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Cerebrospinal fluid shunt–associated surgical site infection surveillance for 3 months compared to 12 months after surgery captures 83% of cases with no significant differences in patient characteristics, surgery types, or pathogens. A shorter 3-month follow-up can reduce resource use and allow for more timely reporting of healthcare-associated infection rates for hospitals.
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) has traditionally been used in infection prevention to confirm or refute the presence of an outbreak after it has occurred. Due to decreasing costs of WGS, an increasing number of institutions have been utilizing WGS-based surveillance. Additionally, machine learning or statistical modeling to supplement infection prevention practice have also been used. We systematically reviewed the use of WGS surveillance and machine learning to detect and investigate outbreaks in healthcare settings.
We performed a PubMed search using separate terms for WGS surveillance and/or machine-learning technologies for infection prevention through March 15, 2021.
Of 767 studies returned using the WGS search terms, 42 articles were included for review. Only 2 studies (4.8%) were performed in real time, and 39 (92.9%) studied only 1 pathogen. Nearly all studies (n = 41, 97.6%) found genetic relatedness between some isolates collected. Across all studies, 525 outbreaks were detected among 2,837 related isolates (average, 5.4 isolates per outbreak). Also, 35 studies (83.3%) only utilized geotemporal clustering to identify outbreak transmission routes. Of 21 studies identified using the machine-learning search terms, 4 were included for review. In each study, machine learning aided outbreak investigations by complementing methods to gather epidemiologic data and automating identification of transmission pathways.
WGS surveillance is an emerging method that can enhance outbreak detection. Machine learning has the potential to identify novel routes of pathogen transmission. Broader incorporation of WGS surveillance into infection prevention practice has the potential to transform the detection and control of healthcare outbreaks.
Young people are most vulnerable to suicidal behaviours but least likely to seek help. A more elaborate study of the intrinsic and extrinsic correlates of suicidal ideation and behaviours particularly amid ongoing population-level stressors and the identification of less stigmatising markers in representative youth populations is essential.
Participants (n = 2540, aged 15–25) were consecutively recruited from an ongoing large-scale household-based epidemiological youth mental health study in Hong Kong between September 2019 and 2021. Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of suicidal ideation, plan, and attempt were assessed, alongside suicide-related rumination, hopelessness and neuroticism, personal and population-level stressors, family functioning, cognitive ability, lifetime non-suicidal self-harm, 12-month major depressive disorder (MDD), and alcohol use.
The 12-month prevalence of suicidal ideation, ideation-only (no plan or attempt), plan, and attempt was 20.0, 15.4, 4.6, and 1.3%, respectively. Importantly, multivariable logistic regression findings revealed that suicide-related rumination was the only factor associated with all four suicidal outcomes (all p < 0.01). Among those with suicidal ideation (two-stage approach), intrinsic factors, including suicide-related rumination, poorer cognitive ability, and 12-month MDE, were specifically associated with suicide plan, while extrinsic factors, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) stressors, poorer family functioning, and personal life stressors, as well as non-suicidal self-harm, were specifically associated with suicide attempt.
Suicide-related rumination, population-level COVID-19 stressors, and poorer family functioning may be important less-stigmatising markers for youth suicidal risks. The respective roles played by not only intrinsic but also extrinsic factors in suicide plan and attempt using a two-stage approach should be considered in future preventative intervention work.
The product's transformation is considered for its fascination but it is not studied for its usage scenario. This study proposes an expanded phase model that can evaluate the usefulness of transformable products from the perspective of form, function and user scenario of a transformable product. We analyzed purpose of transformation, and identified user benefits from existing transformable products. This model allows designers/team to evaluate usefulness of transformable products by comparing user benefits of the product with appropriateness of form and function in a given usage scenario.
The design process in most organizations is often collaborative and interdisciplinary in nature. Yet most institutions of higher learning do not offer students the opportunity to work in multidisciplinary teams. This study follows an experiential service-learning project over 3 years to explore the role of multidisciplinary project teams on design education outcomes. Findings suggest that the quality of designs improved over time and students consider experiential learning in multidisciplinary teams to be a valuable component in their education, increasing their job readiness upon graduation.
Poor research integrity is increasingly recognised as a serious problem in science. We outline some evidence for this claim and introduce the Royal College of Psychiatrists (RCPsych) journals’ Research Integrity Group, which has been created to address this problem.
The purpose of this document is to highlight practical recommendations to assist acute care hospitals to prioritize and implement strategies to prevent ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), ventilator-associated events (VAE), and non-ventilator hospital-acquired pneumonia (NV-HAP) in adults, children, and neonates. This document updates the Strategies to Prevent Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia in Acute Care Hospitals published in 2014. This expert guidance document is sponsored by the Society for Healthcare Epidemiology (SHEA), and is the product of a collaborative effort led by SHEA, the Infectious Diseases Society of America, the American Hospital Association, the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, and The Joint Commission, with major contributions from representatives of a number of organizations and societies with content expertise.
