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Precise instrumental calibration is of crucial importance to 21-cm cosmology experiments. The Murchison Widefield Array’s (MWA) Phase II compact configuration offers us opportunities for both redundant calibration and sky-based calibration algorithms; using the two in tandem is a potential approach to mitigate calibration errors caused by inaccurate sky models. The MWA Epoch of Reionization (EoR) experiment targets three patches of the sky (dubbed EoR0, EoR1, and EoR2) with deep observations. Previous work in Li et al. (2018) and (2019) studied the effect of tandem calibration on the EoR0 field and found that it yielded no significant improvement in the power spectrum (PS) over sky-based calibration alone. In this work, we apply similar techniques to the EoR1 field and find a distinct result: the improvements in the PS from tandem calibration are significant. To understand this result, we analyse both the calibration solutions themselves and the effects on the PS over three nights of EoR1 observations. We conclude that the presence of the bright radio galaxy Fornax A in EoR1 degrades the performance of sky-based calibration, which in turn enables redundant calibration to have a larger impact. These results suggest that redundant calibration can indeed mitigate some level of model incompleteness error.
Compulsory admission procedures of patients with mental disorders vary between countries in Europe. The Ethics Committee of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) launched a survey on involuntary admission procedures of patients with mental disorders in 40 countries to gather information from all National Psychiatric Associations that are members of the EPA to develop recommendations for improving involuntary admission processes and promote voluntary care.
The survey focused on legislation of involuntary admissions and key actors involved in the admission procedure as well as most common reasons for involuntary admissions.
We analyzed the survey categorical data in themes, which highlight that both medical and legal actors are involved in involuntary admission procedures.
We conclude that legal reasons for compulsory admission should be reworded in order to remove stigmatization of the patient, that raising awareness about involuntary admission procedures and patient rights with both patients and family advocacy groups is paramount, that communication about procedures should be widely available in lay-language for the general population, and that training sessions and guidance should be available for legal and medical practitioners. Finally, people working in the field need to be constantly aware about the ethical challenges surrounding compulsory admissions.
Sarcopenic obesity is characterised by the double burden of diminished skeletal muscle mass and the presence of excess adiposity. From a mechanistic perspective, both obesity and sarcopenia are associated with sub-acute, chronic pro-inflammatory states that impede metabolic processes, disrupting adipose and skeletal functionality, which may potentiate disease. Recent evidence suggests that there is an important cross-talk between metabolism and inflammation, which has shifted focus upon metabolic-inflammation as a key emerging biological interaction. Dietary intake, physical activity and nutritional status are important environmental factors that may modulate metabolic-inflammation. This paradigm will be discussed within the context of sarcopenic obesity risk. There is a paucity of data in relation to the nature and the extent to which nutritional status affects metabolic-inflammation in sarcopenic obesity. Research suggests that there may be scope for the modulation of sarcopenic obesity with alterations in diet. The potential impact of increasing protein consumption and reconfiguration of dietary fat composition in human dietary interventions are evaluated. This review will explore emerging data with respect to if and how different dietary components may modulate metabolic-inflammation, particularly with respect to adiposity, within the context of sarcopenic obesity.
