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Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a pathogenic nematode and the cause of neuroangiostrongyliasis, an eosinophilic meningitis more commonly known as rat lungworm disease. Transmission is thought to be primarily due to ingestion of infective third stage larvae (L3) in gastropods, on produce, or in contaminated water. The gold standard to determine the effects of physical and chemical treatments on the infectivity of A. cantonensis L3 larvae is to infect rodents with treated L3 larvae and monitor for infection, but animal studies are laborious and expensive and also raise ethical concerns. This study demonstrates propidium iodide (PI) to be a reliable marker of parasite death and loss of infective potential without adversely affecting the development and future reproduction of live A. cantonensis larvae. PI staining allows evaluation of the efficacy of test substances in vitro, an improvement upon the use of lack of motility as an indicator of death. Some potential applications of this assay include determining the effectiveness of various anthelmintics, vegetable washes, electromagnetic radiation and other treatments intended to kill larvae in the prevention and treatment of neuroangiostrongyliasis.
Commentary on the introduction of the Australian Curriculum (AC) has reflected a tension for educators of students with disabilities (SWD) between in-principle support for a curriculum that is inclusive of all students and the challenge of translating a general framework into relevant, individualised learning experiences appropriate for all SWD. In this paper, we report on findings from the second part of a national online survey in which we explored the perceptions and practices of 151 educators of SWD in specialist settings (special schools, disability units co-located at mainstream schools, special classes within mainstream schools) in relation to the AC. Specifically, these findings relate to the professional learning (PL) experiences and perceived needs of educators of SWD related to the AC and their advice to policymakers about the AC for SWD. Consistent with previous research, participants expressed a preference for PL experiences delivered on site, facilitated by content experts over extended periods, with opportunities for demonstration and targeted feedback, and in the context of collegial learning communities. In addition, participants raised concerns about the extent to which the AC is fully inclusive of all SWD. Implications for policy, practice, and future research are discussed.
Despite aspirations to be a world-class national curriculum, the Australian Curriculum (AC) has been criticised as ‘manifestly deficient’ (Australian Government Department of Education and Training, 2014 p. 5) as an inclusive curriculum, failing to meet the needs of all students with disabilities (SWD) and their teachers. There is a need for research into the daily attempts of educators to navigate the tension between a ‘top-down’ system-wide curriculum and a ‘bottom-up’ regard for individual student needs, with a view to informing both policy and practice. This article is the first of two research papers in which we report the findings from a national online Research in Special Education (RISE) Australian Curriculum Survey of special educators in special schools, classes, and units regarding their experience using the AC to plan for and teach SWD. Survey results indicated (a) inconsistent use of the AC as the primary basis for developing learning objectives and designing learning experiences, (b) infrequent use of the achievement standards to support assessment and reporting, and (c) considerable supplementation of the AC from other resources when educating SWD. Overall, participants expressed a lack of confidence in translating the AC framework into a meaningful curriculum for SWD. Implications for policy, practice, and future research are discussed.
Recent estimates of total pre-weaning piglet mortality range between 16-19% (MLC 2006). With environmental modification using the farrowing crate reaching its potential to decrease mortality, as well as raising serious welfare concerns, a different approach to effectively address piglet survival is needed. Genetic breeding programmes implemented in alternative farrowing systems could prove a viable option.
EMU is a wide-field radio continuum survey planned for the new Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. The primary goal of EMU is to make a deep (rms ∼ 10 μJy/beam) radio continuum survey of the entire Southern sky at 1.3 GHz, extending as far North as +30° declination, with a resolution of 10 arcsec. EMU is expected to detect and catalogue about 70 million galaxies, including typical star-forming galaxies up to z ∼ 1, powerful starbursts to even greater redshifts, and active galactic nuclei to the edge of the visible Universe. It will undoubtedly discover new classes of object. This paper defines the science goals and parameters of the survey, and describes the development of techniques necessary to maximise the science return from EMU.
Modern methods of sample preparation have made it possible to analyze complete, packaged integrated circuits by transmission electron microscopy. TEM has two unique capabilities that cannot be matched by other characterization methods: 1) it is a direct crystallographic probe and 2) it has excellent spatial resolution, 0.2 nm. Small personal computers can be used to translate the micrographic data into statistical information that can be analyzed by non-TEM trained engineers. The data can also be stored in a MICROSTRUCTURAL DATABANK. The experimental data is automatically compared by the computer with previously established criteria. This methodology generates additional information that is used for quality and reliability assurance testing of integrated circuits. The method is applicable to devices that are removed from electronic systems after field operation, as well as to devices that have been lifetime tested. Two examples are described and discussed: aluminum grain size distribution analysis and silicide layer thickness measurement.