The crystal structure of baricitinib has been solved and refined using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction data and optimized using density functional techniques. Baricitinib crystallizes in space group I2/a (#15) with a = 11.81128(11), b = 7.06724(6), c = 42.5293(3) Å, β = 91.9280(4)°, V = 3548.05(5) Å3, and Z = 8. The crystal structure is characterized by hydrogen-bonded double layers parallel to the ab-planes. The dimers form a graph set R2,2(8). The sulfone ends of the molecules reside in the interlayer regions. The powder pattern has been submitted to ICDD for inclusion in the Powder Diffraction File™ (PDF®).
The aim of this systematic review was to map the peer-reviewed literature (2009–2019) relating to school involvement with wraparound models in the support of students with complex needs. Specific research questions addressed explored the evidence base of the efficacy of wraparound with these students and barriers and enablers in the provision of wraparound services. Database searches were conducted and a total of 50 articles were identified. The analysis revealed eight different aspects of wraparound efficacy, with mixed results. Nine factors were identified as having a positive enabling, or disabling, effect on the provision of effective wraparound services. The wraparound programs were varied in their nature and in their successful implementation, with time to allow the program to mature and adherence to the 10 principles of the wraparound process emerging as enabling factors for wraparound success.
In real gas turbines, multiple nozzles are used instead of a single-nozzle; therefore, interactions between flames are inevitable. In this study, the effects of flame-flame interaction on the emission characteristics and lean blowout limit were analysed in a CH4-fueled single- and dual-nozzle combustor. OH* chemiluminescence imaging showed that a flame-interacting region, where the two flames from the nozzles were merged, was present in the dual-nozzle combustor, unlike the single-nozzle combustor. Flow-field measurements using particle image velocimetry confirmed that a faster velocity region was formed at the flame merging region, thereby hindering flame stabilisation. In addition, we compared the emission indices of NOx and CO between the two combustors. The emission indices of CO were not significantly different; however, a distinct effect of flame-flame interaction was indicated in NOx. To understand the effect of flame-flame interaction on NOx emissions, we measured temperature distribution using a multi-point thermocouple. Results showed that a wider high-temperature region was formed in the dual-nozzle combustor compared to the single-nozzle combustor; this was attributable to the high OH* chemiluminescence intensity in the flame-interacting region. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the size of this interacting region caused the deformation of the temperature distribution in the combustor, which can induce a difference in the increase ratio of NOx emission between high and low equivalence ratio ranges. In conclusion, we confirmed that flame-flame interaction significantly affected temperature distribution in the downstream of the flame, and the change in temperature distribution contributed primarily to the varying concentration of the emission gas.
Vaccination coverage for infants with CHD is unknown, yet these patients are at high risk for morbidity and mortality associated with vaccine-preventable illnesses. We determined vaccination rates for this population and identified predictors of undervaccination. We prospectively enrolled infants with CHD born between 1 January, 2012 and 31 December, 2015, seen in a single-centre cardiology clinic between 15 February, 2016 and 28 February, 2017. We assessed vaccination during the first year of life. Subjects who by age 1 year received all routine immunisations recommended during the first 6 months of life were considered fully vaccinated. We also evaluated influenza vaccination during subjects’ first eligible influenza season. We obtained immunisation histories from primary care providers and collected demographic and clinical data via a parent survey and chart review. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify predictors of undervaccination. Among 260 subjects, only 60% were fully vaccinated. Vaccination rates were lowest for influenza (64.6%), rotavirus (71.1%), and Haemophilus influenzae type b (79.3%). Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass during the first year of life was associated with undervaccination (51.5% versus 76.4% fully vaccinated, adjusted odds ratio 2.1 [95% confidence interval 1.1–3.9]). Other predictors of undervaccination were out-of-state primary care (adjusted odds ratio 2.7 [1.5–4.9]), multiple comorbidities (≥2 versus 0–1, adjusted odds ratio 2.0 [1.1–3.6]), and hospitalisation for >25% of the first year of life (>25% versus ≤25%, adjusted odds ratio 2.1 [1.1–3.9]). Targeted quality improvement initiatives focused on improving vaccination coverage for these infants, especially surrounding cardiac surgery, are needed.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: The SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome CoronaVirus-2), which underlies the current COVID-19 pandemic, among other tissues, also targets the central nervous system (CNS). The goal of this study is to investigate mechanisms of neuroinflammation in Lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-treated mouse model and SARS-CoV-2-infected hamsters. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In this research I will assay vascular reactivity of cerebral vessels to assess vascular dysfunction within the microcirculation. I will determine expression of proinflammatory cytokines, coagulation factors and AT1 receptors (AT1R) in isolated microvessels from the circle of Willis to assess inflammation, thrombosis and RAS activity in the microvasculature. LPS and SARS-CoV-2, are both associated with coagulopathies and because of that I will measure concentration of PAI-1, von Willebrand Factor, thrombin and D-dimer to assess the thrombotic pathway in the circulation. Histology and immunohistochemistry will assess immune cell type infiltration into the brain parenchyma, microglia activation and severity of neuroinflammation and neural injury. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: We hypothesize that under conditions of reduced ACE2 (e.g., SARS-CoV-2 infection), AT1R activity is upregulated in the microvasculature. In the presence of an inflammatory insult, these AT1Rs promote endothelialitis and immunothrombosis through pro-thrombotic pathways and pro-inflammatory cytokine production leading to endothelial dysfunction in the microvasculature, blood brain barrier (BBB) injury, deficits in cognition and increased anxiety. We will test this hypothesis through 2 aims: Aim 1: Determine the role of the pro-injury arm of the RAS in the pathophysiology of the brain in animal models of neuroinflammation and COVID-19. Aim 1: Determine the role of the protective arm of the RAS in the pathophysiology of the brain in animal models of neuroinflammation and COVID-19. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE: This study will provide insights that will complement on-going clinical trials on angiotensin type 1 receptor (AT1R) blockers (ARBs) in COVID-19. This research is a necessary first step in understanding mechanisms of brain pathogenesis that can set the groundwork for future studies of more complex models of disease.