Reduced inflammatory signaling (IL-1RI-/-) alters metabolic responses to dietary challenges (1). Inflammasome deficiency (e.g. IL-18-/-, Asc-/-) can modify gut microbiota concomitant with hepatosteatosis; an effect that was transferable to wild-type (WT) mice by co-housing (2). Taken together, this evidence suggests that links between diet, microbiota and IL-1RI-signaling can influence metabolic health. Our aim was to determine whether IL-1RI-mediated signaling interacted with the gut microbiome to impact metabolic tissue functionality in a diet-specific fashion. Male WT (C57BL/J6) and IL-1RI-/- mice were fed either high-fat diet (HFD; 45% kcal) or low-fat diet (LFD; 10% kcal) for 24 weeks and were housed i) separately by genotype or ii) with genotypes co-housed together (i.e. isolated vs shared microbial environment; n = 8–10 mice per group). Glucose tolerance and insulin secretion response (1.5 g/kg i.p.), gut microbiota composition and caecal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were assessed. Liver and adipose tissue were harvested and examined for triacylglycerol (TAG) formation, cholesterol and metabolic markers (Fasn, Cpt1α, Pparg, Scd1, Dgat1/2), using histology, gas-chromatography and RT-PCR, respectively. Statistical analysis included 1-way or 2-way ANOVA, where appropriate, with Bonferroni post-hoc correction. Co-housing significantly affected gut microbiota composition, illustrated by clustering in PCoA (unweighted UniFrac distance) of co-housed mice but not their single-housed counterparts, on both HFD and LFD. The taxa driving these differences were primarily from Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae families. Single-housed WT had lower hepatic weight, TAG, cholesterol levels and Fasn despite HFD, an effect lost in their co-housed counterparts, who aligned more to IL-1RI-/- hepatic lipid status. Hepatic Cpt1α was lowest in co-housed WT. Adipose from IL-1RI-/- groups on HFD displayed increased adipocyte size and reduced adipocyte number compared to WT groups, but greater lipogenic potential (Pparg, Scd1, Dgat2) alongside a blunted IL-6 response to pro-inflammatory stimuli (~32%, P = 0.025). Whilst caecal SCFA concentrations were not different between groups, single-housed IL-1RI-/- adipocytes showed greatest sensitivity to SCFA-induced lipogenesis. Interestingly, differences in tissue functionality and gut microbiome occurred despite unaltered glucose tolerance; although there was a trend for phenotypic transfer of body weight via co-housing. For all endpoints examined, similar genotype/co-housing effects were observed for both HFD and LFD with the greatest impacts seen in HFD-fed mice. In conclusion, while the gut microbiome may be an important consideration in dietary interventions, these results question the magnitude of its impact in relation to the IL-1RI-dependent immunometabolism-glucose homeostasis axis.
β-glucans are naturally occurring polysaccharides which have isoform specific immunomodulatory and metabolic properties(1). Certain yeast (1→3)-β-D-glucan isoforms improve cholesterol(2), glucose(3) and lipid homeostasis(4). Feeding (1→3)-β-D-glucan alters the microbiome of high-fat diet (HFD) induced obese (DIO)/type 2 diabetic (T2D) mice(5). Here we investigated the potential impact of baker's yeast (1→3)-β-D-glucan in mice humanized with gut microbiomes from either obese healthy versus obese diabetic subjects on immune-metabolism within the context of high-fat feeding.
C57Bl/6J male mice received an antibiotic cocktail of Ampicillin, Metronidazole, Vancomycin, Imipenem and Ciprofloxacin HCl in their drinking water for 6 weeks to diminish the endogenous gut microbiota. Mice were inoculated with microbiota samples obtained from obese healthy (OBH) or diabetic (OBD) humans twice daily for 3 days by oral dosing. Mice were fed a low-fat diet (LFD) (10% kcal) for 4 weeks followed by HFD (45% kcal) with/without baker's yeast (1→3)-β-D-glucan (βG), for 9 weeks. Weight, feed intake, glucose tolerance (1.5g/kg), insulin tolerance (0.5U/kg), hepatic and skeletal lipid levels were examined. Tissue specific molecular markers of metabolism and inflammation, and gut microbiome analysis are being determined to compliment the phenotypic data.
OBH mice were more glucose tolerant and insulin sensitive than OBD mice, despite equal weight gain and adipose tissue mass. Fasting HOMA-IR, attributable to higher insulin concentrations, was higher in OBD compared to OBH mice. βG supplementation reduced HOMA-IR in OBD mice (P < 0.0611). Hepatic triacylglycerol (TAG) and cholesterol levels were also higher in OBD mice, which were prevented by βG supplementation. Hepatic proteomic, caecal microbiomic and metabolomic analysis is on-going in order to ascertain the impact of the OBD versus OBH dysbosis with/without βG supplementation with specific attention on immune-metabolism.