Since its development in 1988, a serologic typing scheme for Xanthomonas maltophilia, based on 31 O antigens, has been successfully used to serotype isolates involved in nosocomial outbreaks in the United States. To determine if this serotyping scheme would be useful in typing X. maltophilia isolates from worldwide sources, we obtained additional isolates from 10 countries; of 900 isolates tested, 795 (88·3%) were typable. In order of predominance, the three most common serotypes were 10, 3 and 19. These three serotypes were most frequently associated with respiratory and blood isolates. This serotyping system is useful as an epidemiologic screening method for universal typing of outbreaks of X. maltophilia infections.
Several medical devices used during hemodynamic procedures, particularly angiographic diagnostic and therapeutic cardiac catheters, are manufactured for single use only. However, reprocessing and reuse of these devices has been reported, to determine the frequency of reuse and reprocessing of single-use medical devices used during hemodynamic procedures in Brazil and to evaluate how reprocessing is performed.
National survey, conducted from December 1999 to July 2001.
Most of the institutions affiliated with the Brazilian Society of Hemodynamic and Interventional Cardiology were surveyed by use of a questionnaire sent in the mail.
The questionnaire response rate was 50% (119 of 240 institutions). Of the 119 institutions that responded, 116 (97%) reported reuse of single-use devices used during hemodynamic procedures, and only 26 (22%) reported use of a standardized reprocessing protocol. Cleaning, flushing, rinsing, drying, sterilizing and packaging methods varied greatly and were mostly inadequate. Criteria for discarding reused devices varied widely. Of the 119 institutions that responded, 80 (67%) reported having a surveillance system for adverse events associated with the reuse of medical devices, although most of these institutions did not routinely review the data, and only 38 (32%) described a training program for the personnel who reprocessed single-use devices.
The reuse of single-use devices used during hemodynamic procedures was very frequent in hospitals in Brazil. Basic guidance on how to reuse and reprocess single-use medical devices is urgently needed, because, despite the lack of studies to support reusing and reprocessing single-use medical devices, such devices are necessary in limited-resource areas in which these practices are current.
The current estimate of live-born piglet pre-weaning mortality in UK outdoor systems is 11% (MLC, 2006), representing a major welfare and economic concern. The majority of deaths occur in the first few days of life when the piglets are at their most vulnerable. Selecting for high survival in piglets, may allow breeding of animals better able to survive and better suited to alternative and less restrictive systems than the farrowing crate. The aim was to develop and measure behavioural and physiological indicators of neonatal survival, and to determine treatment effects in populations of piglets selected for high survival and control lines farrowing in an outdoor system.
Pre-weaning piglet mortality is currently 11.8% of piglets born alive in indoor units (MLC, 2005) and is a major welfare concern and a continuing production problem within the pig industry. The farrowing crate was implemented with some success to decrease the amount of crushing of piglets (Edwards & Fraser, 1997). However, this system is restrictive, limits the behaviour and compromises the welfare of the sow (Jarvis et al., 2001). There is growing pressure to abolish this technology in favour of less restrictive systems. It is therefore vital to identify behavioural and physiological characteristics relating to piglet survival, which can then be influential in alternative systems. Important factors in relation to piglet survival include birth weight, birth order, and adequate thermoregulation (Tuchscherer et al. 2001). The aim of this study was to identify additional behavioural and physiological indicators, which could predict piglet survival.