Multifetal pregnancies are at risk of adverse maternal, neonatal and long-term health outcomes, and gestational weight gain (GWG) is a potentially modifiable risk factor for several of these. However, studies assessing the associations of GWG with long-term health in twins are rare, and studies which do assess these associations in twins often do not account for gestational age. Since longer gestations are likely to lead to larger GWG and lower risk of adverse outcomes, adjusting for gestational age is necessary to better understand the association of GWG with twin health outcomes. We aimed to explore long-term associations of GWG-for-gestational-age with twin anthropometric measures. The Peri/Postnatal Epigenetic Twins Study (PETS) is a prospective cohort study, which recruited women pregnant with twins from 2007 to 2009. Twins were followed-up at 18 months and 6 years of age. GWG-for-gestational-age z-scores were calculated from pre-pregnancy weight and weight at delivery. We fitted regression models to assess associations of GWG with twin weight, height and BMI at birth, 18 months, and 6 years. Of the 250 women in the PETS, 172 had GWG measured throughout pregnancy. Overall, higher GWG-for-gestational-age z-scores were associated with higher birthweight (β: 0.32 z-scores, 95% Confidence Interval (95% CI): 0.19, 0.45), BMI (β: 0.29 z-scores, 95% CI: 0.14, 0.43) and length (β: 0.27 z-scores, 95% CI: 0.09, 0.45). However, these associations were not observed at 18 months or 6 years of age. GWG was associated with twin length, weight and BMI at birth but not during childhood. Further research is needed to determine the long-term effects of GWG on twin health outcomes.
Behavioral features of binge eating disorder (BED) suggest abnormalities in reward and inhibitory control. Studies of adult populations suggest functional abnormalities in reward and inhibitory control networks. Despite behavioral markers often developing in children, the neurobiology of pediatric BED remains unstudied.
58 pre-adolescent children (aged 9–10-years) with BED (mBMI = 25.05; s.d. = 5.40) and 66 age, BMI and developmentally matched control children (mBMI = 25.78; s.d. = 0.33) were extracted from the 3.0 baseline (Year 0) release of the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development (ABCD) Study. We investigated group differences in resting-state functional MRI functional connectivity (FC) within and between reward and inhibitory control networks. A seed-based approach was employed to assess nodes in the reward [orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), nucleus accumbens, amygdala] and inhibitory control [dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC)] networks via hypothesis-driven seed-to-seed analyses, and secondary seed-to-voxel analyses.
Findings revealed reduced FC between the dlPFC and amygdala, and between the ACC and OFC in pre-adolescent children with BED, relative to controls. These findings indicating aberrant connectivity between nodes of inhibitory control and reward networks were corroborated by the whole-brain FC analyses.
Early-onset BED may be characterized by diffuse abnormalities in the functional synergy between reward and cognitive control networks, without perturbations within reward and inhibitory control networks, respectively. The decreased capacity to regulate a reward-driven pursuit of hedonic foods, which is characteristic of BED, may in part, rest on this dysconnectivity between reward and inhibitory control networks.
Unresolved states of mind regarding experiences of loss/abuse (U/d) are identified through lapses in the monitoring of reasoning, discourse, and behavior surrounding loss/abuse in response to the Adult Attachment Interview. Although the coding system for U/d has been widely used for decades, the individual indicators of unresolved loss/abuse have not been validated independently of the development sample. This study examined the psychometric validity of U/d, using individual participant data from 1,009 parent–child dyads across 13 studies. A latent class analysis showed that subsets of commonly occurring U/d indicators could differentiate interviewees with or without unresolved loss/abuse. Predictive models suggested a psychometric model of U/d consisting of a combination of these common indicators, with disbelief and psychologically confused statements regarding loss being especially important indicators of U/d. This model weakly predicted infant disorganized attachment. Multilevel regression analysis showed no significant association between ratings of unresolved other trauma and infant disorganized attachment, over and above ratings of unresolved loss/abuse. Altogether, these findings suggest that the coding system of U/d may have been overfitted to the initial development sample. Directions for further articulation and optimization of U/d are provided.