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Deep brain stimulation (DBS) for Tourette’ s syndrome (TS) in various targets has been in the focus for some years. However, there are hardly any data on ‘psychosocial’ outcome after DBS for TS.
The aim of the present study therefore was to focus on the functional outcome and ‘psychosocial changes’ in TS patients after DBS.
Six patients with treatment-refractory TS underwent GPi-DBS. The Yale Global Tic Severity Scale (YGTSS) was used to evaluate symptomatic outcome. Psychosocial changes were assessed applying the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF) and the Gilles-de-la- Tourette-Syndrome Quality-of-Life scale (GTS-QOL) with additionally documenting psychosocial changes. Follow-up ranged between 12 and 72 months.
In all symptomatic responders (4 of 6) we found a significant functional improvement (mean GAF increasing from 53.75 (± 7.5) preoperatively to 83.75 (± 7.5) at last follow-up) along with a positive correlation with the course of GTS-QOL (R2 = 0.62).
Treatment success should not only be assessed with the classic ‘tic-scales’, but also with the GAF and GTS-QOL. Although improvement of tics seems to be positively correlated with improved functional outcome, symptomatic improvement may lead to unexpected major psychosocial changes – which both the patient and the clinicians in charge – should be prepared for.
The ternary system Fe - 25 at% Co - 9 at% Mo shows an age hardening behavior similar to aluminum alloys. After solution annealing followed by rapid quenching, the Fe-Co-matrix is hardened during subsequent aging through precipitation of the intermetallic µ-phase (Fe,Co)7Mo6. In aged condition the entire Mo content is present in coarse primary and fine µ-phase particles and, therefore, the matrix consists exclusively of 71 at% Fe and 29 at% Co. The binary system Fe-Co shows a transformation from the disordered bcc structure to the ordered B2 structure between 25 and 72 at% Co at a critical ordering temperature ranging from room temperature to 723°C. As a consequence, the remaining overaged matrix in the Fe - 25 at% Co - 9 at% Mo system should also show such a transition. However, an ordered phase is brittle and, thus, not wanted for many applications. Better mechanical properties in terms of ductility can be achieved with a partially or fully disordered phase. Such a state can be obtained by rapid quenching from temperatures above the critical ordering temperature. In this study such an approach was implemented on the ternary Fe - 25 at% Co - 9 at% Mo alloy. The effect of different cooling rates on the mechanical properties was investigated by means of hardness testing. The actual ordering transition of the Fe - 29 at% Co matrix was determined with differential scanning calorimetry and neutron diffraction.
This study determined the genetic background of virulence and resistance genes of MRSA ST398 in Austria. From 2004 up to 2008 a total of 41 human isolates of MRSA ST398 were investigated for virulence and resistance gene patterns using DNA microarray chip analysis. Highly similar virulence gene profiles were found in 29 (70·7%) of the isolates but genes encoding Panton–Valentine leukocidin, enterotoxins, or toxic shock syndrome toxin were not detected. Genes conferring resistance to tetracycline and erythromycin-lincosamide were common as all but one of the isolates exhibited tetM and/or tetK, which are involved in tetracycline resistance, and 12 (29·9%) were positive for ermC, conferring resistance to erythromycin/lincosamide. SplitsTree analysis showed that 40 isolates were closely related. Changes in virulence and resistance gene patterns were minimal over the observed time period.
An Fe–1 at.% Cu model alloy was examined by atom probe (3DAP) and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) to verify the accordance of the gained results. The Fe-Cu alloy was heat-treated for various times at 500°C, forming Cu-rich precipitates within the Fe matrix. The chemical compositions of the precipitates and matrix found by 3DAP were used to calculate the magnetic scattering contrast. Additionally, a magnetic moment of the precipitates that contain a significant amount of Fe was taken into account for the calculation of magnetic scattering contrast. This in turn is used for the evaluation of the magnetic scattering curves gained by SANS. Both the 3DAP data as well as the scattering curves were analyzed with regard to radius, number density, and volume fraction of the precipitates as a function of aging time. The results yielded by both techniques are in good agreement and correspond to the development of the hardness of the alloy. Minor differences can be related to the cluster search algorithm used for the analysis of the 3DAP data as well as Fe overestimation based on different field phases.
TNM™ alloys are novel γ-TiAl based alloys which exhibit a high concentration of β-stabilizing elements such as Nb and Mo. Due to the high volume fraction of disordered β-phase these alloys can be hot-die forged under near conventional conditions. In this study, solid-state phase transformations and phase transition temperatures in Ti-(41-45)Al-4Nb-1Mo-0.1B (in at%) alloys were analyzed experimentally and compared to thermodynamic calculations. Results from scanning electron microscopy, conventional and high-energy X-ray diffraction as well as differential scanning calorimetry were used for the characterization of the prevailing phases and phase transformations. For the prediction of phase stabilities and phase transition temperatures thermodynamic calculations were conducted. ThermoCalc® was applied using a commercially available TiAl database. Combining all results a stable as well as a metastable phase diagram for Ti-(41-45)Al-4Nb-1Mo-0.1B alloys is proposed.
Significant experimental and theoretical progress has been
made in the U.S. heavy ion fusion program on high-current sources,
transport, and focusing. Currents over 200 mA have been transported
through a matching section and 10 half-lattice periods with
electric quadrupoles. An experiment shows control of high-beam
current with an aperture, while avoiding secondary electrons.
New theory and simulations of the neutralization of intense
beam space charge with plasma in various focusing chamber
configurations predict that near-emittance-limited beam focal
spot sizes can be obtained even with beam perveance (ratio of
beam space potential to ion energy) >10× higher than
in earlier HIF focusing experiments. Progress in a new focusing
experiment with plasma neutralization up to 10−3
perveance, and designs for a next-step experiment to study beam
brightness evolution from source to target are described.
Disturbed and non-disturbed subjects were compared on a Repertory Grid measure of the differentiation of values, emotions and behaviours. The disturbed subjects tended to show either excessively tightened or excessively loosened relationships between values, feelings and behaviours. Tight relationships denoted a close correspondence between a subject's assessment of these three items; loose relationships denoted a poor correspondence. Non-disturbed subjects showed more moderate relationships. Among the disturbed patients, loosened relationships were found in schizophrenics rather than neurotics or personality disorders and tightened relationships in neurotics and personality disorders rather than schizophrenics.