Lichen-dominated cryptoendolithic communities from the Dry Valleys of Antarctica have been the subject of much research over recent years owing to their potential as analogues of Martian life forms. Their ability to mobilize iron compounds and organize themselves into distinct coloured biotic zones suggests that they may alter the chemistry of their host rock. By conducting a major, minor and trace element study utilizing inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) techniques, we have been investigating the relationship between the microbes and the chemistry of the sandstones. Different layers within a suite of sandstones collected from six localities in the Dry Valleys have been analysed to establish if or how the microbes influence or directly affect the chemical composition of the rocks. Background petrographic studies have shown significant differences in mineralogical maturity between rocks colonized by the communities and those that are not, and the chemistry results have shown significant elemental disparity between colonized and uncolonized rocks. By obtaining accurate percentages of the minerals present in each sample the differences in elemental concentrations could be construed to be caused by the differences in mineralogy between samples. The nature and extent of the concentration differences has led to the conclusion that either the cryptoendolith communities are able to alter their host rock by the solubilization and mobilization of elements that are then subsequently removed or that the organisms are simple opportunists that can only successfully colonize rocks that provide the ideal substrate, being mineralogically mature with ample pore space and less concentrated in the elements tested for.
To report the results of our preintervention investigation and subsequent 19-month three-phase intervention study designed to reduce pyrogenic reactions among patients undergoing cardiac catheterization using reprocessed catheters.
A case-control study for the preintervention period and a prospective cohort study for the intervention period.
A 400-bed hospital in Belo Horizonte, Brazil.
Any patient undergoing cardiac catheterization in the hospital.
Three intervention phases were implemented to improve the quality of the water supplied to the cardiac catheter reprocessing laboratory. Standard operating procedures for reprocessing cardiac catheters were established and reprocessing staff were trained and educated.
The rate of pyrogenic reactions decreased significantly during the intervention phases, from 12.8% (159 of 1,239) in phase 1 to 5.3% (38 of 712) in phase 2 to 0.5% (4 of 769) in phase 3 (chi-square test for linear trend, 97.5; P < .001).
Improving water quality and using standard operating procedures for reprocessing catheters can prevent pyrogenic reactions in hospitalized patients.
Agonistic and sexual interactions as well as plasma bioactive luteinizing hormone (LH) concentrations were monitored in all the adults of two colonies of the naked mole-rat Heterocephalus glaber at three phases in the pregnancy of the breeding female. Blood samples were collected at early (days 1–15), mid (days 30–40) and late (days 55–65) phases of her pregnancy, and the circulating basal plasma LH and the response to administration of 0.1 μg gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) were examined. In both colonies it was found that non-breeding males and females showed depressed basal LH concentrations and responses to a GnRH challenge. However, there was considerable variation between individuals, in terms of both basal plasma and post-GnRH concentrations of LH, implying that certain individuals were more suppressed than others. The responses were more pronounced in non-breeding males than in non-breeding females, and this is discussed in light of the reproductive skew occurring within colonies. Few agonistic interactions occurred between the breeding female and the majority of the colony members, and overall, there was no clear relationship between plasma LH and the amount of aggression received from the breeding female. However, in one colony there was a significant positive correlation between basal plasma LH concentrations of non-breeding females and agonistic interactions received by them from the breeding female. In this same colony, older females and older and heavier males received most of the aggression from the breeding female. The second colony did not show this trend, possibly because it had recently lost many large animals during fighting for succession; in this colony sexual interactions were elevated.
To assess the efficacy of parental education and use of parents as nursing assistants on reducing nosocomial infections.
Active surveillance for nosocomial infections was performed on two wards. On ward A, parents were educated about infection control practices and assisted nursing staff with routine tasks, so that nursing personnel could focus their efforts on procedures with higher risk of infection. Parental assistance was not sought on ward B, the comparison ward.
From October 1990 through September 1991, 1,081 patients were admitted to wards A (470) or B (611). The overall nosocomial infection rate was 7.1 per 100 admissions; the nosocomial infection rate was significantly higher on ward B than ward A (63/611 vs 14/470; P<.001). Multivariate analysis identified risk factors for nosocomial infection on the two wards as age <2 years (P=.01), malnutrition (P=.005), duration of hospitalization (P<.001), ward B hospitalization (P=.003), and ward cleanliness score (P=.009); the distribution of patients with these factors was similar on the two wards.
Our data suggest that parental infection control education and recruitment to relieve nursing staff of routine low-risk procedures are economical and easily implemented measures to reduce nosocomial infections in hospitals with limited personnel resources in the developing world.
Routine use of mupirocin to prevent staphylococcal infections is controversial. We assessed attitudes and practices of healthcare professionals attending the Fourth Decennial International Conference on Nosocomial and Healthcare-Associated Infections regarding mupirocin prophylaxis. Eighty percent of participants did not use mupirocin routinely. At the end of the session, 58% indicated they would consider increased use of mupirocin.