To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Through diversity of composition, sequence, and interfacial structure, hybrid materials greatly expand the palette of materials available to access novel functionality. The NSF Division of Materials Research recently supported a workshop (October 17–18, 2019) aiming to (1) identify fundamental questions and potential solutions common to multiple disciplines within the hybrid materials community; (2) initiate interfield collaborations between hybrid materials researchers; and (3) raise awareness in the wider community about experimental toolsets, simulation capabilities, and shared facilities that can accelerate this research. This article reports on the outcomes of the workshop as a basis for cross-community discussion. The interdisciplinary challenges and opportunities are presented, and followed with a discussion of current areas of progress in subdisciplines including hybrid synthesis, functional surfaces, and functional interfaces.
Since Plio-Pleistocene time, southward migration of shortening in the eastern part of the Greater Caucasus into the Kura foreland basin has progressively formed the Kura fold–thrust belt and Alazani piggyback basin, which separates the Kura fold–thrust belt from the Greater Caucasus. Previous work argued for an eastward propagation of the Kura fold–thrust belt, but this hypothesis was based on coarse geological maps and speculative ages for units within the Kura fold–thrust belt. Here we investigate the initiation of deformation within the Gombori range in the western Kura fold–thrust belt and evaluate this eastward propagation hypothesis. Sediments exposed in the Gombori range have a Greater Caucasus source, despite the modern drainage network in the NE Gombori range, which is dominated by NE-flowing rivers. Palaeocurrent analyses of the oldest and youngest syntectonic units indicate a switch happened between ~2.7 Ma and 1 Ma from dominantly SW-directed flow to palaeocurrents more similar to the modern drainage network. A single successful 26Al–10Be burial date indicates the youngest syntectonic sediments are 1.0 ± 1.0 Ma, which, while not a precise age, is consistent with original mapping suggesting these sediments are of Akchagylian–Apsheronian (2.7–0.88 Ma) age. These results, along with recent updated dating of thrust initiation in the eastern Kura fold–thrust belt, suggest that deformation within the Kura fold–thrust belt initiated synchronously or nearly synchronously along-strike. We additionally use topographic analyses to show that the Gombori range continues to be a zone of active deformation.
Folded paper road maps are found next to sextants in the pile of obsolete navigation tools. GPS navigation apps like Waze and Google Maps, accurate to within a few metres, are available on all smartphones and most new cars. These apps provide drivers with real time traffic conditions and suggest minimum drive time routes, giving drivers the ability to avoid congestion and delays caused by heavy traffic, accidents, road construction and other hindrances.
The purpose of this rejoinder is to emphasize several important areas of future research that were mentioned by one or both commentaries. First, the authors discuss issues related to multi-source assessment, such as the importance of further research on informant bias, and argue that the information gleaned from multiple sources is worth the added assessment burden. Second, they underscore the importance of longitudinal assessment both in capturing the treatment-relevant within-person processes through which personality pathology unfolds, as well as tracking therapeutic progress. They assert that a given measure’s ability to reliably and validly measure change over time should be considered when evaluating its clinical utility. Finally, they emphasize the need for greater attention to clinical utility of dimensional PD assessment measures.
The purpose of this chapter is to review the current state of the dimensional assessment of personality disorder (PD). The first part of the chapter serves as a review of the most well-established and commonly used measures of maladaptive personality traits. Measures that assess the psychosocial impairment associated with personality pathology also are reviewed. Areas of discontinuity among these measures (e.g., theoretical origin, method of scale construction, degree of correspondence with well-known trait dimensions, attention received in the empirical literature, degree of bipolarity of underlying dimensions) are emphasized, and the clinical utility of measures is evaluated. The second part of the chapter focuses on several controversial issues with which the field of dimensional PD assessment now is grappling. These issues include (a) the psychometric distinction of personality traits from personality functioning, (b) the incremental utility of adaptive trait assessment, (c) the question of maladaptive trait bipolarity, (d) facet-level differences versus domain-level similarity across competing PD trait models, and (e) the value of multi-source assessment.
