To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Human neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a worldwide neglected disease caused by Taenia solium metacestode and responsible for various complications and neurological disorders. This study aimed to evaluate the use of specific immunoglobulin Y (IgY) produced by laying hens immunized with a hydrophobic fraction of Taenia crassiceps metacestodes (hFTc) in NCC diagnosis. Egg yolk IgY antibodies were fractionated, purified and characterized. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was carried out to evaluate the production kinetics and avidity maturation of anti-hFTc IgY antibodies throughout the IgY obtention process. Antigen recognition tests were carried out by Western blotting and immunofluorescence antibody test using purified and specific anti-hFTc IgY antibodies for detection of parasitic antigens of T. crassiceps and T. solium metacestodes. Sandwich ELISA was performed to detect circulating immune complexes formed by IgG and parasitic antigens in human sera. The results showed high diagnostic values (93.2% sensitivity and 94.3% specificity) for immune complexes detection in human sera with confirmed NCC. In conclusion, specific IgY antibodies produced from immunized hens with hFTc antigens were efficient to detect T. solium immune complexes in human sera, being an innovative and potential tool for NCC immunodiagnosis.
Whole-grain cereal breakfast consumption has been associated with beneficial effects on glucose and insulin metabolism as well as satiety. Pearl millet is a popular ancient grain variety that can be grown in hot, dry regions. However, little is known about its health effects. The present study investigated the effect of a pearl millet porridge (PMP) compared with a well-known Scottish oats porridge (SOP) on glycaemic, gastrointestinal, hormonal and appetitive responses. In a randomised, two-way crossover trial, twenty-six healthy participants consumed two isoenergetic/isovolumetric PMP or SOP breakfast meals, served with a drink of water. Blood samples for glucose, insulin, glucagon-like peptide 1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), peptide YY, gastric volumes and appetite ratings were collected 2 h postprandially, followed by an ad libitum meal and food intake records for the remainder of the day. The incremental AUC (iAUC2h) for blood glucose was not significantly different between the porridges (P > 0·05). The iAUC2h for gastric volume was larger for PMP compared with SOP (P = 0·045). The iAUC2h for GIP concentration was significantly lower for PMP compared with SOP (P = 0·001). Other hormones and appetite responses were similar between meals. In conclusion, the present study reports, for the first time, data on glycaemic and physiological responses to a pearl millet breakfast, showing that this ancient grain could represent a sustainable alternative with health-promoting characteristics comparable with oats. GIP is an incretin hormone linked to TAG absorption in adipose tissue; therefore, the lower GIP response for PMP may be an added health benefit.
Jair Bolsonaro (Brazil’s new president) and “ruralists” (large landholders and their representatives) have initiated a series of measures that threaten Amazonia’s environment and traditional peoples, as well as global climate. These include weakening the country’s environmental agencies and forest code, granting amnesty to deforestation, approving harmful agrochemicals, reducing protected areas, and denying the existence of anthropogenic climate change. Both the measures themselves and the expectation of impunity they encourage have spurred increased deforestation, which contributes to climate change and to land conflicts with traditional peoples. Countries and companies that import Brazilian beef, soy and minerals are stimulating these impacts.
To evaluate the association between novel pre- and post-operative biomarker levels and 30-day unplanned readmission or mortality after paediatric congenital heart surgery.
Children aged 18 years or younger undergoing congenital heart surgery (n = 162) at Johns Hopkins Hospital from 2010 to 2014 were enrolled in the prospective cohort. Collected novel pre- and post-operative biomarkers include soluble suppression of tumorgenicity 2, galectin-3, N-terminal prohormone of brain natriuretic peptide, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. A model based on clinical variables from the Society of Thoracic Surgery database was developed and evaluated against two augmented models.
Unplanned readmission or mortality within 30 days of cardiac surgery occurred among 21 (13%) children. The clinical model augmented with pre-operative biomarkers demonstrated a statistically significant improvement over the clinical model alone with a receiver-operating characteristics curve of 0.754 (95% confidence interval: 0.65–0.86) compared to 0.617 (95% confidence interval: 0.47–0.76; p-value: 0.012). The clinical model augmented with pre- and post-operative biomarkers demonstrated a significant improvement over the clinical model alone, with a receiver-operating characteristics curve of 0.802 (95% confidence interval: 0.72–0.89; p-value: 0.003).
Novel biomarkers add significant predictive value when assessing the likelihood of unplanned readmission or mortality after paediatric congenital heart surgery. Further exploration of the utility of these novel biomarkers during the pre- or post-operative period to identify early risk of mortality or readmission will aid in determining the clinical utility and application of these biomarkers into routine risk assessment.