The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is an open access telescope dedicated to studying the low-frequency (80–300 MHz) southern sky. Since beginning operations in mid-2013, the MWA has opened a new observational window in the southern hemisphere enabling many science areas. The driving science objectives of the original design were to observe 21 cm radiation from the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR), explore the radio time domain, perform Galactic and extragalactic surveys, and monitor solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric phenomena. All together
programs recorded 20 000 h producing 146 papers to date. In 2016, the telescope underwent a major upgrade resulting in alternating compact and extended configurations. Other upgrades, including digital back-ends and a rapid-response triggering system, have been developed since the original array was commissioned. In this paper, we review the major results from the prior operation of the MWA and then discuss the new science paths enabled by the improved capabilities. We group these science opportunities by the four original science themes but also include ideas for directions outside these categories.
The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is an electronically steered low-frequency (<300 MHz) radio interferometer, with a ‘slew’ time less than 8 s. Low-frequency (∼100 MHz) radio telescopes are ideally suited for rapid response follow-up of transients due to their large field of view, the inverted spectrum of coherent emission, and the fact that the dispersion delay between a 1 GHz and 100 MHz pulse is on the order of 1–10 min for dispersion measures of 100–2000 pc/cm3. The MWA has previously been used to provide fast follow-up for transient events including gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), fast radio bursts (FRBs), and gravitational waves, using systems that respond to gamma-ray coordinates network packet-based notifications. We describe a system for automatically triggering MWA observations of such events, based on Virtual Observatory Event standard triggers, which is more flexible, capable, and accurate than previous systems. The system can respond to external multi-messenger triggers, which makes it well-suited to searching for prompt coherent radio emission from GRBs, the study of FRBs and gravitational waves, single pulse studies of pulsars, and rapid follow-up of high-energy superflares from flare stars. The new triggering system has the capability to trigger observations in both the regular correlator mode (limited to ≥0.5 s integrations) and using the Voltage Capture System (VCS, 0.1 ms integration) of the MWA and represents a new mode of operation for the MWA. The upgraded standard correlator triggering capability has been in use since MWA observing semester 2018B (July–Dec 2018), and the VCS and buffered mode triggers will become available for observing in a future semester.
The search for life in the Universe is a fundamental problem of astrobiology and modern science. The current progress in the detection of terrestrial-type exoplanets has opened a new avenue in the characterization of exoplanetary atmospheres and in the search for biosignatures of life with the upcoming ground-based and space missions. To specify the conditions favourable for the origin, development and sustainment of life as we know it in other worlds, we need to understand the nature of global (astrospheric), and local (atmospheric and surface) environments of exoplanets in the habitable zones (HZs) around G-K-M dwarf stars including our young Sun. Global environment is formed by propagated disturbances from the planet-hosting stars in the form of stellar flares, coronal mass ejections, energetic particles and winds collectively known as astrospheric space weather. Its characterization will help in understanding how an exoplanetary ecosystem interacts with its host star, as well as in the specification of the physical, chemical and biochemical conditions that can create favourable and/or detrimental conditions for planetary climate and habitability along with evolution of planetary internal dynamics over geological timescales. A key linkage of (astro)physical, chemical and geological processes can only be understood in the framework of interdisciplinary studies with the incorporation of progress in heliophysics, astrophysics, planetary and Earth sciences. The assessment of the impacts of host stars on the climate and habitability of terrestrial (exo)planets will significantly expand the current definition of the HZ to the biogenic zone and provide new observational strategies for searching for signatures of life. The major goal of this paper is to describe and discuss the current status and recent progress in this interdisciplinary field in light of presentations and discussions during the NASA Nexus for Exoplanetary System Science funded workshop ‘Exoplanetary Space Weather, Climate and Habitability’ and to provide a new roadmap for the future development of the emerging field of exoplanetary science and astrobiology.