The purpose of the present study was to compare next-morning responses of RMR and appetite to pre-sleep consumption of casein protein (CP) in pre- and postmenopausal women. The study was a randomised, crossover, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Seven sedentary premenopausal (age: 19·9 (sd 1·2) years; BMI: 23·1 (sd 2·6) kg/m2) and seven sedentary postmenopausal (age: 56·4 (sd 4·9) years; BMI: 26·3 (sd 3·5) kg/m2) women participated. During visit one, anthropometrics and body composition were measured. Following visit one, subjects consumed either CP (25 g) or placebo (PL) ≥2 h after their last meal and ≤30 min prior to sleep on the night before visits two and three. Visits two and three occurred ≥1 week after visit one and were 48 h apart. During visits two and three, RMR (VO2), RER and appetite were measured via indirect calorimetry and visual analogue scale, respectively. Anthropometrics and body composition were analysed by one-way ANOVA. RMR and measures of appetite were analysed using a 2 × 2 (menopause status × CP/PL) repeated-measures ANOVA. Significance was accepted at P ≤ 0·05. RMR was significantly lower in postmenopausal compared with premenopausal women under both conditions (P = 0·003). When consumed pre-sleep CP did not alter RMR, RER or appetite compared with PL when assessed next morning in pre- and postmenopausal women. These data contribute to growing evidence that pre-sleep consumption of protein is not harmful to next-morning metabolism or appetite. In addition, these data demonstrate that menopause may not alter next-morning RMR, RER or appetite after pre-sleep consumption of CP.
Many formerly glaciated valleys in the western United States preserve detailed glacial features that span the penultimate glaciation through the last deglaciation; however, numerical age control is limited in many of these systems. We report 35 new cosmogenic 10Be surface exposure ages of moraine boulders in the Sawatch Range, Colorado. Eight ages suggest Bull Lake moraines in Lake Creek (range: 132–120 ka, n = 4) and Clear Creek (range: 187–133 ka, n = 4) valleys may correlate with Marine Isotope Stage 6. In Lake Creek valley, 22 10Be ages from Pinedale end moraines average 20.6 ± 0.6 ka, and 5 10Be ages from a recessional moraine average 15.6 ± 0.7 ka, indicating that glaciers occupied two extended positions at ~21–20 and ~16 ka. The glacial extent dated to ~16 ka was nearly as great as that of the earlier glacial phase, suggesting that climate conditions in the Colorado Rocky Mountains at this time were similar to those of the last glacial maximum. Combining these moraine ages with seven previously published 10Be ages from cirque and valley-bottom bedrock reveals that the Lake Creek paleoglacier lost 82% of its full glacial length in ~1.5 ka and was completely deglaciated by ~14 ka.
This was a metabolic study of bulimia nervosa required to design short-term cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) beginning with a brief admission to a psychiatric ward. The treatment produced significant improvements in eating behaviour and results are compared with those of previously published studies. The comparisons do not suggest that brief admission at the onset of therapy might enhance its effectiveness. In other respects, increase in normal meal intake was found to correlate significantly with decrease in hinging. This supports the notion that appropriate food intake at meal times should be an important issue in CBT for bulimia nervosa.
South Texas is home to a high diversity of species due to its location at the confluence of subtropical, desert, and coastal ecoregions. Historical overgrazing of South Texas rangelands transformed the savanna and prairie to a landscape dominated by woody plants and shrubs interspersed with low seral grass species and bare ground. During the first half of the 20th century, exotic grass species, coupled with the application of industrial agricultural practices appeared to be the future of forage production in South Texas and elsewhere. Several of these exotic species, namely King Ranch bluestem [Bothriochloa ischaemum (L.) Keng], Kleberg bluestem [Dichanthium annulatum (Forssk.) Stapf], Angelton bluestem [Dichanthium aristatum (Poir.) C.E. Hubbard], buffelgrass [Pennisetum ciliare (L.) Link], guineagrass [Urochloa maxima (Jacq.) R. Webster], Lehmann lovegrass (Eragrostis lehmanniana Nees), and Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], have escaped pasture cultivation. Additionally, the native grass tanglehead [Heteropogon contortus (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult.] has begun displaying invasive behaviors. The monoculture growth habit of these species simplifies vegetation structure, reduces biodiversity, and decreases habitat for many species of wildlife. These grasses also alter natural fire regimes and nutrient cycling. This landscape-level transformation of vegetation composition and structure requires monitoring to quantify and assess the spatial and temporal distributions of invasive species as a basis to inform management practices. Current advances in remote sensing technologies, such as very high spatial resolution coupled with daily satellite imagery and unmanned aerial vehicles, are providing tools for invasive vegetation monitoring. We provide a synthesis of the natural history of these grasses, including their introductions, an overview of remote sensing applications in South Texas, and recommendations for future management practices.