Human–wildlife conflict is one of the most pressing issues in conservation. Low-income rural communities are disproportionately affected by negative interactions with large predators, which often leads to retaliatory killings and persecution of the animals. To overcome this, socio-ecological studies that merge existing knowledge of large predator ecology with long-term livestock depredation monitoring are required. We examined patterns and drivers of livestock depredation in northern Botswana, using a mixed effects model of the government's long-term monitoring data on human–wildlife conflict, to identify ways to reduce depredation at key spatial and temporal scales. We compared the results to farmers’ understanding of their personal risk within the landscape. We analysed 342 depredation events that occurred during 2008–2016, using variables measured at different scales. The variables affecting the locations of depredation events at the 2-km scale were distance to protected areas and predator and herbivore density, with increased depredation in the wet season. At a 1-km scale, herbivore density did not have a significant effect, but the effect of other variables was unchanged. The 4-km scale model was influenced by livestock and herbivore density, with increased depredation in the wet season. Livestock depredation could be reduced by establishing an 8-km livestock-free buffer along the protected area boundary. There was disparity between government data on human–wildlife conflict, depredation reported by farmers in interviews and farmers’ risk awareness. Farmers would benefit from workshops providing tools to make evidence-based decisions and minimize their risk of negative interactions with wildlife. This would ultimately contribute to wildlife conservation in the Kavango-Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area.
Quality Improvement and Patient Safety (QIPS) plays an important role in addressing shortcomings in optimal healthcare delivery. However, there is little published guidance available for emergency department (ED) teams with respect to developing their own QIPS programs. We sought to create recommendations for established and aspiring ED leaders to use as a pathway to better patient care through programmatic QIPS activities, starting internally and working towards interdepartmental collaboration.
An expert panel comprised of ten ED clinicians with QIPS and leadership expertise was established. A scoping review was conducted to identify published literature on establishing QIPS programs and frameworks in healthcare. Stakeholder consultations were conducted among Canadian healthcare leaders, and recommendations were drafted by the expert panel based on all the accumulated information. These were reviewed and refined at the 2018 CAEP Academic Symposium in Calgary using in-person and technologically-supported feedback.
Recommendations include: creating a sense of urgency for improvement; engaging relevant stakeholders and leaders; creating a formal local QIPS Committee; securing funding and resources; obtaining local data to guide the work; supporting QIPS training for team members; encouraging interprofessional, cross-departmental, and patient collaborations; using an established QIPS framework to guide the work; developing reward mechanisms and incentive structures; and considering to start small by focusing on a project rather than a program.
A list of 10 recommendations is presented as guiding principles for the establishment and sustainable deployment of QIPS activities in EDs throughout Canada and abroad. ED leaders are encouraged to implement our recommendations in an effort to improve patient care.
Intrinsic γ-Copper (I) Chloride is an ionic I-VII compound semiconductor material with relatively low conductivity. To fabricate an efficient electroluminescent device based on CuCl nanocrystals (NC) the conductivity of the CuCl NC film should be relatively high. In order to improve the conductivity of CuCl films, nanocrystals were embedded in a highly conductive polymer (Polyaniline) and deposited on glass substrates via the spin-coating method. The deposited films were heated at 140°C for durations between 1 and 12 hours in vacuo. The room temperature UV-Vis absorption spectra for all CuCl films showed both Z1,2 and Z3 excitonic absorption features and the absorption intensity increased as the anneal time increased. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) measurements of the hybrid films reveal very intense Z3 excitonic emission. Room temperature X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the preferential growth of CuCl nanocrystals whose average size is ≈40 nm in the <111> orientation. Resistivity measurements were carried out using a four-point probe system, which confirmed that the resistivity of the composite film was ≈500 Ω/cm. This is an improvement when compared to the vacuum evaporated CuCl thin films.
The analysis of copper alloys is a classical case for X-ray fluorescence as an analytical technique. For many years, large wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroraeters have been used in process control associated with the manufacture of brasses, bronzes and coinage alloys. For the last two to three years, a new, benchtop WDX multichannel spectrometer, the Chem-X, has been successfully introduced for the same purpose.
A previously undocumented type of wetland is described from the Atacama Desert in northern Chile (3000 m above sea level), sustained exclusively by direct precipitation and perched above the regional water table. Geomorphological mapping, pedostratigraphy, geochemistry, and analysis of contemporary vegetation is used to understand wetland formation and dynamics during historical and present time periods. The paleowetland deposits overlie a Miocene tuff that acts as an impermeable barrier to water transfer and creates conditions for local shallow ground water. These deposits include several paleosols that were formed during periods when precipitation increased regionally at 7755–7300, 1270, 545, and 400–300 cal yr BP. The similarity in timing with other palaeohydrological records for the Atacama implies that paleosols from this wetland are proxies for reconstructing past changes in local and regional hydrological cycle. Archaeological investigations have revealed the presence of two small farms from the Late Intermediate period, i.e., during the earliest wetter phase represented by the paleosols. Both farms are located near the paleowetland deposits, which suggests that local inhabitants exploited these water sources during late pre-Hispanic times. Results of this study improve knowledge of settlement patterns during this and earlier cultural periods.
