To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The purpose of this review is to provide a detailed and updated description of the FinnTwin16 (FT16) study and its future directions. The Finnish Twin Cohort comprises three different cohorts: the Older Twin Cohort established in the 1970s and the FinnTwin12 and FT16 initiated in the 1990s. FT16 was initiated in 1991 to identify the genetic and environmental precursors of alcoholism, but later the scope of the project expanded to studying the determinants of various health-related behaviors and diseases in different stages of life. The main areas addressed are alcohol use and its consequences, smoking, physical activity, overall physical health, eating behaviors and eating disorders, weight development, obesity, life satisfaction and personality. To date, five waves of data collection have been completed and the sixth is now planned. Data from the FT16 cohort have contributed to several hundred studies and many substudies, with more detailed phenotyping and collection of omics data completed or underway. FT16 has also contributed to many national and international collaborations.
This review offers an update on research conducted with FinnTwin12 (FT12), the youngest of the three Finnish Twin Cohorts. FT12 was designed as a two-stage study. In the first stage, we conducted multiwave questionnaire research enrolling all eligible twins born in Finland during 1983–1987 along with their biological parents. In stage 2, we intensively studied a subset of these twins with in-school assessments at age 12 and semistructured poly-diagnostic interviews at age 14. At baseline, parents of intensively studied twins were administered the adult version of the interview. Laboratory studies with repeat interviews, neuropsychological tests, and collection of DNA were made of intensively studied twins during follow-up in early adulthood. The basic aim of the FT12 study design was to obtain information on individual, familial and school/neighborhood risks for substance use/abuse prior to the onset of regular tobacco and alcohol use and then track trajectories of use and abuse and their consequences into adulthood. But the longitudinal assessments were not narrowly limited to this basic aim, and with multiwave, multirater assessments from ages 11 to 12, the study has created a richly informative data set for analyses of gene–environment interactions of both candidate genes and genomewide measures with measured risk-relevant environments. Because 25 years have elapsed since the start of the study, we are planning a fifth-wave follow-up assessment.
Projections of a burgeoning population coupled with global environmental change offer an increasingly dire picture of the state of the world's food security in the not-too-distant future. But how can we transform the current food system to become more sustainable, more equitable and more just? We identify kitchens as sites of transformative innovation in the food system where cooks and chefs can leverage traditional food knowledge about local food species to create delicious and nutritious dishes. Achieving a sustainable food system is a grand challenge, one where cooks in particular are stepping forward as innovators to find solutions.
The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
De Dreu and Gross's distinction between attack and defense is complicated in real-world conflicts because competing leaders construe their position as one of defense, and power imbalances place status quo challengers in a defensive position. Their account of defense as vigilant avoidance is incomplete because it avoids a reference to anger which transforms anxious avoidance into collective and unified action.
Advanced courses in Applied Crystallography for Nanosciences are not often delivered in Academia and, consequently, require the organization of events specifically tailored to PhD students, postdocs, and young researchers at the very beginning of their scientific careers.
Fe is an essential nutrient for many bacteria, and Fe supplementation has been reported to affect the composition of the gut microbiota in both Fe-deficient and Fe-replete individuals outside pregnancy. This study examined whether the dose of Fe in pregnancy multivitamin supplements affects the overall composition of the gut microbiota in overweight and obese pregnant women in early pregnancy. Women participating in the SPRING study with a faecal sample obtained at 16 weeks’ gestation were included in this substudy. For each subject, the brand of multivitamin used was recorded. Faecal microbiome composition was assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing and analysed with the QIIME software suite. Dietary intake of Fe was assessed using a FFQ at 16 weeks’ gestation. Women were grouped as receiving low (<60 mg/d, n 94) or high (≥60 mg/d; n 65) Fe supplementation. The median supplementary Fe intake in the low group was 10 (interquartile range (IQR) 5–10) v. 60 (IQR 60–60) mg/d in the high group (P<0·001). Dietary Fe intake did not differ between the groups (10·0 (IQR 7·4–13·3) v. 9·8 (IQR 8·2–13·2) mg/d). Fe supplementation did not significantly affect the composition of the faecal microbiome at any taxonomic level. Network analysis showed that the gut microbiota in the low Fe supplementation group had a higher predominance of SCFA producers. Pregnancy multivitamin Fe content has a minor effect on the overall composition of the gut microbiota of overweight and obese pregnant women at 16 weeks’ gestation.
