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Glucose intolerance during pregnancy – a major driver of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) – has significant short and long-term health consequences for both the mother and child. As GDM prevalence continues to escalate, there is growing need for preventative strategies. There is limited but suggestive evidence that myo-inositol (MI) and probiotics (PB) could improve glucose tolerance during pregnancy. This study tested the hypothesis that MI and/or PB supplementation would reduce the risk of glucose intolerance during pregnancy. Female C57BL/6 mice were randomised to receive either no treatment, MI, PB (Lactobacillusrhamnosus and Bifidobacteriumlactis), or both (MIPB) for five weeks. They were then provided with high fat diet (HFD) for one week before mating commenced and throughout mating/gestation, while remaining on their respective treatments. An oral glucose tolerance test occurred at gestational day (GD) 16.5 and tissue collection at GD18.5. Neither MI or PB, separately or combined, improved glucose tolerance. However, MI and PB both independently increased adipose tissue expression of Ir, Irs1, Akt2, and Pck1, and PB also increased Pparγ. MI was associated with reduced gestational weight gain, whilst PB was associated with increased maternal fasting glucose, total cholesterol and pancreas weight. These results suggest that MI and PB may improve insulin intracellular signalling in adipose tissue but this did not translate to meaningful differences in glucose tolerance. The absence of fasting hyperglycaemia or insulin resistance suggests this is a very mild model of GDM, which may have affected our ability to assess the impact of these nutrients.
Application timing and environmental factors reportedly influence the efficacy of auxinic herbicides. In resistance-prone weed species such as Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Watson), efficacy of auxinic herbicides recently adopted for use in resistant crops is of utmost importance to reduce selection pressure for herbicide-resistance traits. Growth chamber experiments were conducted comparing the interaction of different environmental effects with application time to determine the influence of these factors on visible phytotoxicity and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) formation in A. palmeri. Temperature displayed a high degree of influence on 2,4-D and dicamba efficacy in general, with applications at the low-temperature treatment (31/20 C day/night) resulting in an increase in phytotoxicity compared with high-temperature treatments (41/30 C day/night). Application time across temperature treatments significantly affected 2,4-D–induced phytotoxicity, resulting in a ≥30% increase across rates with treatments at 4:00 PM compared with 8:00 AM. Temperature differential had a significant influence on dicamba efficacy based on visible phytotoxicity data, with a ≥46% increase with a high (37/20 C day/night) compared with a low differential (41/30 C day/night). Concentration of H2O2 in herbicide-treated plants was 34% higher under a high temperature differential compared with the low differential. Humidity treatments and application time interactions displayed undetected or inconsistent effects on visible phytotoxicity and H2O2 production. Overall, temperature-related influences seem to have the largest environmental effect on auxinic herbicides within conditions evaluated in this study. Leaf concentration of H2O2 appears to be generally correlated with phytotoxicity, providing a potentially useful tool in determining efficacy of auxinic herbicides in field settings.
There is increasing evidence that smoking is a risk factor for severe mental illness, including bipolar disorder. Conversely, patients with bipolar disorder might smoke more (often) as a result of the psychiatric disorder.
We conducted a bidirectional Mendelian randomisation (MR) study to investigate the direction and evidence for a causal nature of the relationship between smoking and bipolar disorder.
We used publicly available summary statistics from genome-wide association studies on bipolar disorder, smoking initiation, smoking heaviness, smoking cessation and lifetime smoking (i.e. a compound measure of heaviness, duration and cessation). We applied analytical methods with different, orthogonal assumptions to triangulate results, including inverse-variance weighted (IVW), MR-Egger, MR-Egger SIMEX, weighted-median, weighted-mode and Steiger-filtered analyses.
Across different methods of MR, consistent evidence was found for a positive effect of smoking on the odds of bipolar disorder (smoking initiation ORIVW = 1.46, 95% CI 1.28–1.66, P = 1.44 × 10−8, lifetime smoking ORIVW = 1.72, 95% CI 1.29–2.28, P = 1.8 × 10−4). The MR analyses of the effect of liability to bipolar disorder on smoking provided no clear evidence of a strong causal effect (smoking heaviness betaIVW = 0.028, 95% CI 0.003–0.053, P = 2.9 × 10−2).