Two types of mentalisation-based treatment (MBT) have been developed and empirically evaluated for borderline personality disorder (BPD): day hospital MBT (MBT-DH) and intensive out-patient MBT (MBT-IOP). No trial has yet compared their efficacy.
To compare the efficacy of MBT-DH and MBT-IOP 18 months after start of treatment. MBT-DH was hypothesised to be superior to MBT-IOP because of its higher treatment intensity.
In a multicentre randomised controlled trial (Nederlands Trial Register: NTR2292) conducted at three sites in the Netherlands, patients with BPD were randomly assigned to MBT-DH (n = 70) or MBT-IOP (n = 44). The primary outcome was symptom severity (Brief Symptom Inventory). Secondary outcome measures included borderline symptomatology, personality functioning, interpersonal functioning, quality of life and self-harm. Patients were assessed every 6 months from baseline to 18 months after start of treatment. Data were analysed using multilevel modelling based on intention-to-treat principles.
Significant improvements were found on all outcome measures, with moderate to very large effect sizes for both groups. MBT-DH was not superior to MBT-IOP on the primary outcome measure, but MBT-DH showed a clear tendency towards superiority on secondary outcomes.
Although MBT-DH was not superior to MBT-IOP on the primary outcome measure despite its greater treatment intensity, MBT-DH showed a tendency to be more effective on secondary outcomes, particularly in terms of relational functioning. Patients receiving MBT-DH and MBT-IOP, thus, seem to follow different trajectories of change, which may have important implications for clinical decision-making. Longer-term follow-up and cost-effectiveness considerations may ultimately determine the optimal intensity of specialised treatments such as MBT for patients with BPD.
Declaration of interest
P.L. and D.L.B. have been involved in the training and dissemination of MBT.
A temporal complex network-based approach is proposed as a novel formulation to investigate turbulent mixing from a Lagrangian viewpoint. By exploiting a spatial proximity criterion, the dynamics of a set of fluid particles is geometrized into a time-varying weighted network. Specifically, a numerically solved turbulent channel flow is employed as an exemplifying case. We show that the time-varying network is able to clearly describe the particle swarm dynamics, in a parametrically robust and computationally inexpensive way. The network formalism enables us to straightforwardly identify transient and long-term flow regimes, the interplay between turbulent mixing and mean flow advection and the occurrence of proximity events among particles. Thanks to their versatility and ability to highlight significant flow features, complex networks represent a suitable tool for Lagrangian investigations of turbulent mixing. The present application of complex networks offers a powerful resource for Lagrangian analysis of turbulent flows, thus providing a further step in building bridges between turbulence research and network science.
Chemical weed control remains a widely used component of integrated weed management strategies because of its cost-effectiveness and rapid removal of crop pests. Additionally, dicamba-plus-glyphosate mixtures are a commonly recommended herbicide combination to combat herbicide resistance, specifically in recently commercially released dicamba-tolerant soybean and cotton. However, increased spray drift concerns and antagonistic interactions require that the application process be optimized to maximize biological efficacy while minimizing environmental contamination potential. Field research was conducted in 2016, 2017, and 2018 across three locations (Mississippi, Nebraska, and North Dakota) for a total of six site-years. The objectives were to characterize the efficacy of a range of droplet sizes [150 µm (Fine) to 900 µm (Ultra Coarse)] using a dicamba-plus-glyphosate mixture and to create novel weed management recommendations utilizing pulse-width modulation (PWM) sprayer technology. Results across pooled site-years indicated that a droplet size of 395 µm (Coarse) maximized weed mortality from a dicamba-plus-glyphosate mixture at 94 L ha–1. However, droplet size could be increased to 620 µm (Extremely Coarse) to maintain 90% of the maximum weed mortality while further mitigating particle drift potential. Although generalized droplet size recommendations could be created across site-years, optimum droplet sizes within each site-year varied considerably and may be dependent on weed species, geographic location, weather conditions, and herbicide resistance(s) present in the field. The precise, site-specific application of a dicamba-plus-glyphosate mixture using the results of this research will allow applicators to more effectively utilize PWM sprayers, reduce particle drift potential, maintain biological efficacy, and reduce the selection pressure for the evolution of herbicide-resistant weeds.