Background: According to Young's schema theory, Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) arise due to the violation of core emotional needs during childhood. It seems likely that parents have difficulties in satisfying their children's emotional needs if they have high levels of EMSs themselves. Aims: This study investigated whether the extent of EMSs in parents is associated with the extent of EMSs in their offspring. Moreover, we tested for two putative mechanisms that account for this association: parental coping styles and parenting behaviour. Methods: Sixty dyads of parents (mother or father) and their adult children (N = 120), recruited from the general population, completed the Young Schema Questionnaire. The parents rated their schema coping styles and the children retrospectively rated the parenting of the participating parent. Results: As expected, parents' EMSs were significantly associated with EMSs in their offspring. This association was accounted for by the parental coping style Overcompensation and the adverse parenting that the child remembered. The parental coping style Avoidance did not account for the association. Conclusions: This study provides preliminary evidence for the notion that EMSs are passed on from one generation to the next via parental coping and parenting. Our findings thus support the assumption of schema theory that EMSs are connected to the family environment in terms of adverse parenting. If further confirmed, this has relevant implications for family-based interventions.
A trend toward greater body size in dizygotic (DZ) than in monozygotic (MZ) twins has been suggested by some but not all studies, and this difference may also vary by age. We analyzed zygosity differences in mean values and variances of height and body mass index (BMI) among male and female twins from infancy to old age. Data were derived from an international database of 54 twin cohorts participating in the COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins), and included 842,951 height and BMI measurements from twins aged 1 to 102 years. The results showed that DZ twins were consistently taller than MZ twins, with differences of up to 2.0 cm in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.9 cm in adulthood. Similarly, a greater mean BMI of up to 0.3 kg/m2 in childhood and adolescence and up to 0.2 kg/m2 in adulthood was observed in DZ twins, although the pattern was less consistent. DZ twins presented up to 1.7% greater height and 1.9% greater BMI than MZ twins; these percentage differences were largest in middle and late childhood and decreased with age in both sexes. The variance of height was similar in MZ and DZ twins at most ages. In contrast, the variance of BMI was significantly higher in DZ than in MZ twins, particularly in childhood. In conclusion, DZ twins were generally taller and had greater BMI than MZ twins, but the differences decreased with age in both sexes.
A NIST SRM certified to address the issue of crystallite size measurement through a line profile analysis has been under development for several years. In order to prepare the feedstock for the SRM, nano-crystalline zinc oxide was produced from thermal decomposition of zinc oxalate. The thermal processing parameters were chosen to yield particles in two size ranges, one with a distribution centered at approximately 15 nm and another centered at 60 nm. Certification data were collected on a NIST-built diffractometer equipped with a Johansson incident beam monochromator and scintillation detector. Data were analyzed using whole powder pattern modeling to determine microstructural data. The analysis shows domains to be in the form of discs of a fairly small aspect ratio. While both materials exhibit the effects of stacking faults through broadening of specific hkl reflections, their presence in the 60 nm is more difficult to discern. Images of the crystallites obtained with transmission electron microscopy are consistent with the results from the X-ray diffraction analyses.
Meal-induced thermogenesis (MIT) research findings have been highly inconsistent, in part, due to the variety of durations and protocols used to measure MIT. In the present study, we aimed to determine the following: (1) the proportion of a 6 h MIT response completed at 3, 4 and 5 h; (2) the associations between the shorter durations and the 6 h measures; (3) whether shorter durations improved the reproducibility of the measurement. MIT was measured in response to a 2410 kJ mixed composition meal in ten individuals (five males and five females) on two occasions. Energy expenditure was measured continuously for 6 h post-meal using indirect calorimetry, and MIT was calculated as the increase in energy expenditure above the pre-meal RMR. On average, 76, 89 and 96 % of the 6 h MIT response was completed within 3, 4 and 5 h, respectively, and MIT at each of these time points was strongly correlated with the 6 h MIT response (range for correlations, r 0·990–0·998; P< 0·01). The between-day CV for the 6 h measurement was 33 %, but it was significantly lower after 3 h of measurement (CV 26 %; P= 0·02). Despite variability in the total MIT between days, the proportion of MIT that was completed at 3, 4 and 5 h was reproducible (mean CV: 5 %). While 6 h are typically required to measure the complete MIT response, the 3 h measures provide sufficient information about the magnitude of the MIT response and may be applicable for testing individuals on repeated occasions.