These findings suggest that smoking initiation and lifetime smoking are likely to be a causal risk factor for developing bipolar disorder. We found some evidence that liability to bipolar disorder increased smoking heaviness. Given that smoking is a modifiable risk factor, these findings further support investment into smoking prevention and treatment in order to reduce mental health problems in future generations.
Declaration of interest
W.v.d.B received fees in the past 3 years from Indivior, C&A Pharma, Opiant and Angelini. G.M.G. is a National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Emeritus Senior Investigator, holds shares in P1vital and has served as consultant, advisor or CME speaker in the past 3 years for Allergan, Angelini, Compass Pathways, MSD, Lundbeck (/Otsuka and /Takeda), Medscape, Minervra, P1Vital, Pfizer, Sage, Servier, Shire and Sun Pharma.
Six on-farm studies determined the effects of a rolled rye cover crop, herbicide program, and planting technique on cotton stand, weed control, and cotton yield in Georgia. Treatments included: (1) rye drilled broadcast with 19-cm row spacing and a broadcast-herbicide program (2) rye drilled with a 25-cm rye-free zone in the cotton row and a broadcast-herbicide program (3) rye drilled with a 25-cm rye-free zone in the cotton row with PPI and PRE herbicides banded in the cotton planting row, and (4) no cover crop (i.e., weedy cover) with broadcast herbicides. At two locations, cotton stand was lowest with rye drilled broadcast; at these sites the rye-free zone maximized stand equal to the no-cover system. At a third location, cover crop systems resulted in greater stand, due to enhanced soil moisture preservation compared with the no-cover system. Treatments did not influence cotton stand at the other three locations and did not differ in the control of weeds other than Palmer amaranth at any location. Treatments controlled Palmer amaranth equally at three locations; however, differences were observed at the three locations having the greatest glyphosate-resistant plant densities. For these locations, when broadcasting herbicides, Palmer amaranth populations were reduced 82% to 86% in the broadcast rye and rye-free zone systems compared with the no-cover system at harvest. The system with banded herbicides was nearly 21 times less effective than the similar system broadcasting herbicides. At these locations, yields in the rye broadcast and rye-free zone systems with broadcast herbicides were increased 9% to 16% compared with systems with no cover or a rye-free zone with PPI and PRE herbicides banded. A rolled rye cover crop can lessen weed emergence and selection pressure while improving weed control and cotton yield, but herbicides should be broadcast in fields heavily infested with glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth.
Seven half-day regional listening sessions were held between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide-resistance management. The objective of the listening sessions was to connect with stakeholders and hear their challenges and recommendations for addressing herbicide resistance. The coordinating team hired Strategic Conservation Solutions, LLC, to facilitate all the sessions. They and the coordinating team used in-person meetings, teleconferences, and email to communicate and coordinate the activities leading up to each regional listening session. The agenda was the same across all sessions and included small-group discussions followed by reporting to the full group for discussion. The planning process was the same across all the sessions, although the selection of venue, time of day, and stakeholder participants differed to accommodate the differences among regions. The listening-session format required a great deal of work and flexibility on the part of the coordinating team and regional coordinators. Overall, the participant evaluations from the sessions were positive, with participants expressing appreciation that they were asked for their thoughts on the subject of herbicide resistance. This paper details the methods and processes used to conduct these regional listening sessions and provides an assessment of the strengths and limitations of those processes.
Herbicide resistance is ‘wicked’ in nature; therefore, results of the many educational efforts to encourage diversification of weed control practices in the United States have been mixed. It is clear that we do not sufficiently understand the totality of the grassroots obstacles, concerns, challenges, and specific solutions needed for varied crop production systems. Weed management issues and solutions vary with such variables as management styles, regions, cropping systems, and available or affordable technologies. Therefore, to help the weed science community better understand the needs and ideas of those directly dealing with herbicide resistance, seven half-day regional listening sessions were held across the United States between December 2016 and April 2017 with groups of diverse stakeholders on the issues and potential solutions for herbicide resistance management. The major goals of the sessions were to gain an understanding of stakeholders and their goals and concerns related to herbicide resistance management, to become familiar with regional differences, and to identify decision maker needs to address herbicide resistance. The messages shared by listening-session participants could be summarized by six themes: we need new herbicides; there is no need for more regulation; there is a need for more education, especially for others who were not present; diversity is hard; the agricultural economy makes it difficult to make changes; and we are aware of herbicide resistance but are managing it. The authors concluded that more work is needed to bring a community-wide, interdisciplinary approach to understanding the complexity of managing weeds within the context of the whole farm operation and for communicating the need to address herbicide resistance.