We apply two methods to estimate the 21-cm bispectrum from data taken within the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) project of the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). Using data acquired with the Phase II compact array allows a direct bispectrum estimate to be undertaken on the multiple redundantly spaced triangles of antenna tiles, as well as an estimate based on data gridded to the uv-plane. The direct and gridded bispectrum estimators are applied to 21 h of high-band (167–197 MHz; z = 6.2–7.5) data from the 2016 and 2017 observing seasons. Analytic predictions for the bispectrum bias and variance for point-source foregrounds are derived. We compare the output of these approaches, the foreground contribution to the signal, and future prospects for measuring the bispectra with redundant and non-redundant arrays. We find that some triangle configurations yield bispectrum estimates that are consistent with the expected noise level after 10 h, while equilateral configurations are strongly foreground-dominated. Careful choice of triangle configurations may be made to reduce foreground bias that hinders power spectrum estimators, and the 21-cm bispectrum may be accessible in less time than the 21-cm power spectrum for some wave modes, with detections in hundreds of hours.
Introduction: Emergency department (ED) congestion is an ongoing threat to quality care. Traditional measures of ED efficiency use census and wait times over extended time intervals (e.g. per year, per day), failing to capture the hourly variations in ED flow. Borrowing from the traffic theory framework used to describe cars on a freeway, ED flow can instead be characterized by three fundamental parameters: flux (patients traversing a care segment per unit time), density (patients in a care segment per unit time), and duration (length of stay in a care segment). This method allows for the calculation of near-instantaneous ED flux and density. To illustrate, we examined the association between stretcher occupancy and time to physician initial assessment (PIA), seeking to identify thresholds where flux and PIA deteriorate. Methods: We used administrative data as reported to government agencies for 115,559 ED visits from April 1, 2014 to March 31, 2016 at a tertiary academic hospital. Time stamps collected at triage, PIA, and departure were verified by nosologists and used to define two care segments: awaiting assessment or receiving care. Using open-source software developed in-house, we calculated flow measures for each segment at 90-minute intervals. Graphical analysis was supplemented by regression analysis, examining PIA times of high (CTAS 1-3) or low (CTAS 4-5) acuity patients against ED occupancy (=density/staffed stretchers) adjusting for the day of the week, season and fiscal year. Results: At occupancy levels below 50%, PIA times remain stable and flux increases with density, reflecting free flow. Beyond 50% occupancy, PIA times increase linearly and flux plateaus, indicating congestion. While PIA times further deteriorate above 100% occupancy, flow is maintained, reflecting care delivery in non-traditional spaces (e.g. hallways). An inflection point where flux decreased with increased crowding was not identified, despite lengthening queues. Conclusion: The operational performance of a modern ED can be captured and visualized using techniques borrowed from the analysis of vehicular traffic. Unlike cars on a jammed roadway, patients behave more like a compressible fluid and ED care continues despite high degrees of crowding. Nevertheless, congestion begins well below 100% occupancy, presumably reflecting the need for stretcher turnover and saturation in subsegmental work processes. This methodology shows promise to analyze and mitigate the many factors contributing to ED crowding.
We read with interest the recent editorial, “The Hennepin Ketamine Study,” by Dr. Samuel Stratton commenting on the research ethics, methodology, and the current public controversy surrounding this study.1 As researchers and investigators of this study, we strongly agree that prospective clinical research in the prehospital environment is necessary to advance the science of Emergency Medical Services (EMS) and emergency medicine. We also agree that accomplishing this is challenging as the prehospital environment often encounters patient populations who cannot provide meaningful informed consent due to their emergent conditions. To ensure that fellow emergency medicine researchers understand the facts of our work so they may plan future studies, and to address some of the questions and concerns in Dr. Stratton’s editorial, the lay press, and in social media,2 we would like to call attention to some inaccuracies in Dr. Stratton’s editorial, and to the lay media stories on which it appears to be based.
Ho JD, Cole JB, Klein LR, Olives TD, Driver BE, Moore JC, Nystrom PC, Arens AM, Simpson NS, Hick JL, Chavez RA, Lynch WL, Miner JR. The Hennepin Ketamine Study investigators’ reply. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2019;34(2):111–113
Adenotonsillectomy is frequently performed for obstructive sleep apnoea, but is associated with post-operative respiratory morbidity. This study assessed the effect of paediatric Otrivine (0.05 per cent xylometazoline hydrochloride) on post-operative respiratory compromise.