This research work deals with chlorite-vermiculite mixed-layer stability under hydrothermal and metamorphic conditions. We used as a case study a clayey flysch unit cropping out in an active geothermal area near to a Recent volcano (Mt. Amiata) in central Italy. The geothermal gradient is higher than the world average and temperatures over 100°C can occur at less than 1 km depth. The mineralogical data, obtained from X-Ray Power Diffraction (XRPD) analysis of clay samples from the same geologic unit, show that the primary anchimetamorphic mineral assemblage (illite, chlorite, illite-smectite mixed layers) is accompanied by secondary phases, such as chlorite-vermiculite mixed-layers and calcite. Reactive flow modelling was used to outline a realistic water-rock (W/R) interaction process able to generate the new minerals. In the numerical simulation, the pristine shale was made to react with a local thermal spring, at an estimated but realistic carbonate reservoir temperature. The simulation predicts that, at a temperature of 120°C, clinochlore dissolves and vermiculite crystallizes, a good proxy of the chlorite-vermiculite crystallization process. Under low water/rock conditions the proportions of the clay minerals (illite, chlorite, smectite and vermiculite) are comparable with the analytical results. The simulation also shows that temperatures higher than 120°C enhance the vermiculite formation. We conclude that the chlorite-vermiculite mixed-layers formed in the recent past due to the upflow of thermal water which permeated the flysch unit. This result indicates that the alteration of the clayey cap-rocks of geothermal reservoirs is enhanced by the interaction with geothermal fluids, and can be used as a prospecting tool.
Probiotics are live micro-organisms that when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. Cell surface molecules of these micro-organisms are being studied in relation to their ability to interact with the host. The cell wall of lactobacilli possesses lipoteichoic acids (LTA) which are molecules with immunomodulatory properties. UV radiation (UVR) has been proposed as the main cause of skin cancer because of its mutagenic and immunosuppressive effects. Photoprotection with some nutrition interventions including probiotics has recently been shown. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the oral administration of purified LTA from Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG can modulate the immune-suppressive effect of UVR and skin tumour development in female Crl:SKH-1-hrBR mice. For this purpose, two irradiation models were studied: (1) a chronic irradiation scheme consisting of daily irradiations during twenty consecutive days and (2) a long-term irradiation schedule, irradiating the animals three times per week, during 34 weeks for tumour development. The results showed that T-cells in the inguinal lymph node of LTA-treated mice produced higher levels of (1) interferon-γ and (2) a number of total, helper and cytotoxic T-cells compared with non-treated mice. Moreover, a significant delay in tumour appearance was found in LTA-treated mice. An increased IgA+ cell number was found in the small intestine together with a higher number of activated dendritic cells in the mesenteric lymph nodes. The latter results might be indicative of a direct effect of LTA in the gut, affecting the cutaneous immune system and restoring homeostasis through the gut–skin axis.
Since they were first described in 1993, it was found that recombinant variable fragments (rVHHs) of heavy-chain antibodies (HCAbs) from Camelidae have unusual biophysical properties, as well as a special ability to interact with epitopes that are cryptic for conventional Abs. It has been assumed that in vivo raised polyclonal HCAbs (pHCAbs) should behave in a similar manner than rVHHs; however, this assumption has not been tested sufficiently. Furthermore, our own preliminary work on a single serum sample from a llama immunized with a β-lactamase, has suggested that pHCAbs have no special ability to down-modulate catalytic activity. In this work, we further explored the interaction of pHCAbs from four llamas raised against two microbial enzymes and analyzed it within a short and a long immunization plan. The relative contribution of pHCAbs to serum titer was found to be low compared with that of the most abundant conventional subisotype (IgG1), during the whole immunization schedule. Furthermore, pHCAbs not only failed to inhibit the enzymes, but also activated one of them. Altogether, these results suggest that raising high titer inhibitory HCAbs is not a straightforward strategy – neither as a biotechnological strategy nor in the biological context of an immune response against infection – as raising inhibitory rVHHs.