The efficacy of WSSA Group 4 herbicides has been reported to vary with dependence on the time of day the application is made, which may affect the value of this mechanism of action as a control option and resistance management tool for Palmer amaranth. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the effect of time of day for application on 2,4-D and dicamba translocation and whether or not altering translocation affected any existing variation in phytotoxicity seen across application time of day. Maximum translocation (Tmax) of [14C]2,4-D and [14C]dicamba out of the treated leaf was significantly increased 52% and 29% to 34% in one of two repeated experiments for each herbicide, respectively, with application at 7:00 AM compared with applications at 2:00 PM and/or 12:00 AM. Applications at 7:00 AM increased [14C]2,4-D distribution to roots and increased [14C]dicamba distribution above the treated leaf compared with other application timings. In phytotoxicity experiments, dicamba application at 8 h after exposure to darkness (HAED) resulted in significantly lower dry root biomass than dicamba application at 8 h after exposure to light (HAEL). Contrasts indicated that injury resulting from dicamba application at 8 HAEL, corresponding to midday, was significantly reduced with a root treatment of 5-[N-(3,4-dimethoxyphenylethyl)methylamino]-2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)-2-isopropylvaleronitrile hydrochloride (verapamil) compared with injury observed with dicamba application and a root treatment of verapamil at 8 HAED, which corresponded to dawn. Overall, time of application appears to potentially influence translocation of 2,4-D and dicamba. Furthermore, inhibition of translocation appears to somewhat influence variation in phytotoxicity across times of application. Therefore, translocation may be involved in the varying efficacy of WSSA Group 4 herbicides due to application time of day, which has implications for the use of this mechanism of action for effective control and resistance management of Palmer amaranth.
The study aims to assess whether supplementation with the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus HN001 (HN001) can reduce the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). A double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled parallel trial was conducted in New Zealand (NZ) (Wellington and Auckland). Pregnant women with a personal or partner history of atopic disease were randomised at 14–16 weeks’ gestation to receive HN001 (6×109 colony-forming units) (n 212) or placebo (n 211) daily. GDM at 24–30 weeks was assessed using the definition of the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) (fasting plasma glucose ≥5·1 mmol/l, or 1 h post 75 g glucose level at ≥10 mmol/l or at 2 h ≥8·5 mmol/l) and NZ definition (fasting plasma glucose ≥5·5 mmol/l or 2 h post 75 g glucose at ≥9 mmol/l). All analyses were intention-to-treat. A total of 184 (87 %) women took HN001 and 189 (90 %) women took placebo. There was a trend towards lower relative rates (RR) of GDM (IADPSG definition) in the HN001 group, 0·59 (95 % CI 0·32, 1·08) (P=0·08). HN001 was associated with lower rates of GDM in women aged ≥35 years (RR 0·31; 95 % CI 0·12, 0·81, P=0·009) and women with a history of GDM (RR 0·00; 95 % CI 0·00, 0·66, P=0·004). These rates did not differ significantly from those of women without these characteristics. Using the NZ definition, GDM prevalence was significantly lower in the HN001 group, 2·1 % (95 % CI 0·6, 5·2), v. 6·5 % (95 % CI 3·5, 10·9) in the placebo group (P=0·03). HN001 supplementation from 14 to 16 weeks’ gestation may reduce GDM prevalence, particularly among older women and those with previous GDM.
Relevant biochemicals of the brain can be quantified in vivo, non-invasively, using proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (¹H MRS). This includes metabolites associated with neural general functioning, energetics, membrane phospholipid metabolism and neurotransmission. Moreover, there is substantial evidence of implication of the frontal and prefrontal areas in the pathogenesis of psychotic disorders such as schizophrenia. In particular, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays an important role in cognitive control of emotional and non-emotional processes. Thus the study of its extent of biochemistry dysfunction in the early stages of psychosis is of particular interest in gaining a greater understanding of its aetiology. In this review, we selected ¹H MRS studies focused on the ACC of first-episode psychosis (FEP). Four studies reported increased glutamatergic levels in FEP, while other four showed preserved concentrations. Moreover, findings on FEP do not fully mirror those in chronic patients. Due to conflicting findings, larger longitudinal ¹H MRS studies are expected to further explore glutamatergic neurotransmission in ACC of FEP in order to have a better understanding of the glutamatergic mechanisms underlying psychosis, possibly using ultra high field MR scanners.