Paediatric patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnoea were included. The control group (n = 24) received no intervention and the intervention group (n = 25) received intra-operative paediatric Otrivine during induction using a nasal patty. Post-operative outcomes included pain, respiratory distress signs and medical intervention level required (simple, intermediate and major).
Post-operative respiratory distress signs were exhibited by 4 per cent of the Otrivine group and 21 per cent of the control group. Sixty-eight per cent of the Otrivine group required simple medical interventions post-operatively, compared to 42 per cent of the control group. In the Otrivine group, 4 per cent required intermediate interventions; none required major interventions. In the control group, 12.5 per cent required both intermediate and major interventions. Fifty per cent of the control group reported pain post-operatively, compared with 40 per cent in the Otrivine group.
Intra-operative paediatric Otrivine may reduce post-operative respiratory compromise in paediatric patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy for obstructive sleep apnoea. A randomised controlled trial is required.
A two-year (2015 and 2016) grazing study was established to compare ewe and lamb performance when grazed on a perennial ryegrass only sward compared to more diverse sward types. In that study four sward types were investigated: a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) only sward receiving 163 kg nitrogen per hectare per year (N/ha/yr) (PRG); a perennial ryegrass and white clover (Trifolium repens) sward receiving 90 kg N/ha/yr (PRGWC); a six species sward (two grasses (perennial ryegrass and timothy (Phleum pratense)), two legumes (white and red clover (Trifolium pratense)) and two herbs (ribwort plantain (Plantago lanceolata) and chicory (Cichorium intybus)) receiving 90 kg N/ha/yr (6S); and a nine species sward containing cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata), greater birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus pedunculatus) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium) in addition to the six species listed above, receiving 90 kg N/ha/yr (9S). Each sward type was managed as a separate farmlet and stocked with 30 twin-rearing ewes at a stocking rate of 12.5 ewes/ha under rotational grazing management from turnout post-lambing until housing. Lamb live weight was recorded fortnightly and lambs were drafted for slaughter at 45 kg. Ewe live weight and body condition score (BCS) were recorded on five occasions annually. Lamb faecal egg count (FEC) was recorded fortnightly and lambs were treated with anthelmintics when mean lamb FEC per sward type was above 400 eggs per gram. Ewes grazing the 6S and 9S swards had heavier (P < 0.01) live weights and BCS throughout the study than the ewes grazing the PRG sward. Lambs grazing the 6S sward were heavier than lambs grazing all other sward types of 14 weeks old (P < 0.05). Lambs grazing the PRG sward required more days to reach slaughter weight than lambs grazing all other sward types (P < 0.001). Lambs grazing the 6S and 9S swards required fewer anthelmintic treatments than lambs grazing the PRG or PRGWC swards. In conclusion, grazing multispecies swards improved ewe and lamb performance and reduced the requirement for chemical anthelmintics.
The US Food Safety Modernization Act (FSMA) gives food safety regulators increased authority to require implementation of safety measures to reduce the contamination of produce. To evaluate the future impact of FSMA on food safety, a better understanding is needed regarding outbreaks attributed to the consumption of raw produce. Data reported to the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Foodborne Disease Outbreak Surveillance System during 1998–2013 were analysed. During 1998–2013, there were 972 raw produce outbreaks reported resulting in 34 674 outbreak-associated illnesses, 2315 hospitalisations, and 72 deaths. Overall, the total number of foodborne outbreaks reported decreased by 38% during the study period and the number of raw produce outbreaks decreased 19% during the same period; however, the percentage of outbreaks attributed to raw produce among outbreaks with a food reported increased from 8% during 1998–2001 to 16% during 2010–2013. Raw produce outbreaks were most commonly attributed to vegetable row crops (38% of outbreaks), fruits (35%) and seeded vegetables (11%). The most common aetiologic agents identified were norovirus (54% of outbreaks), Salmonella enterica (21%) and Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (10%). Food-handling errors were reported in 39% of outbreaks. The proportion of all foodborne outbreaks attributable to raw produce has been increasing. Evaluation of safety measures to address the contamination on farms, during processing and food preparation, should take into account the trends occurring before FSMA implementation.