Little data exists about the methodology of contextualizing version two of the Mental Health Gap Action Programme Intervention Guide (mhGAP-IG) in resource-poor settings. This paper describes the contextualisation and pilot testing of the guide in Kilifi, Kenya.
Contextualisation was conducted as a collaboration between the KEMRI-Wellcome Trust Research Programme (KWTRP) and Kilifi County Government's Department of Health (KCGH) between 2016 and 2018. It adapted a mixed-method design and involved a situational analysis, stakeholder engagement, local adaptation and pilot testing of the adapted guide. Qualitative data were analysed using content analysis to identify key facilitators and barriers to the implementation process. Pre- and post-training scores of the adapted guide were compared using the Wilcoxon signed-rank test.
Human resource for mental health in Kilifi is strained with limited infrastructure and outdated legislation. Barriers to implementation included few specialists for referral, unreliable drug supply, difficulty in translating the guide to Kiswahili language, lack of clarity of the roles of KWTRP and KCGH in the implementation process and the unwillingness of the biomedical practitioners to collaborate with traditional health practitioners to enhance referrals to hospital. In the adaptation process, stakeholders recommended the exclusion of child and adolescent mental and behavioural problems, as well as dementia modules from the final version of the guide. Pilot testing of the adapted guide showed a significant improvement in the post-training scores: 66.3% (95% CI 62.4–70.8) v. 76.6% (95% CI 71.6–79.2) (p < 0.001).
The adapted mhGAP-IG version two can be used across coastal Kenya to train primary healthcare providers. However, successful implementation in Kilifi will require a review of new evidence on the burden of disease, improvements in the mental health system and sustained dialogue among stakeholders.
In this chapter, we review the current state of personality disorder (PD) assessment practices. The review includes both traditional measures that are rooted in categorical conceptualizations of PD and dimensional measures that have emerged in response to mounting evidence that has called into question the validity of traditional PD classification approaches. The scope of this chapter includes prominent and promising models and measures of PD. Moreover, our review is focused on omnibus measures that present a relatively “complete” picture of personality pathology rather than measures that focus on the features of only one or a limited set of PDs. Finally, we address two important topics relevant to PD assessment. First, we discuss the cross-cultural PD assessment literature, which is characterized by a relative lack of strong cross-cultural research on the manifestation and measurement of PD. Second, we address the disconnect between research and applied practice of PD assessment.
An ongoing challenge in understanding and treating personality disorders (PDs) is a significant heterogeneity in disorder expression, stemming from variability in underlying dynamic processes. These processes are commonly discussed in clinical settings, but are rarely empirically studied due to their personalized, temporal nature. The goal of the current study was to combine intensive longitudinal data collection with person-specific temporal network models to produce individualized symptom-level structures of personality pathology. These structures were then linked to traditional PD diagnoses and stress (to index daily functioning).
Using about 100 daily assessments of internalizing and externalizing domains underlying PDs (i.e. negative affect, detachment, impulsivity, hostility), a temporal network mapping approach (i.e. group iterative multiple model estimation) was used to create person-specific networks of the temporal relations among domains for 91 individuals (62.6% female) with a PD. Network characteristics were then associated with traditional PD symptomatology (controlling for mean domain levels) and with daily variation in clinically-relevant phenomena (i.e. stress).
Features of the person-specific networks predicted paranoid, borderline, narcissistic, and obsessive-PD symptom counts above average levels of the domains, in ways that align with clinical conceptualizations. They also predicted between-person variation in stress across days.