Production of trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO), a biomarker of CVD risk, is dependent on intestinal microbiota, but little is known of dietary conditions promoting changes in gut microbial communities. Resistant starches (RS) alter the human microbiota. We sought to determine whether diets varying in RS and carbohydrate (CHO) content affect plasma TMAO levels. We also assessed postprandial glucose and insulin responses and plasma lipid changes to diets high and low in RS. In a cross-over trial, fifty-two men and women consumed a 2-week baseline diet (41 percentage of energy (%E) CHO, 40 % fat, 19 % protein), followed by 2-week high- and low-RS diets separated by 2-week washouts. RS diets were assigned at random within the context of higher (51–53 %E) v. lower CHO (39–40 %E) intake. Measurements were obtained in the fasting state and, for glucose and insulin, during a meal test matching the composition of the assigned diet. With lower CHO intake, plasma TMAO, carnitine, betaine and γ-butyrobetaine concentrations were higher after the high- v. low-RS diet (P<0·01 each). These metabolites were not differentially affected by high v. low RS when CHO intake was high. Although the high-RS meal reduced postprandial insulin and glucose responses when CHO intake was low (P<0·01 each), RS did not affect fasting lipids, lipoproteins, glucose or insulin irrespective of dietary CHO content. In conclusion, a lower-CHO diet high in RS was associated with higher plasma TMAO levels. These findings, together with the absence of change in fasting lipids, suggest that short-term high-RS diets do not improve markers of cardiometabolic health.
The anticipated release of EnlistTM cotton, corn, and soybean cultivars likely will increase the use of 2,4-D, raising concerns over potential injury to susceptible cotton. An experiment was conducted at 12 locations over 2013 and 2014 to determine the impact of 2,4-D at rates simulating drift (2 g ae ha−1) and tank contamination (40 g ae ha−1) on cotton during six different growth stages. Growth stages at application included four leaf (4-lf), nine leaf (9-lf), first bloom (FB), FB + 2 wk, FB + 4 wk, and FB + 6 wk. Locations were grouped according to percent yield loss compared to the nontreated check (NTC), with group I having the least yield loss and group III having the most. Epinasty from 2,4-D was more pronounced with applications during vegetative growth stages. Importantly, yield loss did not correlate with visual symptomology, but more closely followed effects on boll number. The contamination rate at 9-lf, FB, or FB + 2 wk had the greatest effect across locations, reducing the number of bolls per plant when compared to the NTC, with no effect when applied at FB + 4 wk or later. A reduction of boll number was not detectable with the drift rate except in group III when applied at the FB stage. Yield was influenced by 2,4-D rate and stage of cotton growth. Over all locations, loss in yield of greater than 20% occurred at 5 of 12 locations when the drift rate was applied between 4-lf and FB + 2 wk (highest impact at FB). For the contamination rate, yield loss was observed at all 12 locations; averaged over these locations yield loss ranged from 7 to 66% across all growth stages. Results suggest the greatest yield impact from 2,4-D occurs between 9-lf and FB + 2 wk, and the level of impact is influenced by 2,4-D rate, crop growth stage, and environmental conditions.
Being of especially high quality, the Neogene fossil record of planktonic foraminifera offers special opportunities for assessing patterns of extinction and speciation. A variety of metrics indicates that within this group the mean duration of lineages has been much shorter (rate of extinction has been higher) for the globorotaliid clade than for the globigerinid clade. Furthermore, in the globorotaliid clade rates of extinction and speciation have not been closely linked to changes in diversity, but rather have been relatively high even at times when diversity has undergone little change. Thus, the globorotaliid clade has undergone more rapid evolutionary turnover than the globigerinid clade. Data for living species reveal that neither geographic range nor temperature tolerance is the primary factor controlling lineage duration. On the other hand, there is evidence that lineages marked by low abundance (small population size) are relatively short-lived. The reason that globorotaliid lineages have generally survived for shorter intervals, on the average, may be that their populations have been less abundant and less stable. Usually they live deeper in the water column, where food is often sparse, and many flourish only in areas of upwelling. Furthermore, the globorotaliids lack symbiotic algae for nutritional support. The same ecological factors may have accelerated speciation in the globorotaliid clade, by causing species to be patchily distributed. Thus, population size and structure have been more important than geographic range in determining rates of extinction and speciation. This parallels the situation for Neogene marine bivalves.