Bovine herpes virus 1 (BHV-1) manifests as a latent viral infection putatively affecting bovines. Understanding its effect on cattle herds is critical to maintaining sustainable beef and dairy production systems, as well as aiding in the development of herd health policies. The primary objective of the current study was, therefore, to use a whole-farm bio-economic model to evaluate the effect of herd seroprevalence to BHV-1 on the productive and economic performance of a spring calving beef cow herd. As part of a wider epidemiological study of herd pathogen status, a total of 4240 cows from 134 spring calving beef cow herds across the Republic of Ireland were blood sampled to measure the seroprevalence to BHV-1. Using data from a national breeding database, productive and reproductive performance indicators were used to parameterize a single year, static and deterministic whole-farm bio-economic model. A spring-calving, pasture-based suckler beef cow production system with an emphasis on calf-to-weanling production was simulated. The impact of BHV-1 seropositivity on whole-farm technical and economic performance was relatively small, with a marginal drop in the net margin of 4% relative to a baseline seronegative herd. Subsequent risk factors for increased pathogenicity were considered such as total herd size, percentage of intra-herd movements and vaccination status for BHV-1. In contrast to all others, scenarios representing herds that were either small in size or those which indicated an active vaccination policy for BHV-1 had no reduction in net margin against the baseline as a result of seropositivity to BHV-1.
Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) have substantial power and authority over research with human subjects, and in turn, their decisions have substantial implications for those subjects, investigators, and the public at large. However, there is little transparency about IRB processes and decisions. This article provides the first comprehensive taxonomy of what transparency means (or could mean) for IRBs — answering the questions “to whom, about what, and by what mechanisms?” It also explains why the status quo of nontransparency is problematic, and presents arguments for greater transparency from the perspective of a variety of stakeholders. IRB transparency will make boards more accountable, improve the quality of their decision-making, facilitate consistency in board decisions, permit empirical study of IRBs, promote research efficiency, and advance trust in the research enterprise, among a variety of other benefits. Regulators should promote IRB transparency, IRBs themselves should commit to sharing as much information as they can within the confines of confidentiality requirements, and investigators can endeavor to take matters into their own hands by sharing IRB correspondence and IRB-approved protocols and consent materials.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
There are marked disparities between indigenous and non-indigenous children’s diets and oral health. Both diet and oral health are linked to longer-term health problems. We aimed to investigate whether a culturally appropriate multi-faceted oral health promotion intervention reduced Aboriginal children’s intake of sugars from discretionary foods at 2 years of age. We conducted a single-blind, parallel-arm randomised controlled trial involving women who were pregnant or had given birth to an Aboriginal child in the previous 6 weeks. The treatment group received anticipatory guidance, Motivational Interviewing, health and dental care for mothers during pregnancy and children at 6, 12 and 18 months. The control group received usual care. The key dietary outcome was the percent energy intake from sugars in discretionary foods (%EI), collected from up to three 24-h dietary recalls by trained research officers who were blind to intervention group. Secondary outcomes included intake of macronutrients, food groups, anthropometric z scores (weight, height, BMI and mid-upper arm circumference) and blood pressure. We enrolled 224 children to the treatment group and 230 to the control group. Intention-to-treat analyses showed that the %EI of sugars in discretionary foods was 1·6 % lower in the treatment group compared with control (95 % CI −3·4, 0·2). This culturally appropriate intervention at four time-points from pregnancy to 18 months resulted in small changes to 2-year-old Aboriginal children’s diets, which was insufficient to warrant broader implementation of the intervention. Further consultation with Aboriginal communities is necessary for understanding how to improve the diet and diet-related health outcomes of young Aboriginal children.