Site-specific weed management recommendations require knowledge of weed species, density, and location in the field. This study compared several sampling techniques to estimate weed density and distribution in two 65-ha no-till Zea mays–Glycine max rotation fields in eastern South Dakota. The most common weeds (Setaria viridis, Setaria glauca, Cirsium arvense, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, and Polygonum pensylvanicum) were counted by species in 0.1-m2 areas on a 15- by 30-m (1,352 points in each field) or 30- by 30-m (676 points in each field) grid pattern, and points were georeferenced and data spatially analyzed. Using different sampling approaches, weed populations were estimated by resampling the original data set. The average density for each technique was calculated and compared with the average field density calculated from the all-point data. All weeds had skewed population distributions with more than 60% of sampling points lacking the specific weed, but very high densities (i.e., > 100 plants m−2) were also observed. More than 300 random samples were required to estimate densities within 20% of the all-point means about 60% of the time. Sampling requirement increased as average density decreased. The W pattern produced average species densities that often were similar to the field averages, but information on patch location was absent. Weed counts taken on the 15- by 30-m grid were dependent spatially and weed contour maps were developed. Kriged maps presented both density and location of weed patches and could be used to establish management zones. However, grid-sampling production fields on a small enough scale to obtain spatially dependent data may have limited usefulness because of time, cost, and labor constraints.