For planktonic foraminifera, as for Western Atlantic Bivalvia, the normal pattern of extinction was reversed in late Pliocene time, apparently in response to climatic cooling. The globigerinids suffered a sudden pulse of extinction. The deeper dwelling globorotaliids fared better; probably many of their species benefited from elevation of the seasonal thermocline into the photic zone. At the same time, rate of speciation declined in the globorotaliid clade, which supports the idea, inferred from the evolutionary history of marine bivalves, that an increase in the size and stability of populations should depress both rate of extinction and rate of speciation.
Cotton growers rely heavily upon glufosinate and various residual herbicides applied preplant, PRE, and POST to control Palmer amaranth resistant to glyphosate and acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides. Recently deregulated in the United States, cotton resistant to dicamba, glufosinate, and glyphosate (B2XF cotton) offers a new platform for controlling herbicide-resistant Palmer amaranth. A field experiment was conducted in North Carolina and Georgia to determine B2XF cotton tolerance to dicamba, glufosinate, and glyphosate and to compare Palmer amaranth control by dicamba to a currently used, nondicamba program in both glufosinate- and glyphosate-based systems. Treatments consisted of glyphosate or glufosinate applied early POST (EPOST) and mid-POST (MPOST) in a factorial arrangement of treatments with seven dicamba options (no dicamba, PRE, EPOST, MPOST, PRE followed by [fb] EPOST, PRE fb MPOST, and EPOST fb MPOST) and a nondicamba standard. The nondicamba standard consisted of fomesafen PRE, pyrithiobac EPOST, and acetochlor MPOST. Dicamba caused no injury when applied PRE and only minor, transient injury when applied POST. At time of EPOST application, Palmer amaranth control by dicamba or fomesafen applied PRE, in combination with acetochlor, was similar and 13 to 17% greater than acetochlor alone. Dicamba was generally more effective on Palmer amaranth applied POST rather than PRE, and two applications were usually more effective than one. In glyphosate-based systems, greater Palmer amaranth control and cotton yield were obtained with dicamba applied EPOST, MPOST, or EPOST fb MPOST compared with the standard herbicides in North Carolina. In contrast, dicamba was no more effective than the standard herbicides in the glufosinate-based systems. In Georgia, dicamba was as effective as the standard herbicides in a glyphosate-based system only when dicamba was applied EPOST fb MPOST. In glufosinate-based systems in Georgia, dicamba was as effective as standard herbicides only when dicamba was applied twice.
Yeomanite, Pb2O(OH)Cl, is a new Pb-oxychloride found in the manganese pod mineral assemblage at Merehead (Torr Works) Quarry, near Cranmore, Somerset, England. Yeomanite is named in joint recognition of Mrs Angela Yeoman (1931–) and her company, Foster Yeoman, who operated Merehead Quarry for aggregate until 2006. The mineral is normally white, occasionally grey, with a white streak and a vitreous to transparent lustre. Invariably intimately associated with mendipite, yeomanite appears to be formed of small, twisted, rope-like fibres growing from the end of columnar mendipite masses, forming loose mats and strands resembling asbestos. Individual fibres are generally <8 mm long, but exceptionally may reach up to 15 mm. There is a perfect cleavage parallel to the long axis of the fibres but this is masked by the fibrous nature, especially as individual fibres break easily. The Dcalc for the ideal formula is 7.303 g/cm3. The mean RI in air at 589 nm is 2.27. The eight strongest reflections in the powder X-ray diffraction pattern [(d in Å) (Intensity) (hkl)] are: 2.880(100)(113); 2.802(78)(006); 3.293(61)(200); 3.770(32)(011); 2.166(22)(206); 1.662(19)(119); 2.050(18)(303); 3.054(17)(105) Yeomanite is orthorhombic, Pnma, a = 6.585(10), b = 3.855(6), c = 17.26(1) Å, V = 438(1) Å3, Z = 4. Yeomanite is a new example of the growing family of lead oxychloride minerals that have a structure based upon oxocentred OPb4 tetrahedra, which, in this mineral, jointly with OHPb3 triangles, form [O(OH)Pb2]+ chains similar to those observed in synthetic Pb2O(OH)I. Yeomanite is structurally related to sidpietersite, penfieldite and laurionite.
