support for the joint use of the expected utility and additive lifetime utility assumptions in life-cycle models. Higher income households are more likely to be risk averse towards the length of life. We do not find evidence that the degree of risk aversion varies with age or education.
We report on photoluminescence and photoluminescence excitation experiments performed on hexagonal GaN layers grown on a Sapphire substrate. Information about extrinsic and intrinsic optical properties have been obtained. We show that, at low temperature, the fundamental A excitons are preferentially involved in the relaxation towards the neutral donor bound exciton photoluminescence line, while electron-hole pairs rather participate in the relaxation towards D0−A0 emission and the yellow band. The relaxation from the A exciton towards the yellow band and D0−A0 emission is made easier by temperature. The band structure of the GaN layers has been determined from temperature dependent photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy: A and C excitons and A continuum band gap have been identified up to 210K.
The electrical and electroluminescent properties of MOVPE GaN p-n homojunctions have been analyzed as a function of temperature and bias. Electroluminescence is observed for V>3 V under dc and ac conditions. The main emission at low T is a donor-acceptor transition involving shallow acceptors, though it disappears at higher T due to the ionization of the acceptors and compensation by ionized donors. Room temperature dc and ac electroluminescence spectra evolve under increasing bias from a blue-shifting visible band involving deep states at the p-type side of the p-n junction, to a band-to-band UV recombination at high bias. In agreement, the superlinear dependence of light-current characteristics at low current injection becomes linear when the defects are saturated. Time analysis of the spectra vs pulse duration and duty cycle allows the determination of the visible radiative recombination and relaxation times associated to the Mg-related deep states, which are found to behave as acceptors lying 0.55 eV above the valence band. A simple 3-level model is able to explain the visible emission, which involves the conduction band (or shallow donor) and those deep acceptors in the p-layer. Optimum UV/visible ratio emission requires intense and relatively long pulses, with a high duty cycle to impede visible recombination.
Even in good quality undoped GaN samples, as assessed by the intense excitonic emission, the yellow band is present. This band has been attributed either to a shallow donor to deep double donor pair recombination , to a deep donor to a shallow acceptor  or to a shallow donor and a deep state . However, its origin is not yet clear. We present data on time resolved spectroscopy compared with steady state results. These results indicate that there is no difference in band shape between steady state and time resolved spectra at all temperatures. However, in some samples there is an increase in intensity of the yellow band. It is concluded that besides a fast emission, due to prompt excitation of the centre, an indirect path from a trap 13.7 meV below the shallow donor is responsible for the long component of the decay and the intensity increase. An emission with a lifetime of ca. 300 ms is also present with a maximum at 2.35 eV.
Mg has been widely used as p-doping species despite its intrinsic difficulties. It is nowadays well established that during the growth process of Mg doped GaN, atomic H is generated from the decomposition of NH3 and Mg-H complexes are formed in the layer. This has been for instance shown by the occurrence of LO mode in IR absorption, and by the observation of the Mg-H local vibration modes. This H passivation limits the electrical activity of Mg, therefore an activation process is required to get full activation of the Mg atoms. In the present study, bismethylcyclopentadienyl magnesium [(MeCp)2Mg] was used as precursor. However, this precursor reacts in the gas phase with NH3 to produce tiny solid particles as evidenced by a very bright diffuse emission visible along the laser beam used for reflectometry measurements. This simplest obvious product would be [(MeCp)Mg(NH2)]m(m≥2). To limit this drawback, Ga and Mg precursor lines have been separated. With proper in situ heat treatment, doping densities up to 1.5×1018 cm−3 have been obtained. PL spectra of lightly Mg doped samples (1016 cm−3) are dominated by shallow donor-acceptor pairs whereas for higher doping densities ( 1018 cm−3), the luminescence is dominated by a broad band in the 2.7-2.9 eV range. GaN LEDs were fabricated from Si doped (n-type) and Mg-doped (p-type) GaN, these LEDs emit in the blue-UV range.
This work presents an optical characterization by luminescence and reflectivity of GaN layers grown on sapphire using MOVPE, HVPE and GSMBE. Well resolved optical spectra are obtained for each growth technique. The luminescence of Mg doped MOVPE grown GaN is also studied. A Mg acceptor optical depth of ~ 260 meV is obtained.
The last report on pertussis seroprevalence in Belgium concerned samples collected during 1993–1994. In the context of the Eupert-Labnet WP6 seroprevalence study (comparing sera from 16 European member states), 1500 anonymized leftover diagnostic samples were collected randomly during the second semester of 2012 by the clinical chemistry laboratories of six participating Belgian centres, distributed equally between Flanders, Wallonia and Brussels Capital Region. As suggested by the WP6 organizers, a total of 750 samples (125/centre) were selected from subjects in the 20–29 years age group and 750 samples (125/centre) from subjects in the 30–39 years age group. Anti-PT IgG levels were measured using Virion-Serion ELISA and analysed using predefined cut-off levels. Sixty-one (4%) sera were indicative of an infection in the past 2 years (between 50 and 100 IU/ml) and another 61 (4%) sera had anti-PT IgG antibodies reflecting acute infection (>100 IU/ml). These results highlight the presence of a Bordetella pertussis reservoir in the adult ‘healthy’ Belgian population.
The reliability of reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) depends on normalising the mRNA abundance using carefully selected, stable reference genes. Our aim was to propose sets of reference genes for normalisation in bovine or caprine adipose tissue (AT), mammary gland, liver and muscle. All of these tissues contribute to nutrient partitioning and metabolism and, thus, to the profitability of ruminant productions (i.e. carcasses, meat and milk). In this study, eight commonly used reference genes that belong to different functional classes (CLN3, EIF3K, MRPL39, PPIA, RPLP0, TBP, TOP2B and UXT) were analysed using the geNorm procedure to determine the most stable reference genes in bovine and/or caprine tissues. Abundances and rankings of reference genes varied between tissues, species and the combination of tissues and/or species. Therefore, we proposed 29 sets of reference genes that differed depending on the tissue and/or species. As examples of the 29 sets, EIF3K, TOP2B and UXT were proposed as the most stable reference genes in bovine AT; UXT, EIF3K and RPLP0 were the most stable reference genes in bovine and caprine AT. The optimal number of reference genes for data normalisation was 3 for 27 of the proposed 29 sets. In two of the 29 sets, four to five reference genes were necessary for data normalisation when the number of studied tissues was increased. For example, UXT, EIF3K, TBP, TOP2B and CLN3 were required for data normalisation in bovine mammary gland, AT, muscle and liver. We have evaluated some of our proposed sets of reference genes for the normalisation of CD36 gene expression. Normalisation using the three most stable reference genes has revealed downregulation of CD36 gene expression in bovine mammary gland by a concentrate-based diet that is supplemented with sunflower oil and upregulation of CD36 gene expression in caprine liver by including a rapidly degradable starch in the diet. The dietary regulation of the gene expression of CD36 has been erased by normalisation with the least stable reference genes, which may result in misinterpretation of CD36 gene regulation. To conclude, our results provide valuable reference gene sets for other studies that aim to measure tissue and/or species-specific mRNA abundance in ruminants.