Vitamin D deficiency is recognised as a public health problem globally, and a high prevalence of deficiency has previously been reported in Australia. This study details the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in a nationally representative sample of Australian adults aged ≥25 years, using an internationally standardised method to measure serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations and identifies demographic and lifestyle factors associated with vitamin D deficiency. We used data from the 2011–2013 Australian Health Survey (n 5034 with complete information on potential predictors and serum 25(OH)D concentrations). Serum 25(OH)D concentrations were measured by a liquid chromatography-tandem MS that is certified to the reference measurement procedures developed by the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Ghent University and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were defined as serum 25(OH)D concentrations <50 nmol/l and 50 to <75 nmol/l, respectively. Overall, 20 % of participants (19 % men; 21 % women) were classified as vitamin D deficient, with a further 43 % classified as insufficient (45 % men; 42 % women). Independent predictors of vitamin D deficiency included being born in a country other than Australia or the main English-speaking countries, residing in southern (higher latitude) states of Australia, being assessed during winter or spring, being obese, smoking (women only), having low physical activity levels and not taking vitamin D or Ca supplements. Given our increasingly indoor lifestyles, there is a need to develop and promote strategies to maintain adequate vitamin D status through safe sun exposure and dietary approaches.
The food processing industry highlights the daily generation of large amounts of eggshell solid residue. In this way, this residue becomes a non renewable raw material to be reused as an additive in red ceramics, in order to reduce the volume of disposal to the environment and improve the physical properties of the product. The objective of this work was to evaluate the forming moisture, linear shrinkage of drying and shrinkage of drying burning of ceramic test pieces (CS’s) with formulations with 2% and 3% of white eggshell residue (ER) incorporated in clay. The clay and ER were collected in the city of Pelotas-RS. The ER sample was analyzed by X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). After pressing, natural and artificial drying was carried out and the CS’s were burned. These were evaluated through normative parameters C-020/95, C-021/95 and C-026/95. The values obtained for the forming moisture were between 5.82 and 8.78%, for the linear shrinkage of drying between 0.10 and 0.43% and, for the linear contraction burning between -0.29 and 0.08%. The results showed that the addition of ER to the ceramic mass helped in the reduction of the forming moisture and the linear shrinkage of the ceramic test pieces.
There is an unprecedented demand for bushmeat in large cities in sub-Saharan Africa, and this is a major threat to many species. We conducted 2,040 interviews in six cities in four West African countries, in forest and savannah settings. We analysed age- and sex-related differences in the frequency of bushmeat consumption. Overall, we found similar patterns in all cities: 62.2% of men and 72.1% of women said they would never eat bushmeat, whereas 12.8% of men and 8.8% of women said they liked bushmeat and ate it regularly. Younger generations of both sexes tended not to eat bushmeat, regardless of their city of origin. This study of the effects of age, gender and geographical location on bushmeat consumption in African cities provides insights regarding which population groups to target in campaigns to change behaviours.
The prevalence of childhood obesity has increased worldwide. Although it is considered a polygenic inheritance disease, little is known about its susceptibility when the additive effect is considered. The aim of this study is to investigate whether the genetic risk score (GRS) based on previously associated obesity polymorphisms (SNP) rs9939609 (fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO)), rs6548238 (transmembrane protein 18 (TMEM18)) and rs16835198 (fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5)) could serve as a predictor for anthropometric characteristics in a sample of Brazilian children and adolescents. This is a cross-sectional study with 1471 children and adolescents aged 6–17 years. BMI, waist circumference (WC) and percentage of body fat and metabolic parameters were verified. In all, three SNP were genotyped by TaqMan™ allelic discrimination. The metabolic and anthropometric parameters were compared between the genotypes, and the unweighted and weighted GRS (GRS and wGRS, respectively) were created to test the additive effect of these genetic polymorphisms on anthropometric parameters. The prevalence of overweight plus obesity was 41 %. Significant associations were identified for FTO rs9939609, TMEM18 rs6548238 and FNDC5 rs16835198 and for GRS and wGRS with anthropometric phenotypes. The higher score of wGRS was associated with obesity (OR: 2·65, 95 % CI 1·40, 5·04, P=0·003) and with greater WC (OR: 2·91, 95 % CI 1·57, 5·40, P=0·001). Our results suggest that these genetic variants contribute to obesity susceptibility in children and adolescents and reinforce the idea that the additive effect may be useful to elucidate the genetic component of obesity.
The influence of the concentration of carbon black nanoparticles on the mechanical behavior of a structural adhesive was studied to evaluate and understand the stiffness, strength, and deformation behavior of a reinforced epoxy adhesive. Two carbon black nanoparticles with different dielectric properties and sizes (Monarch® 120 and Vulcan® XC72R) were studied. A bi-component structural epoxy adhesive was selected. Specimens with different concentrations of carbon black were manufactured (0, 5, 10, and 20% on volume of resin) for each type of nanoparticle. The specimens were cured in a hydraulic hot-plates press machine. The mechanical behavior of the adhesives was found not to vary significantly as a function of carbon black nanoparticles amount. A scanning electron microscopy analysis was performed to evaluate the fracture surface. The fracture surfaces of specimens were correlated with the mechanical response obtained through tensile tests.