Cotton genetically engineered to be resistant to topical applications of 2,4-D could provide growers with an additional tool for managing difficult-to-control broadleaf species. However, the successful adoption of this technology will be dependent on the ability of growers to manage off-target herbicide movement. Field experiments were conducted in Moultrie, GA, to evaluate cotton injury resulting from the volatilization of 2,4-D when formulated as an ester, an amine, or a choline salt. Each formulation of 2,4-D (2.24 kg ha−1) was applied in mixture with glyphosate (2.24 kg ha−1) directly to the soil surface (10 to 20% crop residue) in individual square blocks (750 m2). Following herbicide applications, replicate sets of four potted cotton plants (five- to seven-leaf stage) were placed at distances ranging from 1.5 to 48 m from the edge of each treatment. Plants were allowed to remain in-field for up to 48 h before being removed. Cotton exposed to 2,4-D ester for 48 h exhibited maximum injury ratings of 63, 57, 48, 29, 13, and 2% at distances of 1.5, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 48 m, respectively. Less than 5% injury was noted for the amine and choline formulations at any distance. Plant height was also affected by formulation and distance; plants that were located closest to the ester-treated block were smaller than their more distantly-positioned counterparts. Exposure to the amine and choline formulations did not affect plant heights. Additionally, two plastic tunnels were placed inside of each treated block to concentrate volatiles and maximize the potential for crop injury. Injury ratings of 76, 13, and 5% were noted for cotton exposed to the ester, amine, and choline formulations, respectively when under tunnels for 48 h. Results indicate that the choline formulation of 2,4-D was less volatile and injurious to cotton than the ester under the field conditions in this study.
Palladosilicide, Pd2Si, is a new mineral (IMA 2014-080)
discovered in chromite-rich samples from the Kapalagulu intrusion, western
Tanzania (30°03′51′′E 5°53′16′′S and 30°05′37′′E 5°54′26′′S) and from the
UG-2 chromitite, Bushveld complex, South Africa. A total of 13 grains of
palladosilicide, ranging in size from 0.7 to 39.1 μm (equivalent circle
diameters), were found. Synthetic Pd2Si is hexagonal, space group
P62m, with a =
6.496(5), c = 3.433(4) Å, V = 125.5(1)
Å3, c:a = 0.529 with Z = 3.
The strongest lines calculated from the powder pattern (Anderko and
Schubert, 1953) are [d in Å (I)
(hkl)] 2.3658 100 (111); 2.1263 37 (120); 2.1808 34
(021); 3.240 20 (110); 1.8752 19 (030); 1.7265 12 (002); 1.3403 11 (122);
1.2089 10 (231). The calculated density for three analyses varies from 9.562
to 9.753 g cm–3. Palladosilicide is considered to be equivalent
to synthetic Pd2Si based on results from electron backscattered
diffraction analyses. Reflectance data in air for the four Commission on Ore
Mineralogy wavelengths are [λ nm, R1 (%) R2 (%)] 470 49.6 52.7; 546 51.2 53.8; 589 51.6 53.7; 650 51.7 53.3
and the mineral is bright creamy white against chromite, weakly bireflectant
and displays no discernible pleochroism or twinning. It is weakly
anisotropic, has weak extinction and rotation tints in shades of blue and
olive green. Electron probe microanalyses of palladosilicide yield a
simplified formula of Pd2Si.
Quality of life (QOL) is lower in older adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). QOL generally improves following cognitive-behavioral treatment for GAD. Little is known, however, about additional variables predicting changes in QOL in older adults with GAD. This study examined predictors of change in QOL among older participants in a randomized clinical trial of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for GAD, relative to enhanced usual care (EUC).
Hierarchical multilevel mixed-model analyses were used to examine inter-individual and intra-individual factors that predicted QOL over time. Predictors were categorized into treatment, personal and clinical characteristics.
QOL improved over time, and there was significant variability between participants in change in QOL. Controlling for treatment condition, baseline general self-efficacy, baseline social support, within-person variation in worry and depression and average levels of depression across different time points predicted changes in QOL.
QOL has increasingly been used as an outcome measure in treatment outcome studies to focus on overall improvement in functioning. Attention to improvement in symptoms of depression and worry, along with psychosocial variables, such as social support and self-efficacy, may help improve QOL in older adults with GAD.
This study was a secondary study of data from a randomized clinical trial (NCT00308724) registered with clinical.trials.gov.