The intrinsic channel structure and low volume work makes olivines phosphates (LiMPO4) versatile for Li uptake and release. The understanding of Li cation diffusion/transport mechanisms inside olivines are crucial aspects, which we address using advanced molecular dynamics simulations. Activation energies calculated from DFT concluded 1D diffusion within channels as also indicated by neutron diffraction direct imaging techniques. On explicitly including temperature we find that - besides main conduction paths along the easy channels - distinct, less frequent but relevant diffusion paths exist. We point out that capacity and diffusion/conduction issues must be understood in a much more detail-rich framework, under realistic simulation conditions within finite temperature simulations. For evaluating electrical conductivity, we use advanced DFT methods to correctly capture the insulating states of the charged and discharged olivine materials. Based on the Kubo formalism, reliable conductivity/resistivity curves can be calculated for comparison with experiments and for anticipating properties.
There is a recent, renewed attention on the possible development of optical emitters compatible with silicon microelectronic technology and it has been recently shown that light emitting diodes could be manufactured on dislocated silicon, where dislocations were generated by plastic deformation or ion implantation. Among other potential sources of room temperature light emission, compatible with standard silicon-based ULSI technology, we have studied old thermal donors (OTD), as the origin of their luminescence is still matter of controversy and demands further investigation.
In this work we discuss the results of a spectroscopical study of OTD using photoluminescence (PL) and Deep Level Transient Spectroscopy (DLTS) on standard Czochralsky (Cz) silicon samples and on carbon-doped samples.
We were able to show that their main optical activity, which consists of a narrow band at 0.767 eV ( P line), is correlated to a transition from a shallow donor level of OTD to a deep level at EV+0.37 eV which is tentatively associated to C-O complexes. As we have shown that the P line emission persists at room temperature, we discuss about its potentialities to silicon in optoelectronic applications.
SiC films were deposited on Si substrate by low pressure hot-wall CVD using C3H8 (5% in H2)-SiH4 (2.5% in H2)-H2 gas system at 1270°C and 1370°C. In this paper, we compare the electrical characteristics of MOS capacitors fabricated on the 3C-SiC films grown at high and low temperatures, 1370°C and 1270°C, respectively. Although the cross-sectional TEM images indicate similar micro-structural quality of the SiC/Si interface for both temperatures, a quicker elimination rate of stacking faults with increasing thickness was observed in the films grown at 1370°C. Rocking curves from XRD measurements also indicate better crystallinity of the films grown at 1370°C. On the other hand, atomic force microscopy shows that the average surface roughness reduces with the reduction in growth temperature. MOS capacitors were made on films grown at both temperatures and characterized by high-frequency capacitance-voltage (HFCV), conductance-voltage (G-V), and current-voltage (I-V) measurements at room temperature. The MOS capacitors fabricated on both films exhibit good and almost identical C-V characteristics. Measurements of current-voltage characteristics in accumulation region showed smaller leakage for the film deposited at 1270°C. It is concluded that the decrease of the deposition temperature from 1370°C to 1270°C does not bring any remarkable negative impact on the interface properties of fabricated MOS capacitors.
A design approach to ferroelectric materials critically depends on an accurate description of the microscopic features associated with paraelectric-to-ferroelectric phase transitions. The fine structures of domains, domain walls, and domain boundary dynamics as well as a precise understanding of local atomic displacements can be accessed using adequate potential models based on ab initio calculations and advanced molecular dynamics simulations. For BaTiO3 a complex scenario of microscopic domains in the paraelectric (cubic) phase and in the ferroelectric (tetragonal) phase is obtained. Therein, the static and dynamic role of domain/antidomain features, as well as their dependence on Ti displacements around the <111> manifold is clearly emerging.