Relations among behavioral domains thought to underlie heterogeneity in PDs were indeed associated with traditional diagnostic constructs and with daily functioning (i.e. stress) in person-specific networks. Findings highlight the importance of leveraging data and models that capture person-specific, dynamic processes, and suggest that person-specific networks may have implications for precision medicine.
Laboratory-identified bloodstream infections (LAB-ID BSIs) in recently discharged patients are likely to be classified as healthcare-associated community-onset (HCA-CO) infections, even though they may represent hospital-onset (HO) infections. A review of LAB-ID BSIs among patients discharged within 14 days revealed that 109 of 756 cases (14.4%) were HO infections. The BSI risk being misclassified as HCA CO may underestimate the hospital infection risk.
Warwick Heale has recently defended the notion of individualized and personalized Quality-Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) in connection with health care resource allocation decisions. Ordinarily, QALYs are used to make allocation decisions at the population level. If a health care intervention costs £100,000 and generally yields only two years of survival, the cost per QALY gained will be £50,000, far in excess of the £30,000 limit per QALY judged an acceptable use of resources within the National Health Service in the United Kingdom. However, if we know with medical certainty that a patient will gain four extra years of life from that intervention, the cost per QALY will be £25,000. Heale argues fairness and social utility require such a patient to receive that treatment, even though all others in the cohort of that patient might be denied that treatment (and lose two years of potential life). Likewise, Heale argues that personal commitments of an individual (religious or otherwise), that determine how they value a life-year with some medical intervention, ought to be used to determine the value of a QALY for them. I argue that if Heale’s proposals were put into practice, the result would often be greater injustice. In brief, requirements for the just allocation of health care resources are more complex than pure cost-effectiveness analysis would allow.
Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a psychological treatment that has been found to increase weight loss in adults when combined with lifestyle modification, compared with the latter treatment alone. However, an ACT-based treatment for weight loss has never been tested in adolescents.
The present pilot study assessed the feasibility and acceptability of a 16-week, group ACT-based lifestyle modification treatment for adolescents and their parents/guardians. The co-primary outcomes were: (1) mean acceptability scores from up to 8 biweekly ratings; and (2) the percentage reduction in body mass index (BMI) from baseline to week 16. The effect size for changes in cardiometabolic and psychosocial outcomes from baseline to week 16 also was examined.
Seven families enrolled and six completed treatment (14.3% attrition). The mean acceptability score was 8.8 for adolescents and 9.0 for parents (on a 1–10 scale), indicating high acceptability. The six adolescents who completed treatment experienced a 1.3% reduction in BMI (SD = 2.3, d = 0.54). They reported a medium increase in cognitive restraint, a small reduction in hunger, and a small increase in physical activity. They experienced small improvements in most quality of life domains and a large reduction in depression.
These preliminary findings indicate that ACT plus lifestyle modification was a highly acceptable treatment that improved weight, cognitive restraint, hunger, physical activity, and psychosocial outcomes in adolescents with obesity.
The present study evaluates the use of multiple correspondence analysis (MCA), a type of exploratory factor analysis designed to reduce the dimensionality of large categorical data sets, in identifying behaviours associated with measures of overweight/obesity in Vanuatu, a rapidly modernizing Pacific Island country.
Starting with seventy-three true/false questions regarding a variety of behaviours, MCA identified twelve most significantly associated with modernization status and transformed the aggregate binary responses of participants to these twelve questions into a linear scale. Using this scale, individuals were separated into three modernization groups (tertiles) among which measures of body fat were compared and OR for overweight/obesity were computed.
Ni-Vanuatu adults (n 810) aged 20–85 years.
Among individuals in the tertile characterized by positive responses to most of or all the twelve modernization questions, weight and measures of body fat and the likelihood that measures of body fat were above the US 75th percentile were significantly greater compared with individuals in the tertiles characterized by mostly or partly negative responses.
The study indicates that MCA can be used to identify individuals or groups at risk for overweight/obesity, based on answers to simply-put questions. MCA therefore may be useful in areas where obtaining detailed information about modernization status is constrained by time, money or manpower.